Ernesto Sanz is an Argentine Radical Civic Union politician. He served in the Argentine Senate representing Mendoza Province. Sanz was born in Mendoza, he enrolled at the National University of the Littoral, earned a law degree in 1981. Sanz married Cristina Bessone, the couple had two children. Following the return of democracy in 1983, he became an adviser to the Governor of Mendoza, Santiago Llaver, he taught at the National University of Cuyo Law School from 1984 to 1986, maintained a private practice. He was elected to the UCR Youth Chapter's National Committee in 1987, as President of the San Rafael Department chapter of the UCR in 1991, he served as a provincial senator from 1993, acting as President of the UCR caucus from 1995, in 1999 became mayor of San Rafael. Sanz was elected Senator for Mendoza in 2003, he joined the Senate Budget and Domestic Economic Policy committees, the Constitutional, Argentina-Chile relations, Federal Budget Sharing committees, among others. He was elected ranking member of the Budget Committee, in 2007, leader of the UCR Senate caucus.
Sanz ran for Vice-Governor with Roberto Iglesias in 2007. Sanz suffered an automobile accident in March 2008 while driving along the Atuel River in Mendoza. Sanz was reelected to the Senate in a landslide in 2009, in December was elected President of the UCR National Committee, he announced his candidacy on March 2, 2011, for the UCR presidential primary scheduled for April 30. His chief opponent, Congressman Ricardo Alfonsín, was described by Sanz as "an appeal to nostalgia". Sanz withdrew shortly before the April 28 primary and Alfonsín himself placed third in the 2011 general election; the UCR organized the Broad Front UNEN political coalition, but it stayed behind in the opinion polls for the 2015 elections. The party was divided in three main proposals: ally with Mauricio Macri, with Sergio Massa, or stay in UNEN. Sanz supported the first option, prevailed in a convention of the party; the UCR joined Macri's Republican Proposal to create the Cambiemos coalition. Macri and Elisa Carrió ran for the coalition's primary election, won by Macri.
Macri won the presidential elections afterwards. It was rumored that Sanz would be the minister of Justice in Macri's cabinet, but he retired from politics for personal reasons. Official Website Official Blog
Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers
The Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers is a political office of Argentina, akin to a prime minister, created by the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution. The current office holder is Marcos Peña; the attributions of the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers are established by the articles 100 and 101 of the Constitution of Argentina. Most of his duties are related to organize the work of the other Ministers, or to its intermediary role between the Executive Power and the Argentine National Congress. To detail in full the powers and duties of the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers of Argentina under Articles 100 and 101 of the Constitution to quote: "Second Part: Authorities of the Nation Chapter IV The Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet and other Ministers of the Executive Power Section 100.- The Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet and the other secretary ministers, whose number and powers shall be determined by a special law, shall be in charge of the business of the Nation and shall countersign and legalize the acts of the President with their signatures, without which said acts are void.
The Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet, politically liable before the National Congress, is empowered: 1.- To exercise the general administration of the country. 2.- To perform the acts and issue the rules necessary to exercise the powers granted by this section as well as those delegated by the President of the Nation, being countersigned by the pertinent secretary minister to which the act or rule refers. 3.- To appoint the employees of the Administration, except for those pertaining to the President. 4.- To exercise the functions and powers delegated to him by the President of the Nation and, with the consent of the Cabinet, to decide about matters that the Executive Power may indicate to him or, on his own account, about those he deems it necessary due to their importance, within the scope of his jurisdiction. 5.- To coordinate and convoke the meetings of the ministerial cabinet, presiding at them in the absence of the President. 6.- To submit to Congress the bills on Ministries and National Budget, with the prior consent of the Cabinet and the approval of the Executive Power.
7.- To have the revenues of the Nation collected and to enforce the National Budget Act. 8.- To countersign regulatory decrees of the laws, decrees to extend the ordinary legislative session of Congress or to convoke to an extraordinary one, the messages of the President supporting legislative initiatives. - To attend the meetings of Congress and take part in its debates. 10.- Once the ordinary legislative session of Congress has begun, to submit together with the other ministers a detailed report on the state of the Nation regarding the business of the respective departments. 11.- To give such oral and written reports and explanations that either of the Houses may request from the Executive Power. 12.- To countersign decrees about powers delegated by Congress, which shall be under the control of the Joint Standing Committee. 13.- To countersign, together with the other ministers, decrees of necessity and urgency and decrees on partial promulgation of laws. Within ten days of their approval, he shall submit these decrees to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee.
The Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet shall not be appointed to another ministry. Section 101.- The Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet shall attend Congress at least once a month, alternating between each House, to report on the progress of the government, notwithstanding the provisions of Section 71. He may be interpellated for the purpose of considering a vote of censure, by the vote of the absolute majority of all the members of either House, he may be removed by the vote of the absolute majority of the members of each House." "Congreso de la Nación Argentina". Congreso.gob.ar. Retrieved 27 October 2018
Clarín (Argentine newspaper)
Clarín is the largest newspaper in Argentina, published by the Grupo Clarín media group. It was founded by Roberto Noble on 28 August 1945 in Buenos Aires, its director since 1969 was Ernestina Herrera de Noble. Clarín is part of Periódicos Asociados Latinoamericanos, an organization of fourteen leading newspapers in South America. Clarín was created by Roberto Noble, former minister of the Buenos Aires Province, on 28 August 1945, it was one of the first Argentine newspapers published in tabloid format. It became the highest sold Argentine newspaper in 1965, the highest sold Spanish-speaking newspaper in 1985, it was the first Argentine newspaper to sell a magazine with the Sunday edition, since 1967. In 1969, the news were split into several supplements by topic. In 1976, high colour printing was benefited by the creation of AGR. For many years the Argentine author Horacio Estol was the New York correspondent of Clarin, writing about aspects of US life of interest to Argentines. Roberto Noble died in 1969, his widow Ernestina Herrera de Noble succeeded him as director.
The newspaper bought Papel Prensa in 1977, together with La Razón. In 1982, it joined a group of 20 other newspapers to create the "Diarios y Noticias" informative agency; the Sunday magazine was renamed in 1994 to a name that would last up to modern day. The newspaper started a media conglomerate in 1999 after a law reformation which allows it to collect many different media supports, that would be named after the newspaper, Grupo Clarín; this conglomerate would operate in radio, Internet, other newspapers and other areas beyond Clarín itself. On 27 December 1999, The Clarín Group and Goldman Sachs, an American investment firm, subscribed an investment agreement where the consortium, managed by Goldman Sachs, made a direct investment in Clarín Group; the operation implied an increase of capital to the Clarin Group and the incorporation of Goldman Sachs as minority partner, with a participation of 18% of the stocks. Clarín launched clarin.com, the website for the newspaper, in March 1996. The site served nearly 6 million unique visitors daily in Argentina in April 2011, making it the fifth most visited website in the country that month and the most visited of any website based in Argentina itself.
There was a conflict between the government of Fernández de Kirchner and the Clarín Group from 2008 until 2015 over a variety of issues. The Clarín Group is the biggest media holding in Argentina, not only publishes the Clarín newspaper but owns the country major cable operator Cablevisión, a major commercial broadcast television Canal 13, a number of cable networks, hundreds of radio licenses. Clarín prints and distributes around 330,000 copies throughout the country, but by 2012, circulation had declined to 270,444 copies and Clarín accounted for nearly 21 percent of Argentine newspaper market, compared to 35 percent in 1983. Clarín has a 44 percent market share in Buenos Aires. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Clarín's website is the 10th and 14th most visited in Argentina as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 3rd most visited news website in Argentina, attracting 32 million visitors per month. Clarín Awards clarín.com Grupo Clarin The Holding Clarín's Profile Info America El Trece Gran DT
Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003. Ideologically a Peronist and social democrat, he served as President of the Justicialist Party from 2008 to 2010, with his political approach being characterised as Kirchnerism. Born in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Kirchner studied law at the National University of La Plata, he met and married Cristina Fernández at this time, returned with her to Río Gallegos at graduation, opened a law firm. Commentators have criticized him for a lack of legal activism during the Dirty War, an issue he would involve himself in as president. Kirchner ran for mayor of Río Gallegos in 1987 and for governor of Santa Cruz in 1991, he was reelected governor in 1999 due to an amendment of the provincial constitution. Kirchner sided with Buenos Aires provincial governor Eduardo Duhalde against President Carlos Menem. Although Duhalde lost the 1999 presidential election, he was appointed president by the Congress when previous presidents Fernando de la Rúa and Adolfo Rodríguez Saá resigned during the December 2001 riots.
Duhalde suggested that Kirchner run for president in 2003 in a bid to prevent Menem's return to the presidency. Menem won a plurality in the first round of the presidential election but, fearing that he would lose in the required runoff election, he resigned. Kirchner took office on 25 May 2003. Roberto Lavagna, credited with the economic recovery during Duhalde's presidency, was retained as minister of economy and continued his economic policies. Argentina repaid the International Monetary Fund; the National Institute of Statistics and Census intervened to underestimate growing inflation. Several Supreme Court judges resigned while fearing impeachment, new justices were appointed; the amnesty for crimes committed during the Dirty War in enforcing the full-stop and due-obedience laws and the presidential pardons were repealed and declared unconstitutional. This led to new trials for the military. Argentina increased its integration with other Latin American countries, discontinuing its automatic alignment with the United States dating to the 1990s.
The 2005 midterm elections were a victory for Kirchner, signaled the end of Duhalde's supremacy in Buenos Aires Province. Instead of seeking reelection, Kirchner stepped aside in 2007 in support of his wife, Cristina Fernández, elected president, he participated in the unsuccessful Operation Emmanuel to release FARC hostages, was narrowly defeated in the 2009 midterm election for deputy of Buenos Aires Province. Kirchner was appointed Secretary General of UNASUR in 2010, he and his wife were involved in the 2013 political scandal known as the Route of the K-Money. Kirchner died of cardiac arrest on 27 October 2010, received a state funeral. Kirchner was born Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. on 25 February 1950, in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, a federal territory at the time. His father, Néstor Carlos Kirchner Sr. met the Chilean María Juana Ostoić by telegraphy. They had three children: Néstor and María Cristina. Néstor was part of the third generation of Kirchners living in the city; as a result of pertussis, he developed strabismus at an early age.
When Kirchner was in high school he considered becoming a teacher, but poor diction hampered him. Kirchner moved to La Plata in 1969 to study law at the National University. During this period, the decline of the Argentine Revolution, the return of former president Juan Perón from exile, the election of Héctor Cámpora as president, his resignation and the election of Perón, the beginning of the Dirty War had led to severe political turmoil. Kirchner joined the University Federation for the National Revolution, a political student group whose relationship with the Montoneros guerrillas is a matter of debate. Kirchner was not a leader of the group, he was present at the Ezeiza massacre, in which right-wing Peronist snipers opened fire on a celebration of Juan Perón's return at the Ezeiza International Airport. He was present at the expulsion of Montoneros from Plaza de Mayo. Although Kirchner met many members of the Montoneros, he was not a member of the group. By the time the Montoneros were outlawed by Perón, he had left FURN.
In 1974 Kirchner met Cristina Fernández, three years his junior, they fell in love. They were married after a courtship limited to six months by the political turmoil in the country. At the civil ceremony, Kirchner's friends sang the Peronist song "Los Muchachos Peronistas", he graduated a year returned to Patagonia with Cristina, established a law firm with fellow attorney Domingo Ortiz de Zarate. Cristina joined the firm in 1979. By the time of Kirchner's graduation and move to the Patagonia, Juan Perón had died, his vice president and wife Isabel Martínez de Perón had become president. Isabel Perón had been unseated by a coup d'état; the Kirchners worked for banks and financial groups which filed foreclosures, since the Central Bank's 1050 ruling had raised mortgage loan interest rates. And acquired 21 real-estate lots for a low price when they were about to be auctioned, their law firm defended. Forced disappearances were common during the Dirty War, but unlike other lawyers of the time the Kirchners never signed a habeas corpus.
Julio César Strassera, prosecutor in the
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
National Technological University
The National Technological University is a country-wide national university in Argentina, considered to be among the top engineering schools in the country. Hosting over 75,000 students, its student body is comparable to Argentina's third-largest university and exceeded only by the University of Buenos Aires, it has 29 semi-independent branches of various sizes located all over the country. The engineering programs taught at most of those locations are: Aeronautical Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Electronic Engineering Industrial Engineering Information Systems Engineering Mechanical EngineeringIt is the only national university in the country with a focus on engineering. Many of the available programs have an intermediate diploma as well after completing up to the 3rd or 4th year; the university offers a broad range of degrees at tertiary and postgraduate level, including those of Specialist and Doctorate in Engineering. Due to its federalized approach, it is the only university with campuses across the country, graduating 50% of the new engineers in Argentina.
Research and Development is conducted in 18 official centers. Some of the areas these centers specialize in are: Chemical Engineering, Information Technology, Energy research, Environmental Science, Robotics and Construction Engineering; as it is for most universities in Argentina, the only enrollment requirements are a secondary education degree and passing the university's entrance exam. Because of the low acceptance rate, it is common for applicants to take preparation courses given by either specialized private institutions, or by the university itself. In order to get in the latter, the applicant is required to have a GPA of 8.5/10 or more in his/her final year of secondary education. The students must declare the specialization of engineering they want to study at the moment of enrolling. If they wish to change it after their studies had begun, they have to take lectures in the specialized subjects. Only the foundational subjects are equivalent between degrees. After completing a five to six years program students earn an Engineer's degree, or Título de Ingeniero in Spanish.
This is a professional degree with legal backing, enabling its graduates to perform any work in their chosen fields. All the programs include the same engineering foundational courses in Calculus, Algebra, Analytical Geometry, Statistics, Technical Drawing, Engineering in Society and Law; because of the length, rigid structure and declaration of intent when enrolling, the degrees are not equivalent to a Bachelor's degree. But the objectives and professional orientation of the courses are similar to the Master of Engineering and it enables graduates to apply for a PhD in Engineering or related disciplines; some programs give students the option of getting an Intermediate Engineering Degree in their chosen fields after finishing the third or fourth year and completing an approved final project. The exact name of the IED varies depending on the field, for example the IED for the Chemical Engineer program is called University Chemical Technician, while the IED for Information Systems Engineer is University Systems Analyst.
The curriculum has been going through a modernization focused on analytic programs, some careers have passed through a certification process ordered by the government agency CONEAU. The stated goal of this process is to start adapting the current model in accordance with the Bologna process; the National Technological University was established as the National Workers' University by Law 13229, signed by President Juan Perón on August 19, 1948. It was created to cover the lack of technical specialists in the country at that time; the degree granted was that of Factory Engineer in many specialties. The university evolved rapidly; the necessity of professionals with a deeper knowledge was accomplished by big academic and organizational changes. By 1954 the University had 9 branches in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario, Santa Fe, Bahía Blanca, La Plata, Tucumán and Avellaneda. On October 14, 1959, the university was renamed as the National Technological University by law 14855; this marked the official beginning of the university.
Since more than 30,000 degrees in engineering have been granted. Today, the university maintains a strong network of international cooperation, over 75 overseas institutions have signed cooperation agreements with the UTN. Avellaneda Regional Faculty Official website Bahía Blanca Regional Faculty Official website Buenos Aires Regional Faculty Official website Chubut Regional Faculty Concepción del Uruguay Regional Faculty Official website Concordia Regional Faculty Córdoba Regional Faculty Official website Delta Regional Faculty Official website General Pacheco Regional Faculty Official website Haedo Regional Faculty Official website La Plata Regional Faculty Official website La Rioja Regional Faculty Mendoza Regional Faculty Official website Neuquén Regional Faculty Paraná Regional Faculty Official website Rafaela Regional Faculty Reconquista Regional Faculty Resistencia Regional Faculty Official website Río Grande Regional Faculty Rosario Regional Faculty Official website San Francisco Regional Faculty San Nicolás Regional Fa
Amado Boudou is an Argentine businessman and politician who served as the Vice President of Argentina from 2011 to 2015. He was Minister of the Economy from 2009 to 2011. In August 2018, following a lengthy investigation, he was convicted of corruption, he was sentenced to five years and ten months in prison, banned for life from holding public office. Amado Boudou was born in Buenos Aires, in 1962, his father named Amado, was born to a French immigrant from Aveyron named Aimé, this became a nickname for both. He was raised in the ocean-front city of Mar del Plata and enrolled in the National University of Mar del Plata, where he received a degree in economics, in 1986. Boudou attended graduate courses in economics and was awarded a master's degree in economics by a private institution, the Argentine Macroeconomic Studies Center, well-known locally for its support of neo-liberal and free market policies. Boudou was brought in as a salesman by Venturino Ehisur S. A.. Following his role in securing a number of lucrative hospital contracts for the company, he was named general manager in 1992 of their government contracts office.
The company closed, when one of its top municipal clients terminated the contract in 1995. He co-founded Ecoplata S. A. another sanitation services firm, acted as its project manager. He married Daniela Andriuolo in 1993. Boudou entered public service in 1998, when he was named to the Comptroller's Office of the National Social Security Administration by Economy Minister Roque Fernández, in February 2001, he was named that office's general manager; the election of Justicialist Party candidate Juan Pablo de Jesús as Mayor of the sea-side La Costa District resulted in Boudou's appointment as Finance Secretary for the popular resort district, which the policy maker accepted. The Finance Secretary subscribed to the 2005 Federal Housing Plan promulgated by President Néstor Kirchner, a decision which made La Costa eligible for 486 low-income housing units; the contract, awarded to local builder Cantera FC in May 2005 for nearly US$10 million, was followed by Boudou's return to the ANSES, in January 2006.
The Cantera FC contract resulted in an administrative debacle, when the builder abandoned the works in June 2007, having by received over US$7 million in payments. Returned to the ANSES by its Director, Sergio Massa, Boudou was named its Financial Director, oversaw the voluntary conversion of several million private pension accounts to the ANSES' aegis when this choice was made available in December 2006, he was appointed its Director in October 2008, after Massa's promotion to the powerful post of Presidential Cabinet Chief. Boudou's appointment coincided with President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's controversial decision to transfer loss-plagued private pension funds' assets of nearly US$30 billion to the ANSES, citing the cost of subsidizing 77% of the funds' beneficiaries and the effects of the international crisis on the government's ability to obtain financing. Following the ruling Front for Victory's defeat in the June 2009 mid-term elections, Economy Minister Carlos Rafael Fernández tendered his resignation to the President, effective 7 July, was replaced by the ANSES Director.
Fallout from the international, 2008 financial crisis forced the left-wing Argentine government of President Cristina Kirchner to seek domestic financing for growing public spending, as well as for foreign debt service obligations. These policies and ongoing capital flight put further pressure on the Central Bank's ability to finance debt service obligations, the president ordered a US$6.7 billion account opened at the Central Bank for the latter purpose in December 2009, implying the use of the Central Bank's foreign exchange reserves, drawing direct opposition from the institution's President, Martín Redrado. Boudou presented a debt swap package on 3 May 2010, for the holders of over US$18 billion in bonds who did not participate in the 2005 Argentine debt restructuring prepared by former Economy Minister Roberto Lavagna; these holdouts include numerous vulture funds which had eschewed the 2005 offer, had instead resorted to the courts in a bid for higher returns on their defaulted bonds.
These disputes had led to a number of liens against central bank accounts in New York and, indirectly, to reduced Argentine access to international credit markets. In October 2010 Boudou compared Candelaria de la Sota and Martín Kanenguiser, journalists from Clarín and La Nación, with the people cleaning the gas chambers during the Holocaust. Kanenguiser requested clarification, his attack was condemned by the FOPEA, members of the legislature, the DAIA. The DAIA accused him of trivializing the holocaust, Congressman Eduardo Amadeo demanded his resignation; the Economy Minister announced his bid for the office of Mayor of Buenos Aires in December 2010 as a candidate in the Front for Victory primaries ahead of the 2011 race.