Golden Age of Comic Books
The Golden Age of Comic Books describes an era of American comic books from the late 1930s to circa 1950. During this time, modern comic books were first published and increased in popularity; the superhero archetype was created and many well-known characters were introduced, including Superman, Captain Marvel, Captain America, Wonder Woman. The first recorded use of the term "Golden Age" was by Richard A. Lupoff in an article, "Re-Birth", published in issue one of the fanzine Comic Art in April 1960. An event cited by many as marking the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by Detective Comics. Superman's popularity helped make comic books a major arm of publishing, which led rival companies to create superheroes of their own to emulate Superman's success. Between 1939 and 1941 Detective Comics and its sister company, All-American Publications, introduced popular superheroes such as Batman and Robin, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Doctor Fate, the Atom, Green Arrow and Aquaman.
Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles featuring the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Although DC and Timely characters are well-remembered today, circulation figures suggest that the best-selling superhero title of the era was Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel with sales of about 1.4 million copies per issue. The comic was published biweekly at one point to capitalize on its popularity. Patriotic heroes donning red and blue were popular during the time of the second World War following The Shield's debut in 1940. Many heroes of this time period battled the Axis powers, with covers such as Captain America Comics #1 showing the title character punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler; as comic books grew in popularity, publishers began launching titles that expanded into a variety of genres. Dell Comics' non-superhero characters outsold the superhero comics of the day; the publisher featured licensed movie and literary characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Roy Rogers and Tarzan.
It was during this era. Additionally, MLJ's introduction of Archie Andrews in Pep Comics #22 gave rise to teen humor comics, with the Archie Andrews character remaining in print well into the 21st century. At the same time in Canada, American comic books were prohibited importation under the War Exchange Conservation Act which restricted the importation of non-essential goods; as a result, a domestic publishing industry flourished during the duration of the war which were collectively informally called the Canadian Whites. The educational comic book Dagwood Splits. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power, it was during this period that long-running humor comics debuted, including EC's Mad and Carl Barks' Uncle Scrooge in Dell's Four Color Comics. In 1953, the comic book industry hit a setback when the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was created in order to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.
After the publication of Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent the following year that claimed comics sparked illegal behavior among minors, comic book publishers such as EC's William Gaines were subpoenaed to testify in public hearings. As a result, the Comics Code Authority was created by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers to enact self-censorship by comic book publishers. At this time, EC canceled its crime and horror titles and focused on Mad. During the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned. To retain reader interest, comic publishers diversified into other genres, such as war, science fiction, romance and horror. Many superhero titles were converted to other genres. In 1946, DC Comics' Superboy and Green Arrow were switched from More Fun Comics into Adventure Comics so More Fun could focus on humor. In 1948 All-American Comics, featuring Green Lantern, Johnny Thunder and Dr. Mid-Nite, was replaced with All-American Western; the following year, Flash Comics and Green Lantern were cancelled.
In 1951 All Star Comics, featuring the Justice Society of America, became All-Star Western. The next year Star Spangled Comics, featuring Robin, was retitled Star Spangled War Stories. Sensation Comics, featuring Wonder Woman, was cancelled in 1953; the only DC superhero comics to continue publishing through the 1950s were Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Detective Comics, Superboy, Wonder Woman and World's Finest Comics. Plastic Man appeared in Quality Comics' Police Comics until 1950, when its focus switched to detective stories but his solo title continued bimonthly until issue 64, cover dated November 1956. Timely Comics' The Human Torch was canceled with issue #35 and Marvel Mystery Comics, featuring the Human Torch, with issue #93 became the horror comic Marvel Tales. Sub-Mariner Comics was cancelled with issue #42 and Captain America Comics, by Captain America's Weird Tales, with #75. Harvey Comics' Black Cat was cancelled in 1951 and rebooted as a horror comic that year—the title would change to Black Cat Mystery, Black Cat Mystic, Black Cat Western for the final two issues, which included Black Cat stories.
Lev Gleason Publications' Daredevil was edged out of his title by the Little Wise Guys in 1950. Fawcett Comics' Whiz Comics, Master Comics and Captain Marvel Adventure
Sheldon Moldoff was an American comics artist best known for his early work on the DC Comics characters Hawkman and Hawkgirl, as one of Bob Kane's primary "ghost artists" on the superhero Batman. He co-created the Batman supervillains Poison Ivy, Mr. Freeze, the second Clayface, Bat-Mite, as well as the original heroes Bat-Girl and Ace the Bat-Hound. Moldoff is the sole creator of the Black Pirate. Moldoff is not to be confused with fellow Golden Age comics professional Sheldon Mayer. Born in Manhattan, New York City but raised in The Bronx, he was introduced to cartooning by future comics artist Bernard Baily, who lived in the same apartment house as Moldoff. "I was drawing in chalk on the sidewalk—Popeye and Betty Boop and other popular cartoons of the day—and he came by and looked at it and said,'Hey, do you want to learn how to draw cartoons?' I said,'Yes!' He said,'Come on, I'll show you how to draw.'"Moldoff sold his first cartoon drawing at age 17. "My first work in comic books was doing filler pages for Vincent Sullivan, the editor at National Periodicals", one of the three companies, with Detective Comics Inc. and All-American Publications, that merged to form the modern-day DC Comics.
Moldoff's debut was a sports filler that appeared on the inside back cover of the landmark Action Comics #1, the comic book that introduced Superman. During the late-1930s and 1940s Golden Age of comic books, Moldoff became a prolific cover artist for the future DC Comics, his work includes the first cover of the Golden Age Green Lantern, on issue #16 of All-American's flagship title All-American Comics, featuring the debut of that character created by artist Martin Nodell. Moldoff created the character Black Pirate in Action Comics #23, became one of the earliest artists for the character Hawkman. Moldoff drew the first image of the civilian character Shiera Sanders in costume as Hawkgirl in All Star Comics #5, based on Neville's Hawkman costume design. Beginning with Flash Comics #4, Moldoff became the regular Hawkman artist, following Neville's departure from the feature the issue before, he drew the Hawkman portions of the Justice Society of America stories published in All Star Comics as well.
Moldoff recalled in 2000 that All-American publisher Max Gaines...took a shine to me.... He's the one who said,'We're going to put you on "Hawkman", do whatever you want with it. Do a good job. And, it!... But when I looked at'Hawkman' and read a couple of stories, I said to myself,'This has to be done in a Raymond style.' I could just feel it.... I saved Sunday pages and the daily papers for years!... liked my style. We were competing with the newspapers; when he picked up the Sunday papers, he saw Flash Gordon, Prince Valiant and the Pirates. When he picked up a comic book, there was a tremendous difference in the quality of the art, and all of a sudden, he saw me—an 18-year-old coming around, I'm a student of Raymond, by God, the stuff looks good—it looks like Raymond! We all leaned on these guys to learn—and we were lucky, because while we were learning, we were selling the product... I spent a lot of time on it. I wrinkles. Drafter into World War II military service in 1944, Moldoff returned to civilian life in 1946, drawing for Standard, Fawcett and Max Gaines' EC Comics.
For EC he drew Moon Girl. When superhero comics went out of fashion in the postwar era, Moldoff became an early pioneer in horror comics, packaging two such ready-to-prints titles in 1948, he recalled in 2000 that, "I had shown This Magazine Is Haunted and Tales of the Supernatural to Will Lieberson before I showed them to Bill Gaines, because I trusted Will Lieberson much more. He showed it to the big guys at Fawcett, he said,'Shelly, Fawcett doesn't want to get into horror now. Moldoff did approach Gaines with the package, signing a contract stipulating that he would be paid a royalty percentage if the books were successful. Several months when EC's Tales From the Crypt hit the newsstands, Gaines reneged on the deal, Moldoff recalled in 2000, with EC attorney Dave Alterbaum threatening to blacklist Moldoff if he took legal action. Afterward, said Moldoff, "Will Lieberson said,'Let me bring it back to Fawcett again, see if they'll take the title', and so they did. What they did was pay me $100 for the title, give me as much work as I wanted, I did the covers.
So that went on that way". Moldoff, who received no royalty there, created the cadaverous host Doctor Death. In 1953, Moldoff became one of the primary Batman ghost artists who, along with Win Mortimer and Dick Sprang, drew stories credited to Bob Kane, following Kane's style and under Kane's supervision. While Sprang ghosted as a DC employee, Moldoff, in a 1994 interview given while Kane was alive, described his own clandestine arrangement: I worked for Bob Kane as a ghost from' 53 to' 67. DC didn't know. No, he didn't pay great, but it was steady work, it was security. I knew. I was doing other work at
Man-Bat is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics as an adversary of the superhero Batman. The character made his first appearance in Detective Comics #400 and was created by Frank Robbins and Neal Adams in collaboration with editor Julius Schwartz. Man-Bat was the star of his own eponymous series in 1975–1976, which lasted two issues before being cancelled. Dr. Kirk Langstrom, a zoologist who specialized in the study of chiropterology, developed an extract intended to give humans a bat's sonar sense and tested the formula on himself; the extract worked, but it had a horrible side effect: it transformed him into a hideous man-bat hybrid. This side effect made him so distraught that it temporarily affected his sanity and he went on a mad rampage until Batman found a way to reverse the effects. Langstrom takes the concoction again and Man-Bat returns, he coaxes his wife, Francine Langstrom, into drinking the serum and she goes through the same transformation, becoming She-Bat.
Together, they terrorize Gotham City. On some occasions, Langstrom takes the serum and retains enough sanity to work for the forces of good. During one of these periods he works with the detective Jason Bard. On another occasion, in Action Comics #600, Jimmy Olsen inadvertently puts Superman into a cave occupied by Man-Bat to protect him from Kryptonite radiation that had reached Earth following the explosion of Krypton. Man-Bat calms the maddened Superman and summons Hawkman, who helps Superman overcome the radiation. Kirk and Francine have a daughter, a son, Aaron; because of the effects the serum had on Aaron's DNA, he is born with a deadly illness. Francine turns him into a young Man-Bat to save his life; this occurred in issue #3 of the Man-Bat miniseries by Chuck Dixon. Man-Bat is sighted in Alexander Luthor, Jr.'s Secret Society of Super Villains during the events of the 2005–2006 storyline Infinite Crisis. In the aftermath of that storyline, both Kirk and Francine are shown to be alive in the 2006 "One Year Later" storyline.
Talia al Ghul ties up and gags Francine, threatens to poison her if Kirk does not give her the Man-Bat formula. After Langstrom gives her the formula, she releases Francine as promised. Talia utilizes the Man-Bat to turn some generic members of the League of Assassins into Man-Bat Commandos. In Gotham Underground, Man-Bat is apprehended by the Suicide Squad, he is one of the villains seen in Salvation Run. Francine has appeared in Batman and the Outsiders, serving as the team's technical advisor, her assistant Salah Miandad operates the "blank" OMAC drone known as ReMAC. In issue #10 of that series, Kirk appeared healthy and aiding Francine. In the 2008 miniseries Final Crisis, Man-Bat has been turned into a Justifier and was shown attacking Switzerland's Checkmate Headquarters. During the 2009 "Battle for the Cowl" storyline, following Batman's apparent death, Kirk is haunted by nightmares of becoming Man-Bat and killing his wife; when Francine disappears, he tries to follow her. After an altercation with the Outsiders, he returns to his human form and is captured by Doctor Phosphorus, who reveals that the serum is not necessary to trigger the change.
Kirk discovers that Phosphorus has captured Francine and becomes Man-Bat to save her. During the 2009–2010 Blackest Night storyline, Francine tracks down Kirk, having created a cure, revealed that Kirk's next transformation would be permanent if he did not drink it. Kirk attempts to take the cure. Just as Kirk is about to drink it, Francine is wounded in the crossfire of the battle between Black Lantern Solomon Grundy and Bizarro. Distraught at Francine's injuries, Kirk transforms into Man-Bat permanently. In Batgirl vol. 3, Man-Bat is seen under the control of the Calculator as a techno-zombie. In the "Collision" storyline of Red Robin, following Red Robin's actions against Ra's al Ghul and the League of Assassins, the latter attempts to murder people related to the Bat-Family. Man-Bat, following Red Robin's orders, protects Julie Madison, a former lover of Bruce Wayne, against Ra's al Ghul's assassins. In The New 52, the majority of Kirk Langstrom's history is rebooted; the Man-Bat serum first appears in Detective Comics #18.
Ignatius Ogilvy comes into possession of the Man-Bat serum which he uses as an airborne virus to spread throughout Gotham City's "900 Block". In Detective Comics #19, Kirk Langstrom first appears where he and his wife Francine are escorted by Batwoman to Batman's location. Langstrom reveals. Taking responsibility as the creator of the serum, he uses a sample of the serum Batman had obtained to inject himself; this creates an anti-virus which spreads through the air. Langstrom is turned into a Man-Bat as his anti-virus cures the remaining citizens of Gotham. Langstrom re-appears in Batman Inc. #10 giving Batman the serum. He claims to be working on an aerosol antidote to the serum as well; the backup feature of Detective Comics # 21, focuses on his wife. He changes from the Man-Bat form into his human form and becomes addicted to the Man-Bat serum, taking it every night, he does not remember his actions from the previous night, yet worries that a string of reported killings are his fault. During the Forever Evil storyline, Man-Bat is among the villains that were recruited by the Crime Syndicate of Americ
Alfred, most named in full as Alfred Thaddeus Crane Pennyworth, is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, most in association with the superhero Batman. Pennyworth is depicted as Bruce Wayne's loyal and tireless butler, legal guardian, best friend, aide-de-camp, surrogate father figure following the murders of Thomas and Martha Wayne; as a classically trained British actor and an ex-Special Operations Executive operative of honor and ethics with connections within the intelligence community, he has been called "Batman's batman". He serves as Bruce's moral anchor while providing comic relief with his sarcastic and cynical attitude which adds humor to dialogue with Batman. A vital part of the Batman mythos, Alfred was nominated for the Wizard Fan Award for Favorite Supporting Male Character in 1994. In non-comics media, the character has been portrayed by noted actors William Austin, Eric Wilton, Michael Gough, Sir Michael Caine, Jeremy Irons on film and by Alan Napier, Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. Ian Abercrombie, David McCallum, Sean Pertwee on television.
The character first appeared by writer Don Cameron and artist Bob Kane. Evidence suggests that Alfred was created by the writers of the 1943 Batman serial—Victor McLeod, Leslie Swabacker, Harry Fraser—and that DC Comics asked Don Cameron to write the first Alfred story, published prior to the serial's release. In Alfred's first appearance, he was clean-shaven. DC editors wanted the comic Alfred to resemble his cinematic counterpart, so in Detective Comics #83, Alfred vacationed at a health resort, where he slimmed down and grew a mustache; this look has remained with the character since surviving his apparent "death" and resurrection. Alfred was conceived as a comedic foil for Batman and Robin. In most early tales, he made bungling attempts to be a detective on a par with the young masters, he was given a four-page feature of his own, the feature lasted thirteen issues, skipping Batman #35, with the last story in Batman #36. The stories followed a simple formula, with Alfred solving a crime and catching the culprits by accident.
In years, the comedic aspects of the character were downplayed. The Pre-Crisis comics established Alfred as a retired actor and intelligence agent who followed the deathbed wish of his dying father to carry on the tradition of serving the Wayne family. To that end, Alfred introduced himself to Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson at Wayne Manor and insisted on becoming their valet. Although the pair did not want one since they did not want to jeopardize their secret identities with a servant in the house, they did not have the heart to reject Alfred.. Alfred discovered their identities by accident, he is helpful to the duo, following them to a theatre where they are captured and gagged by a criminal gang, rescues them after Batman attracts his attention by knocking a rope down before the crooks return. This was revised in Batman #110; as it turned out, the wounds were insignificant, but Alfred's care convinced the residents that their butler could be trusted. Since Alfred included the support staff duties of the Dynamic Duo on top of his regular tasks.
Alfred's loyalty would lead him to become a member of Batman's rogue's gallery. While pushing Batman and Robin out of the way of a falling boulder, Alfred was killed in Detective #328, it was revealed in Detective # 356. His attempt at regeneration resulted in a dramatic change: Alfred awoke from his apparent death with pasty white skin with circular markings, superhuman powers, including telekinesis, a desire to destroy Batman and Robin. Calling himself The Outsider, he indirectly battled the Dynamic Duo on a number of occasions, using others as his puppets—the Grasshopper Gang in Detective #334, Zatanna in Detective #336, the Batmobile itself in Detective #340—and only appeared as a mocking voice over the radio, he did not physically appear in the comics until Detective #356, when he is bathed again in the rays of the regeneration machine during a struggle with Batman, returns to normal, with no memory of his time as a supervillain. His time as the Outsider is collected in Showcase Presents: Batman Volumes 1 and 2.
Alfred was reunited with his long-lost daughter, Julia Remarque, though this element was not included in Post-Crisis comics. Her mother was the DC war heroine Mademoiselle Marie, whom Alfred had met while working as an intelligence agent in occupied France during World War II
Batman and the Monster Men
Batman and the Monster Men is an American comic book limited series written and drawn by Matt Wagner with colors by Dave Stewart, published by DC Comics in 2006 and starring the superhero Batman. It, along with its sequel Batman and the Mad Monk, are set in between the events of Batman: Year One and Batman: The Man Who Laughs, it is the first part of Matt Wagner's two-part Dark Moon Rising series, which are expanded and modernized versions of early Batman stories. Batman and the Monster Men is developed from an early Hugo Strange story from Batman #1. In Wagner's version, this is Batman's first encounter with Strange; the story depicts a optimistic Batman shortly after the events of Batman: Year One. Julie Madison Bruce Wayne's love interest in early comics, is reintroduced in this series. Madison had not been seen as a regular supporting cast member since 1941, in Detective Comics #49. Batman and the Monster Men gives a retroactive role to Sal Maroni, a character tied to the character Two-Face, as a crime boss funding Hugo Strange's experiments on Arkham Asylum patients.
This story is intended to depict the first time Hugo Strange is involved in creating violent giants out of human patients. This story and its sequel and the Mad Monk take place in between Batman: Year One and Batman: The Man Who Laughs. Jim Gordon has been promoted to Captain and Edward Grogan has just replaced the corrupt, mob-affiliated Gillian "Gil" Loeb as Police Commissioner. One of Batman's early encounters with a villain known as "the Red Hood" occurs some time shortly before this story begins, indicated by the fact that a newspaper headline depicted on the opening page reads: "Red Hood Gone? Eyewitnesses claim mystery thief falls to doom after Ace Chemical heist attempt foiled by run-in with vigilante Bat-Man"; the incident at Ace Chemical, depicted as flashbacks in Batman: The Killing Joke, transformed the Red Hood into the Joker, who makes his first appearance in The Man Who Laughs. Instead of being an actress as in her Golden Age incarnation, Julie is a freshly graduated law student.
Jim Gordon is shown to still be married to his first wife, Barbara Kean-Gordon, who leaves him shortly after the events of Batman: The Long Halloween and returns to him in Batman: Dark Victory
Red Robin (comics)
Red Robin is a name, used by several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. In current DC Comics continuity, Red Robin is Tim Drake. Tim Drake was the third Robin before assuming the Red Robin persona. In the future timeline of the 1996 miniseries Kingdom Come, a middle-aged Dick Grayson reclaims the Robin mantle and becomes Red Robin, his uniform is closer to Batman's in design than any previous Robin uniform. Red Robin reappeared in promotional material for the DC Countdown event. During the "Scattered Pieces" tie-in to the Batman R. I. P. Storyline Ulysses Armstrong appears as Red Robin. In 2009, a new ongoing series was introduced titled Red Robin. In Kingdom Come, a middle-aged Dick Grayson reclaims the Robin mantle and becomes Red Robin, not at the side of his former mentor Batman, but rather with Superman's League, his uniform is closer to Batman's in design than any previous Robin uniform. Age has not slowed him down, as he possesses all of his fighting skills.
In this story, he has a daughter with Starfire. At the end of the comic and the novel and Dick had reconciled. In Countdown to Final Crisis #17, Jason dons the outfit in the "Bat Bunker" as he and Earth-51 Batman join the fight raging on the Earth above the bunker. Jason keeps his new suit and identity for the rest of his tenure as a "Challenger of the Unknown", only to discard it on his return to New Earth and revert to his "Red Hood" street clothing. At the start of Countdown, Jason Todd resumes the persona of the Red Hood and rescues a woman from Duela Dent. After a Monitor shoots and kills Duela, he attempts to kill Jason, but is stopped by a second Monitor; this second Monitor apologizes to Jason before they both disappear, leaving Jason alone with Duela's body. At Duela's funeral, Jason hides until all of the Teen Titans have left except Donna Troy. Jason tells her what happened the night of Duela's death, about the dueling Monitors, he knows that both he and Donna Troy have come back from the dead, wonders which of them is next on the Monitor's hit list.
The two are attacked by the Forerunner, but before she can kill them, the apologetic Monitor stops her, recruits Jason and Donna for a mission to the Palmerverse, in an attempt to find Palmer. During the trip, Jason takes it upon himself to name the Monitor "Bob". Jason seems to have a romantic interest in Donna, is shown to be visibly disgruntled when her old boyfriend, Kyle Rayner, joins their group as they take their tour to the 52 Earths which comprise the Multiverse. A teaser image released to promote Countdown showed a figure resembling Red Robin among assembled heroes in poses symbolic of their roles in the series. After a series of contradictory statements about this figure, executive editor Dan DiDio stated in the July 2007 DC Nation column that the figure is Jason Todd; the Red Robin costume designed by Alex Ross for the 1996 Kingdom Come limited series and worn by Dick Grayson, is seen in Countdown to Final Crisis #16 in the Earth-51 Batman's base of operations. In issue # 14, Jason goes into battle alongside Earth-51's Batman.
During a battle with a group of Monarch's soldiers, Earth-51 Batman is killed by the Ultraman of Earth-3 affecting Jason. In his grief, Jason murders an alternate version of the Joker who mocks his loss, vacating alongside Donna and Kyle to the planet Apokolips before Earth-51's destruction. After the group is sent back to Earth, Jason leaves the group and returns to his crimefighting ways; when the Morticoccus virus is released from Karate Kid's body, Jason is forcibly brought back to the group by Kyle, much to his dismay. When the Challengers return to the true Earth, Jason disposes of his Red Robin costume and abandons the rest of the group, though they go on to declare to the monitors that they are now the monitors of the Monitors. During the Scattered Pieces tie-in to the Batman R. I. P. Storyline, a new Red Robin appears, at first only as a glimmering image following Robin and suspected to have stolen a briefcase of money from the Penguin. Tim suspects Jason Todd of reprising his Red Robin persona.
However, Jason claims innocence, supposing that someone may have stolen his suit when he discarded it earlier. The new Red Robin breaks up a scuffle between Tim and Jason, is revealed to be Ulysses Armstrong, he has come into possession of the Red Robin costume worn by Jason Todd, uses it as part of a campaign of psychological warfare against Tim Drake. More formidable than he is revealed to be holding Lonnie Machin, a former vigilante, hostage and to have commandeered the latter's identity as "Anarky". Where Machin's approach as Anarky had been to cause social change, Armstrong's approach bordered more on psychotic and meaningless acts of chaos and destruction. Armstrong changes costumes when he reveals himself to be the new Anarky, after being burned in an explosion, an embattled Tim Drake dons the less-revealing Red Robin costume to hide his wounds. After Dick Grayson takes up the mantle of Batman, he gives the title of Robin to Damian Wayne, claiming that Robin is a student of Batman and that he sees Tim as an equal.
Tim begrudgingly accepts. Tim goes on to tell Spoiler, he is now the new Red Robin—an identi
Paparazzi are independent photographers who take pictures of high-profile people, such as athletes, entertainers and other celebrities while subjects go about their usual life routines. Paparazzi tend to make a living by selling their photographs to media outlets focusing on tabloid journalism and sensationalism. Paparazzi tend to be independent contractors, unaffiliated with mainstream media organizations, photos taken are done so by taking advantage of opportunities when they have sightings of high-profile people they are tracking; some experts have described the behavior of paparazzi as synonymous with stalking, anti-stalking bills in many countries address the issue by reducing harassment of public figures and celebrities with their children. Some public figures and celebrities have expressed concern at the extent to which paparazzi go to invade their personal space; the filing and receiving of judicial support for restraining orders against paparazzi has increased, as have lawsuits with judgments against them.
Walter Santesso portrays Paparazzo in the 1960 film La Dolce Vita, marking the character as the eponym of the word paparazzi. Paparazzo Derek Shook's work has appeared online and in publications like Star Magazine, Us Weekly, National Enquirer, People Magazine and Style, Rolling Stone Magazine, The Globe, Hello Magazine, Daily Mail, Vogue, he was interviewed for the movie Supermensch: The Legend of Shep Gordon. Ron Galella is most known for suing Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis after the former First Lady ordered her Secret Service agents to destroy Galella’s camera and film following an encounter in New York City's Central Park in the early 1970s. A news photographer named. In his book Word and Phrase, Robert Hendrickson writes that Fellini took the name from an Italian dialect word that describes a annoying noise, that of a buzzing mosquito; as Fellini said in his interview to Time magazine, "Paparazzo... suggests to me a buzzing insect, darting, stinging." Those versions of the word's origin are sometimes contested.
For example, in the Abruzzo dialect spoken by Ennio Flaiano, co-scriptwriter of La Dolce Vita, the term paparazzo refers to the local clam, Venerupis decussata, is used as a metaphor for the shutter of a camera lens. Further, in an interview with Fellini's screenwriter Flaiano, he said the name came from the book Sulla riva dello Jonio, a translation by Italian poet Margherita Guidacci of By the Ionian Sea, a 1901 travel narrative in southern Italy by Victorian writer George Gissing, he further states that either Fellini or Flaiano opened the book at random, saw the name of a restaurant owner, Coriolano Paparazzo, decided to use it for the photographer. This story is further documented by a variety of Gissing scholars and in the book A Sweet and Glorious Land. Revisiting the Ionian Sea. By the late 1960s, the word in the Italian plural form paparazzi, had entered English as a generic term for intrusive photographers. A person, photographed by the paparazzi is said to have been "papped". A transliteration of paparazzi is used in several languages that do not use the Latin alphabet, including Japanese, Ukrainian, Russian and Hebrew.
Chinese uses 狗仔隊, meaning "puppy squad". Khmer uses អ្នកប្រមាញ់រូប. Due to the reputation of paparazzi as a nuisance, several states and countries restrict their activities by passing laws and curfews, by staging events in which paparazzi are not allowed to take photographs. In the United States, celebrity news organizations are protected by the First Amendment. To protect the children of celebrities, California passed a new bill in September 2013; the purpose of the bill is to stop paparazzi from taking pictures of children in a harassing manner, regardless of who their parents are. This law increased the penalty on the penalty for harassment of children. In 1972, paparazzo photographer Ron Galella sued Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis after the former First Lady ordered her Secret Service agents to destroy Galella's camera and film following an encounter in New York City's Central Park. Kennedy counter-sued claiming harassment; the trial lasted three weeks and became a groundbreaking case regarding photojournalism and the role of paparazzi.
In Galella v. Onassis, Kennedy obtained a restraining order to keep Galella 150 feet away from her and her children; the restriction was dropped to 25 feet. The trial is a focal point in a 2010 documentary film by director Leon Gast. In 1997, Princess of Wales and Dodi Fayed were killed in a limousine crash as their driver was speeding, trying to escape paparazzi. An inquest jury investigated the involvement of paparazzi in the incident, although several paparazzi were taken into custody, no one was convicted; the official inquests into the accident attributed the causes to the speed and manner of driving of the Mercedes, as well as the following vehicles, the impairment of the judgment of the Mercedes driver, Henri Paul, through alcohol. In 1999, the Oriental Daily News of Hong Kong was found guilty of "scandalizing the court", an rare law that the newspaper's conduct would undermine confidence in the administration of justice; the charge was brought after the newspaper had published abusive articles challenging the judiciary's integrity and accusing it of bias in a lawsuit the p