Sir David Paradine Frost was an English television host, media personality, journalist and writer. After graduating from Gonville and Caius College, Frost rose to prominence in the United Kingdom when he was chosen to host the satirical programme That Was the Week That Was in 1962, his success on this show led to work as a host on U. S. television. He became known for his television interviews with senior political figures, among them the Nixon Interviews with former U. S. President Richard Nixon in 1977, which were adapted into a stage play and film. Frost was one of the "Famous Five", behind the launch of ITV breakfast station TV-am in 1983. For the BBC, he hosted the Sunday morning interview programme Breakfast with Frost from 1993 to 2005, he spent two decades as host of Through the Keyhole. From 2006 to 2012 he hosted the weekly programme Frost Over the World on Al Jazeera English and from 2012, the weekly programme The Frost Interview. Frost died on 31 August 2013, aged 74, on board the cruise ship MS Queen Elizabeth, on which he had been engaged as a speaker.
In March 2014, his memorial stone was unveiled in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey for his contribution to British culture. David Paradine Frost was born in Tenterden, Kent, on 7 April 1939, the son of a Methodist minister of Huguenot descent, the Rev. Wilfred John "W. J." Paradine Frost, his wife, Mona. While living in Gillingham, Kent, he was taught in the Bible class of the Sunday school at his father's church by David Gilmore Harvey, subsequently started training as a Methodist local preacher, which he did not complete. Frost attended Barnsole Road Primary School in Gillingham, St Hugh's School, Woodhall Spa, Gillingham Grammar School and – while residing in Raunds – Wellingborough Grammar School. Throughout his school years he was an avid football and cricket player, was offered a contract with Nottingham Forest F. C. For two years before going to university he was a lay preacher following his witnessing of an event presided over by the Christian evangelist Billy Graham. Frost studied at Gonville and Caius College, from 1958, graduating with a Third in English.
He was editor of both the university's student paper and the literary magazine Granta. He was secretary of the Footlights Drama Society, which included actors such as Peter Cook and John Bird. During this period, Frost appeared on television for the first time in an edition of Anglia Television's Town And Gown, performing several comic characters. "The first time I stepped into a television studio", he once remembered, "it felt like home. It didn't scare me. Talking to the camera seemed the most natural thing in the world."According to some accounts, Frost was the victim of snobbery from the group with which he associated at Cambridge, confirmed by Barry Humphries. Christopher Booker, while asserting that Frost's one defining characteristic was ambition, commented that he was impossible to dislike. According to the satirist John Wells, the Old Etonian actor Jonathan Cecil congratulated Frost around this time for "that wonderfully silly voice" he used while performing, but discovered that it was Frost's real voice.
After leaving university, Frost became a trainee at Associated-Rediffusion. Meanwhile, having gained an agent, Frost performed in cabaret at the Blue Angel nightclub in Berkeley Square, London during the evenings. Frost was chosen by writer and producer Ned Sherrin to host the satirical programme That Was the Week That Was, alias TW3 after Frost's flatmate John Bird suggested Sherrin should see his act at The Blue Angel; the series, which ran for less than 18 months during 1962–63, was part of the satire boom in early 1960s Britain and became a popular programme. The involvement of Frost in TW3 led to an intensification of the rivalry with Peter Cook who accused him of stealing material and dubbed Frost "the bubonic plagiarist"; the new satirical magazine Private Eye mocked him at this time. Frost visited the U. S. during the break between the two series of TW3 in the summer of 1963 and stayed with the producer of the New York City production of Beyond The Fringe. Frost was unable to swim, but still jumped into the pool, nearly drowned until he was saved by Peter Cook.
At the memorial service for Cook in 1995, Alan Bennett recalled that rescuing Frost was the one regret Cook expressed. For the first three editions of the second series in 1963, the BBC attempted to limit the team by scheduling repeats of The Third Man television series after the programme, thus preventing overruns. Frost took to reading synopses of the episodes at the end of the programme as a means of sabotage. After the BBC's Director General Hugh Greene instructed that the repeats should be abandoned, TW3 returned to being open-ended. More sombrely, on 23 November 1963, a tribute to the assassinated President John F. Kennedy, an event which had occurred the previous day, formed an entire edition of That Was the Week That Was. An American version of TW3 ran. Following a pilot episode on 10 November 1963, the 30-minute US series featuring Frost, ran on NBC from 10 January 1964 to May 1965. In 1985, Frost produced and hosted a television special in the same format, That Was the Year That Was, on NBC.
Frost fronted various programmes following the success of TW3, including its immediate successor, Not So Much a Programme, More a Way of Life, which he co-chaired with Willie Rushton and poet P. J. Kavanagh. Screened on three evenings each week, this series was dropped after a sketch was found to be offensive to Catholics and another to the British royal family. More successful was The Frost Report, broadcast between 1966 and 1967; the show
Leonard Norman Cohen was a Canadian singer-songwriter and novelist. His work explored religion, isolation and romantic relationships. Cohen was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, he was invested as a Companion of the Order of the nation's highest civilian honour. In 2011, Cohen received one of the Prince of Asturias Awards for literature and the ninth Glenn Gould Prize. Cohen pursued a career as a novelist during the 1950s and early 1960s, his first album, Songs of Leonard Cohen, was followed by three more albums of folk music: Songs from a Room, Songs of Love and Hate and New Skin for the Old Ceremony. His 1977 record Death of a Ladies' Man was co-written and produced by Phil Spector, a move away from Cohen's previous minimalist sound. In 1979, Cohen returned with the more traditional Recent Songs, which blended his acoustic style with jazz and Oriental and Mediterranean influences. Cohen's most famous song, "Hallelujah" was first released on his studio album Various Positions in 1984.
I'm Your Man in 1988 marked Cohen's turn to synthesized productions and remains his most popular album. In 1992, Cohen released its follow-up, The Future, which had dark lyrics and references to political and social unrest. Cohen returned to music in 2001 with the release of Ten New Songs, a major hit in Canada and Europe, his 11th album, Dear Heather, followed in 2004. Following a successful string of tours between 2008 and 2013, Cohen released three albums in the final four years of his life: Old Ideas, Popular Problems and You Want It Darker, the last of, released three weeks before his death. Cohen was born on September 21, 1934, into a middle-class Canadian Jewish family residing in Westmount, Quebec, an English-speaking suburb of Montreal, his mother, Marsha Klonitsky, was the daughter of a Talmudic writer, Rabbi Solomon Klonitsky-Kline, emigrated to Montreal in 1927 from Lithuania. His paternal grandfather, whose family had moved from Poland to Canada, was Lyon Cohen, the founding president of the Canadian Jewish Congress.
His father, Nathan Bernard Cohen, owned a substantial clothing store. The family observed Orthodox Judaism, belonged to Congregation Shaar Hashomayim, to which Cohen retained connections all his life. On the topic of being a Kohen, Cohen told Richard Goldstein in 1967, "I had a Messianic childhood. I was told I was a descendant of Aaron, the high priest."Cohen attended Roslyn Elementary School, completed grades seven through nine at Herzliah High School, where his literary mentor Irving Layton taught transferred in 1948 to Westmount High School, where he studied music and poetry. He became interested in the poetry of Federico García Lorca. Cohen involved himself beyond Westmount's curriculum, in photography, on the yearbook staff, as a cheerleader, in campus clubs, when "heavily involved in the school's theater program", he served in the position of president of the Students' Council. During that time, Cohen taught himself to play the acoustic guitar, formed a country–folk group that he called the Buckskin Boys.
After a young Spanish guitar player taught him "a few chords and some flamenco", Cohen switched to a classical guitar. He has attributed his love of music to his mother, who, he said, had a lovely voice: She was Russian and sang songs around the house, and I know that those changes, those melodies, touched me much. She would sing with us. Cohen frequented Saint Laurent Boulevard for fun, ate at such places as the Main Deli Steak House. According to journalist David Sax and one of his cousins would go to the Main Deli to "watch the gangsters and wrestlers dance around the night." Cohen enjoyed the raucous bars of Old Montreal as well as Saint Joseph's Oratory, which had the restaurant nearest to Westmount for him and his friend Mort Rosengarten to share a coffee and a smoke. When Cohen left Westmount, he purchased a place on Saint-Laurent Boulevard, in the working-class neighbourhood of Montreal's Little Portugal, he would read his poetry at assorted nearby clubs. In that period and that place, Cohen wrote the lyrics to some of his most famous songs.
In 1951 Cohen enrolled at McGill University, where he became president of the McGill Debating Union and won the Chester MacNaghten Literary Competition for the poems "Sparrows" and "Thoughts of a Landsman". Cohen published his first poems in March 1954 in the magazine CIV/n; the issue included poems by Cohen's poet–professors, Irving Layton and Louis Dudek. Cohen graduated from McGill the following year with a B. A. degree. His literary influences during this time included William Butler Yeats, Irving Layton, Walt Whitman, Federico García Lorca, Henry Miller, his first published book of poetry, Let Us Compare Mythologies, was published by Dudek as the first book in the McGill Poetry Series the year after Cohen's graduation. The book contained poems written when Cohen was between the ages of 15 and 20, Cohen dedicated the book to his late father; the well-known Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye wrote a review of the book in which he gave Cohen "restrained praise". After completing his undergraduate degree, Cohen spent a term in the McGill Faculty of
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
Beat-Club was a German music program that ran from September 1965 to December 1972. It was broadcast from Bremen, West Germany on Erstes Deutsches Fernsehen, the national public TV channel of the ARD, produced by one of its members, Radio Bremen co-produced by WDR following the 38th episode. Beat-Club was co-created by Mike Leckebusch; the show premiered on 25 September 1965 with Uschi Nerke hosting. German TV personality Wilhelm Wieben opened the first show with a short speech. After eight episodes, Augustin stepped down from his hosting role and was replaced by DJ Dave Lee Travis; the show's earlier episodes featured live performances, was set in front of a plain brick wall. It underwent a revamp in 1967, when a more professional look was adapted with large cards in the background displaying the names of the performers. Around this time, a troupe of young women billed the "Go-Go-Girls," were introduced to dance to songs when their performers couldn't appear. In early 1969, Travis was replaced by Dave Dee, of Dave Dee, Beaky, Mick & Tich.
On 31 December 1969, Beat-Club again featured live performances. Dee departed in 1970. In the years of its run, the series was known for incorporating psychedelic visual effects during many performances following the switch to colour; the Grateful Dead performed on the show on 21 April halfway through their European Tour. The band played a shorter set than usual, but still included crowd favourites such as "Truckin'"; the set is believed to be the last professionally filmed appearance of Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, who retired from the band following his final gig at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles shortly after the end of the tour owing to medical reasons and he died in March 1973. In 2014, the footage had its first theatrical screening in theatres across the US; the show was the first German television series dedicated to popular music, featured artists such as The Moody Blues, MC5, The Equals, King Crimson, Grateful Dead, Captain Beefheart, Joe Cocker and Evans, Frank Zappa, Canned Heat, The Hollies, The Small Faces, The Rolling Stones, Gene Pitney, Ten Years After, Iron Butterfly, Rory Gallagher, Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, Jimi Hendrix, Ike & Tina Turner, Chuck Berry, The Who, Sonny & Cher, Harry Nilsson, David Bowie, Bee Gees, The Beach Boys, The Doors, Lake & Palmer, Popol Vuh, Yes, P. P. Arnold, Barry St. John, Sharon Tandy, Robin Gibb and Fanny in its seven-year run.
In 1972, it was replaced by Musikladen. Performances from the show were seen on VH1 Classic, reruns air in several European countries. Several DVD collections have been released. Beat Club is now broadcast on Sunday afternoons between 1 and 3 pm as a weekly radio programme on Radio Bremen 1 and on a web channel offered by the radio station; the radio show is still hosted, rather nostalgically, by Nerke, reprising her role as presenter for the series. The 2008 Video on demand web portal launched for Beat-Club and Musikladen was replaced by a YouTube channel in 2010. TV.com: Beat-Club - complete list with all tracks Beat-Club channel on YouTube Beat-Club on IMDb Beat-Club at TV.com
Fontana Records is a record label, started in the 1950s as a subsidiary of the Dutch Philips Records. The independent label distributor Fontana Distribution takes its name from the label. Fontana started in the 1950s as a subsidiary of the Dutch Philips Records. Fontana's U. S. counterpart label was distributed by Philips US subsidiary Mercury Records. The initial single release was a wild teen beat instrumental by famed British session drummer Bobby Graham, both sides featuring Jimmy Page on guitar. Among the hitmakers were Wayne Fontana & the Mindbenders, the Troggs, the New Vaudeville Band and Steam, all of whom had No. 1 hits on the label. Other successful Fontana artists included Dave Dee, Beaky, Mick & Tich, the Silkie, Nana Mouskouri, the Pretty Things, the Herd, Gloria Lynne and the duo of Jane Birkin & Serge Gainsbourg; the label served as an outlet for other British acts such as the Merseybeats, the Others, Eden Kane, the Escorts and Sight & Sound. In some cases, Fontana was early on artists who achieved greater fame and fortune with subsequent releases for other labels, like the Spencer Davis Group, the Guess Who, Don Partridge and Helen Reddy.
Notably, in 1964, a group calling themselves The High Numbers released their first single, "I'm The Face"/"Zoot Suit." They achieved worldwide success after changing labels and management, changing their name to The Who. It was an outlet for some of the productions James Brown recorded under his deal with sister label Smash Records including Vicki Anderson. Mercury discontinued the label in 1970. Fontana's British division was the UK licensee for Motown Records, Columbia Records and Epic Records, Vanguard Records, Mainstream Records and ESP-Disk; as with Philips, labels were blue for singles, black for LPs. In 1972, PolyGram acquired the dormant label. In the UK and Europe, the Fontana label was dormant after 1974, although in 1980-81 it was used for releases by Sector 27 and Dennis Bovell. Fontana was revived in the late 1980s as an outlet for acts such as Tears for Fears, the Teardrop Explodes, Pere Ubu, Cocteau Twins and Swing Out Sister, was active in the 1990s, releasing music for acts such as House of Love, Gorky's Zygotic Mynci, Ocean Colour Scene, Oleta Adams and James.
It is an active division of Fontana Distribution, using the same logo. The label's only artists as of March 2013 are Brooke Papoose. 1964—Pink label 1965-1970—Light blue or darker-toned blue label 1980s—Black and silver label List of record labels Fontana story from BSN Pubs A discography of American Fontana albums in the 1960s and early 1970s A discography of American Fontana singles in the 1960s and early 1970s A discography of UK Fontana singles from 1958 to 1974 A discography of Australian Fontana singles
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
The Frost Report
The Frost Report was a satirical television show hosted by David Frost. It ran for 28 episodes on the BBC from 10 March 1966 to 26 December 1967, it introduced John Cleese, Ronnie Barker, Ronnie Corbett to television, launched the careers of other writers and performers. The main cast were Frost, Cleese, Sheila Steafel, Nicky Henson. Musical interludes were provided by Julie Felix, while Tom Lehrer performed songs in a few episodes. Writers and performers on The Frost Report worked on many other television shows, they included Bill Oddie and Tim Brooke-Taylor, Barry Cryer, Ronnie Barker, Ronnie Corbett, Dick Vosburgh, Spike Mullins, Antony Jay, future Python members Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, Michael Palin. It was while working on The Frost Report; the established comedy writer Marty Feldman, as well as the Frank Muir and Denis Norden partnership, were contributors to the programme. A special compilation from series 1, titled "Frost over England" won the Rose d'Or at the 1967 Montreux festival.
A special one-off reunion was broadcast on Easter Monday 2008. It ran for ninety minutes and was followed by "Frost over England". Half of the episodes produced are missing from the BBC archives; the 1966 series is complete in the archive. David Frost hosted similar comedy shows with similar casts; these included Frost on Sunday in 1968 with the two Ronnies, Josephine Tewson, Sam Costa. Frost on Saturday in 1968. There was a reunion show The Frost Report is Back in 2008. A sketch in The Frost Report is responsible for the term "Lord Privy Seal", in the British television industry, to mean the practice of matching too literal imagery with every element of the accompanying spoken script. In the sketch, the practice was taken to an extreme by backing a "news report" about the Lord Privy Seal with images, in quick succession, of a lord, a privy, a seal balancing a ball on its nose. Richard Dawkins mentioned the practice in a film review; the Frost Report on IMDb The Frost Report at BBC Online Comedy Guide British Film Institute Screen Online