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Julian year (astronomy)

In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of measurement of time defined as 365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each. The length of the Julian year is the average length of the year in the Julian calendar, used in Western societies until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, from which the unit is named; because astronomical Julian years are measuring duration rather than designating dates, this Julian year does not correspond to years in the Julian calendar or any other calendar. Nor does it correspond to the many other ways of defining a year; the Julian year is not a unit of measurement in the International System of Units, but it is recognized by the International Astronomical Union as a non-SI unit for use in astronomy. Before 1984, both the Julian year and the mean tropical year were used by astronomers. In 1898, Simon Newcomb used both in his Tables of the Sun in the form of the Julian century and the "solar century", a rounded form of 100 mean tropical years of 365.24219879 d each according to Newcomb.

However, the mean tropical year is not suitable as a unit of measurement because it varies from year to year by a small amount, 6.14×10−8 days according to Newcomb. In contrast, the Julian year is defined in terms of SI units so is as accurate as those units and is constant, it approximates both the tropical year to about ± 0.008 days. The Julian year is the basis of the definition of the light-year as a unit of measurement of distance. In astronomy, an epoch specifies a precise moment in time; the positions of celestial objects and events, as measured from Earth, change over time, so when measuring or predicting celestial positions, the epoch to which they pertain must be specified. A new standard epoch is chosen about every 50 years; the standard epoch in use today is Julian epoch J2000.0. It is 12:00 TT on January 1, 2000 in the Gregorian calendar. Julian within its name indicates that other Julian epochs can be a number of Julian years of 365.25 days each before or after J2000.0. For example, the future epoch J2100.0 will be 36,525 days from J2000.0 at 12:00 TT on January 1, 2100.

Because Julian years are not the same length as years on the Gregorian calendar, astronomical epochs will diverge noticeably from the Gregorian calendar in a few hundred years. For example, in the next 1000 years, seven days will be dropped from the Gregorian calendar but not from 1000 Julian years, so J3000.0 will be January 8, 3000 12:00 TT. The Julian year, being a uniform measure of duration, should not be confused with the variable length historical years in the Julian calendar. An astronomical Julian year is never individually numbered. Astronomers follow the same calendar conventions that are accepted in the world community: They use the Gregorian calendar for events since its introduction on October 15, 1582, the Julian calendar for events before that date. A Julian year should not be confused with the Julian day, used in astronomy. Despite the similarity of names, there is little connection between the two, it is a way of expressing a date as the integer number of days that have elapsed since a reference date or initial epoch.

The Julian day uniquely specifies a date without reference to its day, month, or year in any particular calendar. A specific time within a day is specified via a decimal fraction. Michael Allison. "What is a "Year"?". Pweb.jps.net. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-07-26

Gates of Heaven Synagogue

Shaarei Shamayim has been the name of two Jewish congregations in Madison, Wisconsin. The first, dating to the 19th century but no longer in existence, built what is now the eighth-oldest synagogue building still standing in the United States; the second congregation, dating to 1989, is the sole Reconstructionist congregation in Madison. Madison's Shaarei Shamayim congregation was founded in 1856 by Jewish immigrants from Germany. In 1863, they built a synagogue, designed by August Kutzbock, a recent German immigrant, in the Rundbogenstil style, a nineteenth-century German form of Romanesque revival. Kutzbock used this distinctive style for the Carrie Pierce and Van Slyke Houses in the adjacent Mansion Hill district; the building now ranks as the eighth-oldest surviving synagogue building in the United States. The Panic of 1873 forced the lease of the building to a Unitarian congregation, in subsequent years it was repurposed to house the Women's Christian Temperance Union, other churches, a funeral home.

Gates of Heaven Synagogue was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, in 1971, thanks to the efforts of local citizens, the building was purchased by the city and moved to James Madison Park. Now located at the corner of Gorham and Butler Streets, the Gates of Heaven building is used for concerts and other gatherings, as well as serving as a polling location for local and national elections. Since the early 1980s, Hannah Rosenthal has led High Holiday services at the site, with jazz musician Ben Sidran and vocalist Lynette Margulies providing liturgical music. Sidran's album Life's a Lesson. In January 2008, with an average temperature of −10 °F outside, The Midwest Beat used the space to record their first full-length record, At the Gates. Released on Dusty Medical Records, the entire session was recorded by Kyle Motor using an Otari MX-5050 half-inch tape 8 track machine. Beginning in September 2011, Madison Minyan, an independent partnership minyan began using the synagogue building for monthly Friday night Jewish prayer services.

Starting in April 2014, the Minyan added monthly egalitarian services as well, meaning the building is now used for its original purpose at least twice a month. The modern Shaarei Shamayim congregation was formed in 1989 by attendees of Rosenthal's High Holiday services. Since 2008, the modern Shaarei Shamayim congregation has shared the 1952 First Unitarian Society Meeting House designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Media related to Gates of Heaven Synagogue at Wikimedia Commons Gates of Heaven Synagogue

Hanami Sekine

Hanami Sekine is a Japanese female long-distance runner who competes in track events. She competed for Japan at the 2016 Rio Olympics. Born in Tokyo, Sekine showed her promise for distance running by winning a leg at the Inter-Prefectural Women's Ekiden as a junior high school athlete, her first international medal came over 3000 metres at the 2014 Asian Junior Athletics Championships, where she was silver medallist behind Kyrgyz athlete Darya Maslova. She continued to perform well in national ekiden competitions, winning her stage at the Inter-Prefectural race in 2014 and 2016, coming runner-up at the All-Japan Women's Corporate Ekiden Championships in 2015. Sekine showed much improvement on the track in the 2016 season and at the 2016 Japan Championships in Athletics she set a personal best of 31:22.92 minutes to take second behind Ayuko Suzuki in the 10,000 metres placed third in the 5000 metres with another best of 15:24.74 minutes. She was chosen to represent Japan at the 2016 Summer Olympics over the longer distance.

At the competition she was near the top of the field in the opening stages, but fell away as the leading pack took on a world record pace. She finished top places behind national rival Yuka Takashima. 3000 metres – 9:06.97 min 5000 metres – 15:24.74 min 10,000 metres – 31:22.92 min Hanami Sekine at World Athletics Hanami Sekine at JAAF Hanami Sekine at the International Olympic Committee Hanami Sekine at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com