BBC television drama
BBC television dramas have been produced and broadcast since before the public service company had an established television broadcasting network in the United Kingdom. As with any major broadcast network, drama forms an important part of its schedule, with many of the BBC's top-rated programmes being from this genre. From the 1950s through to the 1980s the BBC received much acclaim for the range and scope of its drama productions, producing series and plays across a range of genres, from soap opera to science-fiction to costume drama, with the 1970s in particular being regarded as a critical and cultural high point in terms of the quality of dramas being produced. In the 1990s, a time of change in the British television industry, the department went through much internal confusion and external criticism, but since the beginning of the 21st century has begun to return to form with a run of critical and popular successes, despite continual accusations of the drama output and the BBC in general dumbing down.
Many BBC productions have been exported to and screened in other countries in the United States on the Public Broadcasting Service Masterpiece Theatre strand and latterly on the BBC's own BBC America cable channel. Other major purchasers of BBC dramas include the BBC's equivalents in other Commonwealth nations, such as Australia's ABC, Canada's CBC and Gibraltar's Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation. An established national radio broadcaster, the BBC began test transmissions with the new technology of television in 1929, working with John Logie Baird and using his primitive early apparatus; the following year, as part of one of these test transmissions, the BBC screened their first television drama production, an adaptation of the Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello's short play The Man With the Flower in His Mouth. Broadcast live at 3.30pm on 14 July 1930, the play was produced from a small studio in the Baird Company headquarters at 133 Long Acre, London. The play was chosen because of its confined setting, small cast and short length, was directed by Val Gielgud, at the time the BBC's senior producer of radio drama.
Because of the primitive 30-line camera technology, only one figure could be shown on screen at a time and the field of vision of the cameras was restricted. The Prime Minister of the day, Ramsay MacDonald, watched the play with his family on the Baird Televisor Baird had installed at their 10 Downing Street home; the reviewer for The Times newspaper commented that: "This afternoon on the roof of 133, Long Acre will prove to be a memorable one... The time for interest and curiosity is come, but the time for serious criticism of television plays, as plays, is not yet."The BBC's test broadcasts continued throughout the early part of the decade as the quality of the medium improved. In 1936 the BBC launched the world's first "high-definition"—then defined as at least 240-lines — television channel, the BBC Television Service, from studios in a specially converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. At the time of the channel's debut on 2 November 1936 there were only five television producers responsible for the entire output.
The producer selected to oversee drama was George More O'Ferrall, who had some experience with working in a visual medium as he was a former assistant director of films. This was unlike most of his colleagues; the first drama production to be mounted as a part of the new, regular service was a twenty-five-minute selection of scenes from the West End play Marigold by L. Allen Harker and F. R. Pryor, produced by O'Ferrall with the original London Royalty Theatre cast; this was broadcast live from the Alexandra Palace studios on the evening of Friday 6 November 1936. BBC Television Head of Drama Shaun Sutton wrote about the production for The Times in 1972. "It was little more than a photographed version of the stage production, with the camera lying well back to preserve the picture-frame convention of the theatre." Most initial drama efforts were of a similar scale. An increasing number of full-length dramatised productions began to take place in the Alexandra Palace studios during 1937, with Journey's End in November 1937 being a notable full-scale adaptation of a play.
When television transmissions on Sundays began in March 1938, one Sunday per month would see the broadcast of a full-length Shakespeare play by actors from the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. Productions become more technically advanced, with the use of film inserts on telecine and more ambitious shooting and mixing, as opposed to televising the equivalent of a standard theatrical performance with unmoving cameras. Outside broadcast cameras were used to show thirty Territorial Army troops with two howitzers in the Alexandra Palace grounds for added effect in The White Chateau, boats on the Palace lake in scenes depicting the Zeebrugge Raid in a World War I play; the Times credited the ambition of BBC television drama in its review of a July 1938 modern dress version of Julius Caesar, while criticising some of the production's technical failings. "From the moment when Mr. Sebastian Shaw and Mr. Anthony Ireland were discovered sitting at a café table, discussing the political situation over a glass of beer, looking like two Fascist officers, yet speaking the lines assigned to Brutus and Cassius, the attention of the audience was riveted...
The penumbrascope, a device for providing a background by means of shadows, which came into play for the first time in this production, was use
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
London Weekend Television
London Weekend Television was the ITV network franchise holder for Greater London and the Home Counties at weekends, broadcasting from Fridays at 5.15 pm to Monday mornings at 6:00 am. From 1968 until 1992, when LWT's weekday counterpart was Thames Television, there was an on-screen handover to LWT on Friday nights. From 1993 to 2002, when LWT's weekday counterpart was Carlton Television, the transfer occurred invisibly during a commercial break as Carlton and LWT shared studio and transmission facilities. Like most ITV regional franchises, including Carlton's, the London weekend franchise is now operated by ITV plc; the “London Weekend” franchise was renewed by Ofcom in 2015 for a further ten years and is still separately licensed, but it is no longer distinguished on air in any way at all. LWT is now managed with Carlton Television as a single entity, the legal name for LWT is now ITV London. London Weekend Television Ltd is now listed at Companies House as a "dormant company"; the London Television Consortium was created and led by television presenter David Frost, who at the time was working for the London weekday ITV station, Rediffusion.
The consortium consisted of three ex-BBC members of staff: Michael Peacock, Frank Muir and Doreen Stephens. Rediffusion's Controller of Programmes, Cyril Bennett joined the consortium along with Clive Irving, theatre director Peter Hall and, for financial backing, Arnold Weinstock, managing director of GEC. Frost had considered applying for the new Yorkshire region franchise but the expected high number of applicants led to a change of plans; the second choice was to take on Rediffusion for their contract but although it held the largest and most profitable licence it was felt that the company was too powerful to challenge. Changes elsewhere in the system led Frost to believe that the existing Midlands weekday broadcaster ATV had a significant risk of losing its London weekend contract; the consortium's application promised a variety of high-brow arts and drama productions. It accordingly caught the attention of the regulator, the Independent Television Authority, it seemed to address concerns and criticisms raised in the Pilkington Report.
The authority had been worried by criticism of the network's output, seen as downmarket and the LTC plans were viewed by the ITA as being serious contenders to the quality educational programming of the BBC. So keen were the ITA that they were quoted at the time as saying the LTC had to have its chance, whatever the repercussions; the new company, renamed London Weekend Television, benefited from a slight extension in broadcasting hours, as they were allocated Friday evenings from 7 pm as well as Saturday and Sunday. The LTC had planned on buying the superior Teddington Studios of former contractor ABC, but following ABC's merger with Associated Rediffusion to form Thames Television, the LTC were forced by the ITA to purchase Rediffusion's site at Wembley and obliged to employ all members of staff, although the workforce was larger than LWT had wanted. Having worked weekdays for Rediffusion, transmission staff now had to work at weekends, as a result, wanted extra pay for the unsocial hours.
This led to threats of industrial action, with the dispute still unresolved, fifteen seconds into their opening night of 2 August 1968, technicians went on strike and the screens went blank. An emergency service was provided by management from the transmission centre of ATV at Foley Street, London. Upon resolving the dispute, LWT suffered poor rating figures as the station's evening viewing schedule included a Stravinsky musical drama, an avant-garde drama from French film director Jean-Luc Godard, a tribute to Belgian singer-songwriter Jacques Brel and Georgia Brown Sings Kurt Weill; as a consequence viewers deserted their primetime offerings in favour of the more mainstream Saturday night viewing on BBC1. Other ITV stations refused to show LWT productions because of the poor ratings. ATV, now the seven-day Midlands franchise holder after losing their London contract to LWT, refused to transmit any of their programmes in peak time; the situation came to a head during a meeting of the Network Programme Committee on 9 September 1968.
The NPC was being chaired by Lew Grade, ATV's managing director, he is quoted as saying on this occasion: "I've succeeded in business by knowing what I hate," he told them. "And I know I hate David Frost." Frost no one else spoke out against LWT's programming policy. Meanwhile, the £6.5 million they had put up for the franchise began to drain away more than their audience figures. Michael Peacock, the architect in David Frost's vision for the future of television, wanted to stick to the principles of their contract with the ITA. ATV dropped Frost's major S
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Make Poverty History
Make Poverty History is the name of organizations in a number of countries, which focus on issues relating to 8th Millennium Development Goal such as aid and justice. They form a coalition of aid and development agencies which work together to raise awareness of global poverty and achieve policy change by governments; the movement exists or has existed in Australia, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, the United States of America, the United Kingdom. The various national campaigns are part of the international Global Call to Action Against Poverty campaign; the Make Poverty History campaign in Great Britain and Ireland is a coalition of charities, religious groups, trade unions, campaigning groups and celebrities who mobilise around the Britain's prominence in world politics, as of 2005, to increase awareness and pressure governments into taking actions towards relieving absolute poverty. The symbol of the campaign is a white "awareness bracelet" made of silicone.
On the band the words would be written in black, with the "Poverty" word a lighter shade. A "virtual" white band was available to be displayed on websites. Television advertisements ran for many months, urging people to speak to their representatives about stopping poverty. However, the Office of Communications banned the ads, deciding that the ads were "wholly or political" in nature, since they aimed to "achieve important changes"; the three demands of the campaign were: "Trade Justice" Drop the debt More and "better" aidNone of these aims were new, but the scale of the 2005 campaign dwarfed previous efforts. On January 31, 2006, the majority of the members of the campaign passed a resolution to disband the organisation, arguing that the British coalition had only agreed to come together formally for a limited lifespan, to correspond with Britain holding the presidency of the EU and G8. Forty groups argued against the dissolution. On January 23, 2013, the Enough Food For Everyone IF campaign was launched, by a group of over 100 aid organisations and religious groups.
Sometimes called Make Poverty History 2, or the IF campaign, the new undertaking is the biggest of its kind since the original make poverty history campaign of 2005. It coincides with Britain once again assuming presidency of the G8; the central theme of the campaign concerns ending hunger, with four strands aimed at tackling the root causes: the need for wealthy nations to keep their promises on aid. The need to combat tax avoidance; the need to combat land grabs the need for greater transparency from governments and large corporations, concerning their actions that impact on hunger. The launch of the campaign was welcomed by Britain's prime minister David Cameron, supported by international figures such as Bill Gates and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. On June 8, the IF campaign mobilized about 45,000 people to demonstrate in Hyde Park, while a hunger summit underway elsewhere in London saw £2.7 billion in new commitments made to tackle hunger. Speaking on the eve of the June 2013 G8 summit at Lough Erne, the Archbishop of York delivered a message on behalf of the IF campaign, calling on world leaders to take substantive action to relieve hunger, saying it is a scandal that malnutrition is allowed to lead to the death of a child every ten seconds.
The IF campaign coalition commissioned an external evaluation of the campaign. The evaluation report assesses progress against captures learnings for future work. Make Poverty History set out a timescale revolving around the 31st G8 summit in Gleneagles, Scotland on July 6, 2005; the campaign was given a high-profile launch on British television on New Year's Day 2005 in a special edition of The Vicar of Dibley, written by Richard Curtis, who pledged support for the campaign during 2005. The same issues were highlighted in Curtis' television drama The Girl in the Café, in an episode broadcast on June 25 on the BBC One channel in the UK on the HBO channel in the U. S. and on ABC TV in Australia. Britain assumed presidency of the G8 on January 1, 2005 and hosted the summit with poverty in Africa being, at least nominally, a major topic for discussion; the Commission for Africa, launched by Tony Blair in February 2004, aimed to help create a strong and prosperous Africa. Their report, published in March 2005, was a focal point for the British presidency of the G8.
In the second half of 2005, Britain held the EU presidency. July 1, 2005 was a worldwide day of action. July 2 – Over 225,000 protesters demonstrated in Edinburgh to promote the campaign's demands. On the same day, the Live 8 concerts took place before the G8 summit to encourage activism and debate within the G8 member countries, with the aim of increasing political pressure on the leaders. July 3 – boats set off to Cherbourg in France to pick up protesters as part of Sail 8 July 6 – The final Live 8 concert, named Edinburgh 50,000 – The Final Push rocks Edinburgh in the final strike to persuade G8 Leaders to double aid in Africa. Demonstrators walked overnight up to 20 miles to reach Gleneagles; the 20th anniversary of Live Aid was on July 13, 2005. September 10 was the second international "White Band Day"; the United Nations General Assembly Special Summit on the Millennium Development Goals, September 2005. This summit reviewed the progress since 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals, including halving the proportion of people living in poverty by 2015.
December 10 was the third international "White Band Day". The British campaign had over 540 member organisations including many faith groups, trade unions and charities, it was coordinated by Bond
Torchwood is a British science fiction television programme created by Russell T Davies, a spin-off from the 2005 revival of Doctor Who which aired four series between 2006 and 2011. The show shifted its broadcast channel each series to reflect its growing audience, moving from BBC Three to BBC Two to BBC One, acquiring US financing in its fourth series when it became a co-production of BBC One and Starz. Torchwood is aimed at older teenagers and adults, in contrast to Doctor Who's target audience of both adults and children; the show explored a number of themes, including existentialism, homosexuality and human corruptibility. Torchwood follows the exploits of a small team of alien hunters, who make up the Cardiff-based, fictional Torchwood Institute which deals with incidents involving extraterrestrials, its central character is an immortal con-man from the distant future. The initial main cast of the series consisted of Gareth David-Lloyd, Burn Gorman, Naoko Mori, Eve Myles, their characters are specialists for the Torchwood team tracking down aliens and defending the planet from alien and nefarious human threats.
In its first two series, the show uses a time rift in Cardiff as its primary plot generator, accounting for the unusual preponderance of alien beings in Cardiff. In the third and fourth series, Torchwood operate as fugitives. Gorman and Mori's characters were written out of the story at the end of the second series. Recurring actor Kai Owen was promoted to the main cast in series three, in which David-Lloyd too was written out. Subsequently, American actors Mekhi Phifer, Alexa Havins, Bill Pullman joined the cast of the show for its fourth series; the first series premiered on BBC Three and on BBC HD in 2006 to mixed reviews, but viewing figures which broke records for the digital channel. It returned in 2008; the third series episodes worked on a higher budget and transferred to the network's flagship channel, BBC One, as a five-episode serial, entitled Torchwood: Children of Earth. Although Children of Earth was broadcast over a period of five consecutive summer weeknights, the show received high ratings in the United Kingdom and overseas.
A fourth series, co-produced by BBC Wales, BBC Worldwide, US premium entertainment network Starz aired in 2011 under the title Torchwood: Miracle Day. Set both in Wales and the United States, Miracle Day fared less well with critics than the previous series, though was applauded by some for its ambition. In October 2012, Davies announced. All four series have been broadcast in Asia, New Zealand and North America. Owing to the early popularity of Torchwood, various tie-in media were produced, including audio dramas and comic strips. From its inception, the BBC invested in a heavy online presence for the series, with an alternate reality game running alongside the show's first two series, an animated Web series running alongside its fourth; the BBC continued to approve and commission licensed spin-offs after the show's conclusion, including an audio series from Big Finish Productions. Before the revival of Doctor Who, Russell T Davies began to develop an idea for a science-fiction/crime drama in the style of American dramas like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel.
This idea titled Excalibur, was abandoned until 2005, when BBC Three Controller Stuart Murphy invited Davies to develop an after-watershed science fiction series for the channel. During the production of the 2005 series of Doctor Who, the word "Torchwood" had been used as a title ruse for the series while filming its first few episodes to ensure they were not intercepted. Davies connected the word "Torchwood" to his earlier Excalibur idea and decided to make the series a Doctor Who spin-off. Subsequently, the word "Torchwood" was seeded in Doctor Who episodes and other media that aired in 2005 and 2006; because Torchwood is shown after the watershed – that is, after 9 pm – it has more mature content than Doctor Who. Davies told SFX: We can be a bit more visceral, more violent, more sexual, if we want to. Though bear in mind that it's teenage to indulge yourself in blood and gore, Torchwood is going to be smarter than that, but it's the essential difference between BBC One at 7 pm, BBC Three at, say, 9 pm.
That says it all – instinctively, every viewer can see the huge difference there. According to Barrowman: "I don't do any nude scenes in series one. I don't have a problem with getting my kit off, as long as they pay me the right money." Davies joked to a BBC Radio Wales interviewer that he was "not allowed" to refer to the programme as "Doctor Who for grown-ups". The first series includes content seen or heard in the Doctor Who franchise, including sex scenes, same-sex kissing, use of profanity in several episodes. Although Torchwood was intended to be sci-fi aimed at adults, the character Captain Jack Harkness, introduced in Doctor Who, proved popular with young audiences. Davies decided to edit the second series to be "child-friendly", removing same-sex kissing, overt sexuality, swearing; these edits to the shows enabled it to be broadcast at 7 pm. The first three series of Torchwood were produced in-house by BBC Wales; the Head of Drama at the time of the first series, Julie Gardner, served as executive producer alongside Davies.
The first two episodes of series 1 of Torchwood premier
CBBC is a British children's television brand owned by the BBC and aimed for children aged from 6 to 15 BBC programming aimed at under six-year-old children is broadcast on the CBeebies channel. CBBC broadcasts from 7 am to 9 pm on CBBC Channel; the CBBC brand was used for the broadcast of children's programmes on BBC One on weekday afternoons and on BBC Two mornings until these strands were phased out in 2012 and 2013 as part of the BBC's "Delivering Quality First" cost-cutting initiative.. CBBC programmes were broadcast in high definition alongside other BBC content on BBC HD at afternoons on weekends, unless the channel was covering other events; this ended when BBC HD closed on 26 March 2013, but CBBC HD launched on 10 December 2013. CBBC programming returned to BBC Two on Saturday mornings in September 2017 when Saturday Mash-Up! launched, however this strand continues to use the regular BBC continuity announcers and not the CBBC presenters. BBC-produced children's programming, in native languages of Scotland and Wales airs on BBC Alba and S4C respectively.
The BBC has broadcast television programmes for children since the 1930s. The first children-specific strand on BBC television was For the Children, first broadcast on what was the single'BBC Television Service' on Saturday 24 April 1937, it lasted for two years before being taken off air when the service closed due to the Second World War in September 1939. Following the war, For the Children recommenced on Sunday 7 July 1946, with a twenty-minute slot every Sunday afternoon and the addition of programmes for pre-school children under the banner For The Very Young, over the years they became an established feature of the early afternoons on the BBC's main channel BBC One. In 1952, the "For the Children" /; the 1964 launch of BBC Two allowed additional room for children's programming with an edition of Play School technically being the first official programme. On 1 October 1980, Watch with Mother was replaced by See-Saw, moved to BBC2 in June 1987, before ending in 1990. Meanwhile, weekday afternoon children's programmes on BBC One were introduced by the off-screen continuity announcer, though specially-designed menus and captions would be used.
On 9 September 1985, this long-standing block of children's programming was rebranded as Children's BBC, for the first time the children's block had dedicated idents and an in-vision presenter. The BBC had broadcast children's programming using BBC1's team of regular duty announcers; the launch presenter for this block, thus the first Children's BBC presenter of the current format, was Phillip Schofield. During the 1990s, Children's BBC began to be referred to informally on-air as'CBBC'; the official billing name of Children's BBC remained in place, until the BBC's network-wide branding refresh of October 1997, when the official on-air branding changed to CBBC.. Further changes to the schedule were rolled out during the 1990s and 2000s, including the introduction in the late 1980s of Sunday morning programmes on BBC Two only during the Open University's winter break and subsequently year-round. In the 1990's, BBC Scotland introduced Children's BBC Scotland with a mixture of repeats and local programming such as Megamag and Up for It!, broadcast in the school holidays on BBC One Scotland and subsequently on BBC Two Scotland.
During this time, BBC Scotland opt out of the national presenters to broadcast their local version of the weekday morning breakfast show presented by Grant Stott and Gail Porter. From 1996 to 1999, CBBC programmes were shown on the channel Nickelodeon, as part of the CBBC on Nick programming block; the launch of digital channel BBC Choice in 1998 saw the channel broadcasting children's programming in a Saturday afternoon slot, subsequently replaced by the daily 6 am to 7 pm service CBBC on Choice, which aired archive pre-school programming and was itself the precursor of the current CBBC Channel and CBeebies services. In 2002, the launch of the CBBC Channel and the CBeebies Channel saw a wide variety of programmes, both new and archive, being shown again on the new channels from 6 am or 7 am until 7 pm. In 2005, the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, Tessa Jowell, was questioned in the House of Commons as to whether a public service broadcaster should be broadcasting "lavatorial" humour.
Ms Jowell responded that it was the government's job to develop a charter for the BBC. In 2009, a report published by the BBC Trust found that scheduling changes which took place in February 2008, where programming ended at 17:15, had led to a decrease in viewers; this was noticeable for Blue Peter and Newsround, two of CBBC's flagship programmes. The changes were made following the BBC's loss of the rights to soap opera Neighbours, wh