Fujiwara no Kamatari
Fujiwara no Kamatari was a Japanese statesman and politician during the Asuka period. Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan and became the founder of the Fujiwara clan and he, along with the Mononobe clan, was a supporter of Shinto and fought the introduction of Buddhism to Japan. The Soga clan, defenders of Buddhism in the Asuka period, defeated Kamatari, along with Prince Naka no Ōe, Emperor Tenji, launched the Taika Reform of 645, which centralized and strengthened the central government. Just before his death he received the honorific of Taishōkan and the surname Fujiwara from the Emperor Tenji and he was born to the Nakatomi clan, was the son of Nakatomi no Mikeko, and named Nakatomi no Kamatari at birth. He was a friend and supporter of the Prince Naka no Ōe, Emperor Tenji. Kamatari was the head of the Jingi no Haku, or Shinto ritualists, as such, he was one of the opponents of the increasing power and prevalence of Buddhism in the court. As a result, in 645, Prince Naka no Ōe and they slew Soga no Iruka who had a strong influence over Empress Kōgyoku, Irukas father, Soga no Emishi, committed suicide.
Empress Kōgyoku was forced to abdicate in favor of her younger brother, Kamatari was a leader in the development of what became known as the Taika Reforms, a major set of reforms based on Chinese models and aimed at strengthening Imperial power. During his life Kamatari continued to support Prince Naka no Ōe, Tenji granted him the highest rank Taishōkan and a new clan name, Fujiwara, as honors. His son was Fujiwara no Fuhito, Kamataris nephew, Nakatomi no Omimaro became head of Ise Shrine, and passed down the Nakatomi name. In the 13th century, the line of the Fujiwara family split into five houses, Takatsukasa. These five families in turn provided regents for the Emperors, and were known as the Five Regent Houses. The Tachibana clan claimed descent from the Fujiwara, Emperor Montoku of the Taira clan was descended through his mother to the Fujiwara. Until the marriage of the Crown Prince Hirohito to Princess Kuni Nagako in January 1924, Imperial princesses were often married to Fujiwara lords - throughout a millennium at least.
Empress Shōken was a descendant of the Fujiwara clan and through Hosokawa Gracia of the Minamoto clan, likewise a daughter of the last Tokugawa Shogun married a second cousin of Emperor Shōwa. Among Kamataris descendants are Fumimaro Konoe the 34th/38th/39th Prime Minister of Japan, tōshi Kaden, a bibliographic record Brinkley and Dairoku Kikuchi. A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era, OCLC413099 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5, OCLC58053128 Titsingh, nihon Odai Ichiran, ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Baiae was a mineral springs and coastal resort on the northwest shore of the Gulf of Naples in ancient Italy. It was fashionable for centuries during antiquity, particularly towards the end of the Roman Republic, when it was reckoned as superior to Pompeii, Herculaneum and it was notorious for its hedonistic offerings and the attendant rumors of corruption and scandal. It formed part of Port Julius, the base of the fleet of the Imperial Roman Navy. It was deserted and its ruins largely submerged by volcanic activity by the time of the Renaissance. What is left of Baia is now a frazione of the comune of Bacoli in the Campania region of Italy, Baiae was said to have been named after Baius, the helmsman of Odysseuss ship in Homers Odyssey, who was supposedly buried nearby. The adjacent Baian Gulf was named after the town and it now forms the western part of the Gulf of Pozzuoli. The settlement was mentioned in 178 BC under the name Aquae Cumanae. Baiae was built on the Cumaean Peninsula in the Phlegraean Fields and it perhaps originally developed as the port for Cumae.
The bathhouses of Baiae were filled with mineral water directed to its pools from underground sulfur springs. Roman engineers were able to construct a complex system of chambers that channeled underground heat into facilities that acted as saunas. In addition to their function, the baths were used in Roman medicine to treat various illnesses. Baiae was particularly fashionable towards the end of the Roman Republic, marius and Pompey all frequented it. Julius Caesar had a villa there, and much of the town became imperial property under Augustus, with its large swimming pools and domed casino, it continued to be a getaway for the elite. Nero had a villa constructed in the middle of the 1st century. It was a spot of the emperor Septimius Severus. Caligula ordered a 3-mile-long pontoon bridge to be built from impounded ships of the area, fastened together and weighted with sand, clad in a gold cloak, he crossed it upon a horse. Cassius Dios Roman History includes the event, with the detail that the emperor ordered resting places and lodging rooms with potable water erected at intervals along the bridge.
As late as the 18th century, scattered fragments were still being shown to tourists as the Bridge of Caligula. ”Baiae was notorious for the lifestyle of its residents and guests
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility, Pompeys immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a commander in Sullas Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs, after the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, when Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Romes subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire, Pompeys family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC.
Pompeys father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was an equestrian from Picenum. He fought the Social War against Romes Italian allies and he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sullas first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic and his twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his fathers command, and had participated in the part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey was put on due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey could be held to account and he discovered that this was committed by one of his fathers freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla, Cassius Dio added that Pompey had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis.
He reached the Maeotis and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus and he had his son Machares, who ruled it and gone over to the Romans and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey set up a colony for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia, in Plutarchs account Pompey was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son, who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns, when they got close Artaxata Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. Pompey offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Cilicia, Galatia and he demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of Sophene
The Isshi Incident or the Incident of 645, takes its name from the zodiological name of the year 645 during which a transformative event in the history of the Japanese Imperial history occurred. The assassination of Iruka took place on July 10,645, when it became clear that the four men were too frightened to carry out the orders, Naka no Ōe rushed Iruka himself and cut open his head and shoulder. Iruka was not killed immediately, but protested his innocence and pleaded for an investigation, prince Naka no Ōe pleaded his case before Empress Kōgyoku, and when she retired to consider the matter, the four guards finally rushed Iruka again and completed the killing. Shortly afterwards, Irukas father Soga no Emishi killed himself by setting fire to his residence, later, he is said to have presented it to Naka no Ōe, but no known extant copies of the work remain. The violence actually unfolded in Kōgyokus presence, the Empress responded to this shock by determining to renounce the throne. Japanese society during the Asuka period was sensitive to issues of pollution, Furuhito no Ōe resolved the impasse by declaring his intention to renounce any claim to the throne by taking the tonsure of a Buddhist monk.
That same day—traditionally said to be July 12,645, Furuhito no Ōe shaved off his hair at Hōkō-ji, at this point, Kōgyoku did abdicate in favor of her brother who shortly thereafter acceded to the throne as Emperor Kōtoku. After Kōtokus death Kōgyoku took the throne once more as Saimei, Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D.697. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds, ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. OCLC194887 Sakamoto, Tarō, Ienaga Saburō, Inoue Mitsusada, Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei, Nihon Shoki. ISBN 978-4-00-080111-9 Titsingh, Isaac, ed. Nipon o daï itsi ran, ou, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Varley, H. Paul, ed. Jinnō Shōtōki
Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC)
The Battle of Dyrrachium on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesars Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium. It was fought between Julius Caesar and the led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one, the battle preceded the Battle of Pharsalus which was the decisive battle of the Civil War. By the end of Julius Caesars first year as consul he had accumulated a large list of lawsuits, Roman law gave government officials immunity from prosecution but only during their term of office while they held lawful Imperium. Once he became a private citizen Caesar knew he would be vulnerable, what was not usual was the length of Caesars term as proconsul, which was for five years instead of the usual one. In this way he would maintain his imperium and thereby not be vulnerable to lawsuits, the Senate ordered him to resign command of his army. Caesar replied that he would agree to resign his command if Pompey followed suit.
Offended, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people, Caesar responded by marching on Rome and he forced the unprepared Pompey and his allies to flee to Greece, starting the Great Roman Civil War. Caesar did not immediately give chase to Greece and instead consolidated power in Rome and he had other problems as well, Pompey had left him with no ships to cross the Adriatic, and Spain had begun to mobilize against Caesar. After gathering the remainder of his forces from Transalpine Gaul he marched into Spain and he turned his full attention to Pompey. As it was winter Bibulus was unprepared and Caesar was able to sail through the blockade easily, Bibulus however was able to block Caesars attempt to sail his reinforcements stuck at Brindisi. Bibulus died while conducting this blockade and no overall commander was appointed by Pompey. At some point Lucius Scribonius Libo attempted to make the more secure by seizing the island off Brindisi preventing Caesars reinforcements from sailing anywhere.
However, Libo could not sustain this position because of a lack of water, Caesars blunder had put him in the worst possible position any army could find itself in. His army had no way to resupply from Rome due to the blockade, he couldnt resupply locally as Greece was pro-Pompey and closed their gates to Caesar. So dire was his situation that he made attempts to discuss peace with Pompey but was refused at every channel. Realizing he was going to have to fight his way out and his luck was not with him and the rough seas and storms forced him back. However, his Master of the Horse Marc Antony fired up his troops and after several attempts evaded Libos blockade and it was now a race against time as both Caesar and Pompey rushed to meet Antony
The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel SantAngelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Italy. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself, the building was used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum. The Castle was once the tallest building in Rome, the tomb of the Roman emperor Hadrian, called Hadrians mole, was erected on the right bank of the Tiber, between 134 and 139 AD. Originally the mausoleum was a cylinder, with a garden top. Hadrians ashes were placed here a year after his death in Baiae in 138, together with those of his wife Sabina, and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who died in 138. Following this, the remains of succeeding emperors were placed here, the urns containing these ashes were probably placed in what is now known as the Treasury room deep within the building. Much of the contents and decorations have been lost since the buildings conversion to a military fortress in 401. The use of spolia from the tomb in the period was noted in the 16th century — Giorgio Vasari writes.
Legend holds that the Archangel Michael appeared atop the mausoleum, sheathing his sword as a sign of the end of the plague of 590, thus lending the castle its present name. A less charitable yet more apt elaboration of the legend, given the militant disposition of this archangel, was heard by the 15th-century traveler who saw a statue on the castle roof. He recounts that during a season of the plague, Pope Gregory I heard that the populace. A vision urged the pope to lead a procession to the church, upon arriving, the idol miraculously fell apart with a clap of thunder. Returning to St Peters by the Aelian Bridge, the pope had another vision of an angel atop the castle, wiping the blood from his sword on his mantle, and sheathing it. While the pope interpreted this as a sign that God was appeased, leo X built a chapel with a Madonna by Raffaello da Montelupo. In 1536 Montelupo created a statue of Saint Michael holding his sword after the 590 plague to surmount the Castel. Later Paul III built an apartment, to ensure that in any future siege the pope had an appropriate place to stay.
Montelupos statue was replaced by a statue of the same subject, executed by the Flemish sculptor Peter Anton von Verschaffelt. Verschaffelts is still in place and Montelupos can be seen in a court in the interior of the Castle
Vibia Sabina was a Roman Empress and second cousin, once removed, to Roman Emperor Hadrian. She was the daughter of Matidia, and suffect consul Lucius Vibius Sabinus, after her father’s death in 84, along with her half-sisters, went to live with their mothers mother and were raised in the household of Trajan with his wife Plotina. She married Hadrian in 100, at the Roman empress Plotinas request, for Hadrian to succeed her great uncle, sabinas mother Matidia was fond of Hadrian and allowed him to marry her daughter. Sabina is rumored to have had an affair with Suetonius, a historian who was Hadrians secretary, in the year 119, her husband was thought to be more sexually interested in his favourite Antinous and other male lovers, and he and Sabina had no children. In 128, she was awarded the title of Augusta, Vibia Sabina died before her husband, some time in 136 or early 137. Hadrians stone elegy for his wife depicts the apotheosis, or divine ascent of Sabina in accordance with her posthumous deification on the order of Hadrian.
Vibia Aurelia Sabina and youngest child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and her name was bestowed in honor of Sabina and her father. Minaud, Gérard, Les vies de 12 femmes d’empereur romain - Devoirs, Intrigues & Voluptés, Paris, L’Harmattan,2012,7, La vie de Sabine, femme d’Hadrien, p. 169-188. Coins of Sabina at Dirty Old Coins Media related to Vibia Sabina at Wikimedia Commons
Emperor Tenji, known as Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Tenjis reign spanned the years from 661 through 671 and he was the son of Emperor Jomei, but was preceded as ruler by his mother Empress Saimei. Prior to his accession, he was known as Prince Naka-no-Ōe, as prince, Naka no Ōe played a crucial role in ending the near-total control the Soga clan had over the imperial family. Although the assassination did not go exactly as planned, Iruka was killed, following the Isshi Incident, Irukas adherents dispersed largely without a fight, and Naka no Ōe was named heir apparent. He married the daughter of his ally Soga no Kurayamada, Naka no Ōe reigned as Emperor Tenji from 661 to 672. Shortly after, she died, and Emperor Tenji could be said to have acceded to the throne,662, Tenji is said to have compiled the first Japanese legal code known to modern historians. The Ōmi Code, consisting of 22 volumes, was promulgated in the last year of Tenjis reign,668, An account in Nihon Shoki becomes the first mention of petrochemical oil in Japan.
In the 7th year of Tenjis reign, flammable water was presented as an offering to Emperor Tenji from Echigo Province and this presentation coincided with the emperors ceremonial confirmation as emperor. He had postponed formalities during the period that the mausoleum of his mother was being constructed, up until this time, although he had been de facto monarch, he had retained the title of Crown Prince. Tenji was particularly active in improving the institutions which had been established during the Taika reforms. Following his death in 672, there ensued a dispute between his fourteen children. In the end, he was succeeded by his son, Prince Ōtomo, known as Emperor Kōbun, by Tenjis brother Prince Ōama, almost one hundred years after Tenjis death, the throne passed to his grandson Emperor Kōnin. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kōbun is said to have acceded to the throne, shortly thereafter, Emperor Tenmu could be said to have acceded to the throne. The actual site of Tenjis grave is known and this emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Yamashina-ku, Kyoto.
The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Tenjis mausoleum and it is formally named Yamashina no misasagi. Such is love since the age of the gods, As it was thus in the early days, – Emperor Tenji One of his 31-letters poems was chosen by Fujiwara no Teika as the first in the very popular anthology Hyakunin Isshu. After his death, his wife, Empress Yamato wrote a song of longing about her husband, the top court officials during Emperor Tenjis reign included, Daijō-daijin, Ōtomo no Ōji, 671–672. Prince Ōtomo was the son of Emperor Tenji, and he was the first to be accorded the title of Daijō-daijin