William Kenrick (writer)
William Kenrick was an English novelist, playwright and satirist, who spent much of his career libelling and lampooning his fellow writers. Kenrick was born at Watford, son of a stay-maker, he obtained a doctorate at Leiden University and appeared for the first time as a pamphletist in 1751 where he wrote, under the name of "Ontologos", The Grand Question debated. In typical fashion, Kenrick forthwith provided an answer to this question proving the reverse, a tactic he used in order to publicize his productions. One of his first targets was the vulnerable Christopher Smart whose poem Night Piece he attacked in the London monthly journal The Kapelion. In 1752 Kenrick publicly mocked Henry Fielding and Tobias Smollett in his entertainment Fun: a Parodi-tragi-comical Satire, a parody of Macbeth in which the weird sisters circle about their cauldron, throwing in contemporary novels and pamphlets; the play was banned by the Lord Mayor however "as it was to have been perform’d at the Castle-Tavern, Pater-noster-Row, on Thursday, February 13, 1752, but Suppressed, by a Special Order from the Lord-Mayor and Court of Aldermen.".
James Boswell records a meeting with Kenrick on Friday, 3 April 1772: In the evening came a company of literati invited for me: Dr. Jeffries, Dr. Gilbert Stuart, a Mr. Leeson, Kenrick, now Dr. Kenrick, who once wrote an 18d. Pamphlet against me, but principally against Mr. Johnson, though it was entitled A Letter to James Boswell, Esq. Kenrick was quite a different man from, his Epistles and Moral promised seriousness or rather profound gravity. But I found him hearty little man, full of spirits and cheerfulness, he said. He said he had a pronouncing dictionary ready, by which he hoped to fix a standard, as the varieties of pronunciation among people in genteel life were few, he said. He said, he told him, "you don't speak at all. You sing." Kenrick's most successful work, reprinted in over 20 editions, was a courtesy book published in 1753 under the title The Whole Duty of a Woman. Kenrick here assumed the persona of a fallen woman, now reformed, who wants to persuade other women to live a life of virtue.
The irony of Kenrick's presuming to improve the moral tone of feminine England has not gone unnoticed: he has been described as "one of London's most despised and morally degenerate hack writers in the eighteenth century."In 1758 appeared his versified Epistles and Moral, an "avowed defence of infidelity" which afford the best specimens of his poetry. In November 1759, Kenrick succeeded Oliver Goldsmith as editor of The Monthly Review, he signalled his advent by writing an outrageous attack upon Goldsmith's "Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe". His vilification was so unjustified that Ralph Griffiths made an indirect apology for his successor by a favourable though brief review of "The Citizen of the World". Kenrick published his translation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Julie, ou La Nouvelle Héloïse in 1761. In spite of the fact that he substituted throughout the name of Eloisa for that of Julie, the work was a success and enjoyed six reprintings up to 1776. In 1765 Kenrick published A Review of Dr Johnson's new edition of Shakspeare: in which the Ignorance, or Inattention, of that Editor is exposed, the Poet defended from the Persecution of his Commentators.
James Boswell reported that: Johnson was virulently attacked by Mr. William Kenrick, who obtained the degree of LL. D. from a Scotch University, wrote for the booksellers in a great variety of branches. Though he was not without considerable merit, he wrote with so little regard to decency and principles, decorum, in so hasty a manner, that his reputation was neither extensive nor lasting. I remember one evening, when some of his works were mentioned, Dr. Goldsmith said, he had never heard of them. Falstaff's Wedding, a comic sequel to Henry IV, Part 2, written in imitation of Shakespeare, was published in 1760. A rewritten version of the play was only staged for a single performance in 1766, was revived infrequently; the rewritten version was published in the same year. The Widowed Wife was better received: it staged for 14 nights and resumed the next season. In 1770 and 1771 Kenrick published two pieces on perpetual motion: An account of the Automaton, or Perpetual Motion of Orffyreus and A Lecture on the Perpetual Motion.
Kenrick complained: "One species of our predecessor's merit, however, I presume myself at least entitled to, that of perseverance.
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship is the second novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, published in 1795–96. The eponymous hero undergoes a journey of self-realization; the story centers upon Wilhelm's attempt to escape what he views as the empty life of a bourgeois businessman. After a failed romance with the theater, Wilhelm commits himself to the mysterious Tower Society. Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship depicts the eighteenth-century German reception of William Shakespeare's dramas: the protagonist is introduced to these by the character Jarno, extensive discussion of Shakespeare's work occurs within the novel's dialogues. Wilhelm and his theater group give a production of Hamlet. Shakespeare's work had begun to be translated into German in the 1740s, had attained tremendous popularity and influence in Germany by the end of the century. Goethe's work on the novel began in the 1770s. An early version of the work, unpublished during Goethe's lifetime, was discovered in the early twentieth century, published under the title Wilhelm Meister's Theatrical Calling.
When the Apprenticeship was completed in the mid-1790s, it was to a great extent through the encouragement and criticism of Goethe's close friend and collaborator Friedrich Schiller that it took its final shape. Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre, the sequel to the Apprenticeship, was planned in the 1790s, but did not appear in its first edition until 1821, in its final form until 1829. Further books patterned after this novel have been called Bildungsroman, despite the fact that Wilhelm's "Bildung" is ironized by the narrator at many points. According to Andrew Crumey, "while Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship is billed as the classic coming-of-age tale, or Bildungsroman, it’s far more than that: a story of education and disillusionment, a novel of ideas ranging across literature and politics, a masterpiece that resists all pigeonholing." The novel has had a significant impact on European literature. Romantic critic and theorist Friedrich Schlegel judged it to be of comparable importance for its age to the French Revolution and the philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
Arthur Schopenhauer cited Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship as one of the four greatest novels written. Schopenhauer mentions the book in his Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit. Arguing against chasing transient pleasures, Schopenhauer says, "Where we were looking for pleasure and joy, we find instruction and knowledge, a lasting and real benefit in place of a fleeting one; this idea runs like a bass-note through Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. 134, by Schubert, for example D 877, Gesänge aus Wilhelm Meister, Op. 62. Schubert set several excerpts more than once: "Was hör' ich draußen vor dem Tür" from Book 2, Ch. XI: D 149 "Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen aß" from Book 2, Ch. XIII: D 478 No. 2 "Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt" from Book 2, Ch. XIII: D 325 and 478 No. 1 "Kennst du das Land" from Book 3, Ch. I: D 321 "Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt" from Book 4, Ch. XI: D 310, 359, 481, 656 and 877 Nos. 1 & 4 "An die Türen will ich schleichen" from Book 5, Ch. XIV: D. 478 No. 3 "Heiß mich nicht reden" from Book 5, Ch. XVI: D 726 and 877 No. 2 "So laßt mich scheinen, bis ich werde" from Book 8, Ch. II: D 469, 727 and 877 No.
3The 1866 opera Mignon by Ambroise Thomas is based on Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. The film The Wrong Move by Wim Wenders is a free adaptation of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. Online text of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship at Bartleby.com Online text of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship Archive.org 1855 English edition Boylan translation Online text of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship Archive.org translated by Thomas Carlyle Vol 1-3 1824 edition published 1907 Eiserhardt, Ewald. "Wilhelm Meister". Encyclopedia Americana
Public opinion consists of the desires and thinking of the majority of the people. It is the collective opinion of the people of a state on an issue or problem; this concept came about through other political and social forces. For the first time, it became important what people thought as forms of political contention changed; the term public opinion was derived from the French opinion publique, first used in 1588 by Michel de Montaigne in the second edition of his Essays. The French term appears in the 1761 work Julie, or the New Heloise by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Precursors of the phrase in English include William Temple's "general opinion" and John Locke's "law of opinion"; the emergence of public opinion as a significant force in the political realm can be dated to the late 17th century. However, opinion had been regarded as having singular importance since far earlier. Medieval fama publica or vox et fama communis had great legal and social importance from the 12th and 13th centuries onward.
William Shakespeare called public opinion the "mistress of success" and Blaise Pascal thought it was "the queen of the world". In his treatise An Essay Concerning Human Understanding c, John Locke considered that man was subject to three laws: the divine law, the civil law and most in Locke's judgement, the law of opinion or reputation, he regarded the latter as of the highest importance because dislike and ill opinion force people to conform in their behaviour to social norms, however he didn't consider public opinion as a suitable influence for governments. In his 1672 essay On the Original and Nature of Government, William Temple gave an early formulation of the importance of public opinion, he observed that "when vast numbers of men submit their lives and fortunes to the will of one, it must be force of custom, or opinion which subjects power to authority". Temple disagreed with the prevalent opinion that the basis of government lay in a social contract and thought that government was allowed to exist due to the favour of public opinion.
The prerequisites for the emergence of a public sphere were increasing levels of literacy, spurred on by the Reformation, which encouraged individuals to read the Bible in the vernacular, the expanding printing presses. During the 18th century religious literature was replaced with secular literature and pamphlets. In parallel to this was the growth in reading societies and clubs. At the turn of the century the first circulating library opened in London and the public library became widespread and available to the public. An institution of central importance in the development of public opinion, was the coffee-house, which became widespread throughout Europe in the mid-17th century. Although Charles II tried to suppress the London coffeehouses as "places where the disaffected met, spread scandalous reports concerning the conduct of His Majesty and his Ministers", the public flocked to them. For several decades following the Restoration, the Wits gathered round John Dryden at Will's Coffee House in Russell Street, Covent Garden.
The coffee houses were great social levellers, open to all men and indifferent to social status, as a result associated with equality and republicanism. More coffee houses became meeting places where business could be carried on, news exchanged and The London Gazette read. Lloyd's of London had its origins in a coffeehouse run by Edward Lloyd, where underwriters of ship insurance met to do business. By 1739, there were 551 coffeehouses in London; each attracted a particular clientele divided by occupation or attitude, such as Tories and Whigs and stockjobbers, merchants and lawyers and authors, men of fashion or the "cits" of the old city center. Joseph Addison wanted to have it said of him that he had "brought philosophy out of closets and libraries to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea tables and in coffee houses". According to one French visitor, Antoine François Prévost, coffeehouses, "where you have the right to read all the papers for and against the government", were the "seats of English liberty".
Gentlemen's clubs proliferated in the 18th century in the West End of London. Clubs took over the role occupied by coffee houses in 18th century London to some degree and reached the height of their influence in the late 19th century; some notable names were Arthur's and Boodle's which still exist today. These social changes, in which a closed and illiterate public became an open and politicized one, was to become of tremendous political importance in the 19th century as the mass media was circulated more and literacy was improved. Governments recognized the importance of managing and directing public opinion; this trend is exemplified in the career of George Canning who restyled his political career from its aristocratic origins to one of popular consent when he contested and won the parliamentary seat in Liverpool, a city with a growing and affluent middle class which he attributed to the growing influence of "public opinion". Jeremy Bentham was an impassioned advocate of the importance of public opinion in the shaping of constitutional governance.
He thought it important that all government acts and decisions should be subject to the inspection of public opinion, because "to the pernicious exercise of the power of government it is the only check". He opined that public opinion had the power to ensure that rulers would rule for the greatest happiness of the greater number, he brought in Utilitarian philosophy in orde
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil and wrong, virtue and vice and crime; as a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, value theory. Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, how their truth values can be determined Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action The English word "ethics" is derived from the Ancient Greek word ēthikós, meaning "relating to one's character", which itself comes from the root word êthos meaning "character, moral nature".
This was borrowed into Latin as ethica and into French as éthique, from which it was borrowed into English. Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have included such phrases as'the science of the ideal human character' or'the science of moral duty'". Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures"; the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with'morality'... and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group or individual." Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law and don't treat ethics as a stand-alone concept. The word ethics in English refers to several things, it can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason to answer various kinds of ethical questions.
As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: "What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive." Williams describes the content of this area of inquiry as addressing the broad question, "how one should live". Ethics can refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems, not particular to philosophy; as bioethicist Larry Churchill has written: "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity." Ethics can be used to describe a particular person's own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example: "Joe has strange ethics." Meta-ethics is the branch of philosophical ethics that asks how we understand, know about, what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question pertaining to a particular practical situation—such as, "Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake?"—cannot be a meta-ethical question.
A meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions. For example, "Is it possible to have secure knowledge of what is right and wrong?" is a meta-ethical question. Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics. For example, Aristotle implies that less precise knowledge is possible in ethics than in other spheres of inquiry, he regards ethical knowledge as depending upon habit and acculturation in a way that makes it distinctive from other kinds of knowledge. Meta-ethics is important in G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica from 1903. In it he first wrote about. Moore was seen to reject naturalism in his Open Question Argument; this made. Earlier, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values. Studies of how we know in ethics divide into non-cognitivism. Non-cognitivism is the view that when we judge something as morally right or wrong, this is neither true nor false. We may, for example, be only expressing our emotional feelings about these things.
Cognitivism can be seen as the claim that when we talk about right and wrong, we are talking about matters of fact. The ontology of ethics is about value-bearing things or properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuff referred to by ethical propositions. Non-descriptivists and non-cognitivists believe that ethics does not need a specific ontology since ethical propositions do not refer; this is known as an anti-realist position. Realists, on the other hand, must explain what kind of entities, properties or states are relevant for ethics, how they have value, why they guide and motivate our actions. Normative ethics is the study of ethical action, it is the branch of ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because normative ethics examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts.
Normative ethics is distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs. To put it another way, descriptive ethics would be concerned with determining what proportion of people believe th
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Electronic "documents" such as recordings and radio, e-mails have come into use; the word epistolary is derived from Latin from the Greek word ἐπιστολή epistolē. The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, it is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator. There are two theories on the genesis of the epistolary novel; the first claims that the genre is originated from novels with inserted letters, in which the portion containing the third person narrative in between the letters was reduced. The other theory claims that the epistolary novel arose from miscellanies of letters and poetry: some of the letters were tied together into a plot. Both claims have some validity; the first epistolary novel, the Spanish "Prison of Love" by Diego de San Pedro, belongs to a tradition of novels in which a large number of inserted letters dominated the narrative.
Other well-known examples of early epistolary novels are related to the tradition of letter-books and miscellanies of letters. Within the successive editions of Edmé Boursault's Letters of Respect and Love, a group of letters written to a girl named Babet were expanded and became more and more distinct from the other letters, until it formed a small epistolary novel entitled Letters to Babet; the immensely famous Letters of a Portuguese Nun attributed to Gabriel-Joseph de La Vergne, comte de Guilleragues, though a small minority still regard Marianna Alcoforado as the author, is claimed to be intended to be part of a miscellany of Guilleragues prose and poetry. The founder of the epistolary novel in English is said by many to be James Howell with "Familiar Letters", who writes of prison, foreign adventure, the love of women; the first novel to expose the complex play that the genre allows was Aphra Behn's Love-Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister, which appeared in three volumes in 1684, 1685, 1687.
The novel shows the genre's results of changing perspectives: individual points were presented by the individual characters, the central voice of the author and moral evaluation disappeared. Behn furthermore explored a realm of intrigue with letters that fall into the wrong hands, faked letters, letters withheld by protagonists, more complex interaction; the epistolary novel as a genre became popular in the 18th century in the works of such authors as Samuel Richardson, with his immensely successful novels Pamela and Clarissa. In France, there was Lettres persanes by Montesquieu, followed by Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Laclos' Les Liaisons dangereuses, which used the epistolary form to great dramatic effect, because the sequence of events was not always related directly or explicitly. In Germany, there was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werther and Friedrich Hölderlin's Hyperion; the first North American novel, The History of Emily Montague by Frances Brooke was written in epistolary form.
Starting in the 18th century, the epistolary form was subject to much ridicule, resulting in a number of savage burlesques. The most notable example of these was Henry Fielding's Shamela, written as a parody of Pamela. In it, the female narrator can be found wielding a pen and scribbling her diary entries under the most dramatic and unlikely of circumstances. Oliver Goldsmith used the form to satirical effect in The Citizen of the World, subtitled "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher Residing in London to his Friends in the East". So did the diarist Fanny Burney in a successful comic first novel, Evelina; the epistolary novel fell out of use in the late 18th century. Although Jane Austen tried her hand at the epistolary in juvenile writings and her novella Lady Susan, she abandoned this structure for her work, it is thought that her lost novel First Impressions, redrafted to become Pride and Prejudice, may have been epistolary: Pride and Prejudice contains an unusual number of letters quoted in full and some play a critical role in the plot.
The epistolary form nonetheless saw continued use, surviving in exceptions or in fragments in nineteenth-century novels. In Honoré de Balzac's novel Letters of Two Brides, two women who became friends during their education at a convent correspond over a 17-year period, exchanging letters describing their lives. Mary Shelley employs the epistolary form in her novel Frankenstein. Shelley uses the letters as one of a variety of framing devices, as the story is presented through the letters of a sea captain and scientific explorer attempting to reach the north pole who encounters Victor Frankenstein and records the dying man's narrative and confessions. Published in 1848, Anne Brontë's novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is framed as a retrospective letter from one of the main heroes to his friend and brother-in-law with the diary of the eponymous tenant inside it. In the late 19th century, Bram Stoker released one of the most recognized and successful novels in the epistolary form to date, Dracula.
Printed in 1897, the novel is compiled of letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, doctor's notes, ship's logs, the like. There are 3 types of epistolar
Emile, or On Education
Emile, or On Education is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings. Due to a section of the book entitled "Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar", Emile was banned in Paris and Geneva and was publicly burned in 1762, the year of its first publication. During the French Revolution, Emile served as the inspiration for what became a new national system of education; the work tackles fundamental political and philosophical questions about the relationship between the individual and society—how, in particular, the individual might retain what Rousseau saw as innate human goodness while remaining part of a corrupting collectivity. Its opening sentence: "Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things. Rousseau seeks to describe a system of education that would enable the natural man he identifies in The Social Contract to survive corrupt society, he employs the novelistic device of Emile and his tutor to illustrate how such an ideal citizen might be educated.
Emile is scarcely a detailed parenting guide but it does contain some specific advice on raising children. It is regarded by some as the first philosophy of education in Western culture to have a serious claim to completeness, as well as being one of the first Bildungsroman novels; the text is divided into five books: the first three are dedicated to the child Emile, the fourth to an exploration of the adolescent, the fifth to outlining the education of his female counterpart Sophie, as well as to Emile's domestic and civic life. In Book I, Rousseau discusses not only his fundamental philosophy but begins to outline how one would have to raise a child to conform with that philosophy, he begins with the early physical and emotional development of the child. Emile attempts to "find a way of resolving the contradictions between the natural man who is'all for himself' and the implications of life in society"; the famous opening line does not bode well for the educational project—"Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things.
But Rousseau acknowledges that every society "must choose between making a man or a citizen" and that the best "social institutions are those that best know how to denature man, to take his absolute existence from him in order to give him a relative one and transport the I into the common unity". To "denature man" for Rousseau is to suppress some of the "natural" instincts that he extols in The Social Contract, published the same year as Emile, but while it might seem that for Rousseau such a process would be negative, this is not so. Emile is not a panegyric for the loss of the noble savage, a term Rousseau never used. Instead, it is an effort to explain. Many of Rousseau's suggestions in this book are restatements of the ideas of other educational reformers. For example, he endorses Locke's program of "harden bodies against the intemperance of season, elements, he emphasizes the perils of swaddling and the benefits of mothers nursing their own infants. Rousseau's enthusiasm for breastfeeding led him to argue: "ut let mothers deign to nurse their children, morals will reform themselves, nature's sentiments will be awakened in every heart, the state will be repeopled"—a hyperbole that demonstrates Rousseau's commitment to grandiose rhetoric.
As Peter Jimack, the noted Rousseau scholar, argues: "Rousseau consciously sought to find the striking, lapidary phrase which would compel the attention of his readers and move their hearts when it meant, as it did, an exaggeration of his thought". And, in fact, Rousseau's pronouncements, although not original, effected a revolution in swaddling and breastfeeding; the second book concerns the initial interactions of the child with the world. Rousseau believed that at this phase the education of children should be derived less from books and more from the child's interactions with the world, with an emphasis on developing the senses, the ability to draw inferences from them. Rousseau concludes the chapter with an example of a boy, educated through this phase; the father takes the boy out flying kites, asks the child to infer the position of the kite by looking only at the shadow. This is a task that the child has never been taught, but through inference and understanding of the physical world, the child is able to succeed in his task.
In some ways, this approach is the precursor of the Montessori method. The third book concerns the selection of a trade. Rousseau believed it necessary that the child must be taught a manual skill appropriate to his gender and age, suitable to his inclinations, by worthy role models. Once Emile is physically strong and learns to observe the world around him, he is ready for the last part of his education—sentiment: "We have made an active and thinking being, it remains for us, in order to complete the man, only to make a loving and feeling being—that is to say, to perfect reason by sentiment". Emile is a teenager at this point and it is only now that Rousseau believes he is capable of understanding complex human emotions sympathy. Rousseau argues that the child cannot put himself in the place of others but once adolescence has been reached and he is able do so, Emile can be brought into the world and socialized. In addition to introducing a newly passionate Emile to society during his adolescent years, the tutor introduces him to religion.
According to Rousseau, children cannot understand abstract concepts such
The Social Contract
The Social Contract published as On the Social Contract. The Social Contract helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe in France; the Social Contract argued against the idea. Rousseau asserts; the epigraph of the work is "foederis aequas / Dicamus leges". The stated aim of The Social Contract is to determine whether there can be a legitimate political authority, since people's interactions he saw at his time seemed to put them in a state far worse than the good one they were at in the state of nature though living in isolation, he concludes book one, chapter three with, "Let us admit that force does not create right, that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers", to say, the ability to coerce is not a legitimate power, there is no rightful duty to submit to it. A state has no right to enslave a conquered people. In this desired social contract, everyone will be free because they all forfeit the same number of rights and impose the same duties on all. Rousseau argues. Although the contract imposes new laws, including those safeguarding and regulating property, there are restrictions on how that property can be legitimately claimed.
His example with land includes three conditions. Rousseau posits. First, there must be a sovereign consisting of the whole population, women included, that represents the general will and is the legislative power within the state; the second division is that of the government. This division is necessary because the sovereign cannot deal with particular matters like applications of the law. Doing so would undermine its generality, therefore damage its legitimacy. Thus, the government must remain a separate institution from the sovereign body; when the government exceeds the boundaries set in place by the people, it is the mission of the people to abolish such government, begin anew. Rousseau claims that the size of the territory to be governed decides the nature of the government. Since a government is only as strong as the people, this strength is absolute, the larger the territory, the more strength the government must be able to exert over the populace. In his view, a monarchical government is able to wield the most power over the people since it has to devote less power to itself, while a democracy the least.
In general, the larger the bureaucracy, the more power required for government discipline. This relationship requires the state to be an aristocracy or monarchy; when Rousseau uses the word democracy, he refers to a direct democracy rather than a representative democracy. In light of the relation between population size and governmental structure, Rousseau argues that like his native Geneva, small city-states are the form of nation in which freedom can best flourish. For states of this size, an elected aristocracy is preferable, in large states a benevolent monarch; the French philosopher Voltaire used his publications to criticise and mock Rousseau, but to defend free expression. In his Idées républicaines, he reacted to the news that The Social Contract had been burned in Geneva, saying "The operation of burning it was as odious as that of writing it. To burn a book of argument is to say:'We do not have enough wit to reply to it.'" The work was banned in Paris. The work received a refutation called "The Confusion of the Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau" by the Jesuit Alfonso Muzzarelli in Italy in 1794.
Bertram, Christopher. Rousseau and the'Social Contract'. Routledge. Incorvati, Giovanni “Du contrat social, or the principles of political right. Les citoyens de Rousseau ont la parole en anglais”, in: G. Lobrano, P. P. Onida, Il principio della democrazia. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Du Contrat social, Jovene, p. 213-256. Williams, David Lay. Rousseau's'Social Contract': An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. Wraight, Christopher D.. Rousseau's The Social Contract: A Reader's Guide. London: Continuum Books. Du contrat social The Social Contract translated 1782 by G. D. H. Cole at constitution.org'The Social Contract Public domain audiobook G. D. H. Cole translation The Social Contract English translation audiobook on LibriVox.org Catholic Encyclopedia Based on an article critical of The Social Contract, written in 1908. SparkNotes entry on The Social Contract Rousseaus Gesellschaftsvertrag in Kurzform A site containing The Social Contract modified for easier reading The Social Contract on In Our Time at the BBC Du contrat social, or the principles of political right