Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija, the Grand Duchy expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine and Russia. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe and it was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages and cultural heritage. Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century, the first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania in 1253. The pagan state was targeted in the crusade by the Teutonic Knights. The multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state emerged only at the reign of Gediminas. The reign of Vytautas the Great marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and it marked the rise of the Lithuanian nobility.
After Vytautass death, Lithuanias relationship with the Kingdom of Poland greatly deteriorated, Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family, attempted to break the personal union with Poland. However, the unsuccessful Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow forced the union to remain intact, the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In this federation, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania maintained its political distinctiveness and had separate government, army, shortly after, the unitary character of the state was confirmed by adopting the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The newly reformed Commonwealth was invaded by Russia in 1792 and partitioned between the neighbours, with a truncated state remaining only nominally independent, after the Kościuszko Uprising, the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria in 1795. The Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania name the name of the state as Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia.
The title of Grand Duchy was consistently applied to Lithuania from the 14th century onward, in the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania as one of the areas attacked by the Rus. Pagan Lithuanians initially paid tribute to Polotsk, but they grew in strength. The sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija, the Livonian Order and Teutonic Knights, crusading military orders, were established in Riga in 1202 and in Prussia in 1226. The Christian orders posed a significant threat to pagan Baltic tribes, the peace treaty with Galicia–Volhynia of 1219 provides evidence of cooperation between Lithuanians and Samogitians. This treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes, including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija, although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians and the Žemaičiai now faced a common enemy. Likely Živinbudas had the most authority and at least several dukes were from the same families, the formal acknowledgment of common interests and the establishment of a hierarchy among the signatories of the treaty foreshadowed the emergence of the state
Paul de Thermes
Paul de La Barthe de Thermes, Paul de Terme or Maréchal de Thermes, was a French Army Marshal who led the French effort in the Invasion of Corsica in 1553. The Ottoman fleet supported the French by ferrying the French troops under Marshal de Thermes from Siennese Maremma to Corsica, the Ottoman fleet of Dragut was at that time party to a Franco-Ottoman alliance. In June 1549, de Thermes was sent to Scotland to help in the war against England now called the Rough Wooing and he was instructed to continue the fortification of border strongholds, and came with massive reinforcements and money. Subsequently, the English abandoned their occupation of Haddington, a town near Edinburgh, Mary of Guise was triumphant, writing that, the English had left nothing behind but the plague. De Thermes led the assault on the English fort at Broughty Castle on Wednesday 6 February 1550. Following a recommendation by Mary of Guise on 30 September 1549, back in France, Paul de Thermes lost the Battle of Gravelines in 1558
Alnwick is a large market town in north Northumberland, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 8,116, the town is on the south bank of the River Aln,32 miles south of Berwick-upon-Tweed and the Scottish border,5 miles inland from the North Sea at Alnmouth and 34 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne. The town dates to about AD600, and thrived as an agricultural centre, Alnwick Castle was the home of the most powerful medieval northern baronial family, the Earls of Northumberland. It was a staging post on the Great North Road between Edinburgh and London, and latterly has become a centre and dormitory town. It was held by the De Vesci family for over 200 years, at various points in the town are memorials of the constant wars between Percys and Scots, in which so many Percys spent the greater part of their lives. A cross near Broomhouse Hill across the river from the marks the spot where Malcolm III of Scotland was killed during the first Battle of Alnwick. In 1314, Sir John Felton was governor of Alnwick, in winter 1424, much of the town was burnt by a Scottish raiding party.
Again in 1448 the town was burnt by a Scottish army led by William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas and George Douglas, thomas Malory mentions Alnwick as a possible location for Lancelots castle Joyous Garde. The Alnwick by-pass takes the A1 London – Edinburgh trunk road around the town, Alnwick lies at 55°25′00″N 01°42′00″W1. The River Aln forms its northern boundary. Historically, the town was partly within the Bamburgh Ward and Coquetdale Ward, by the time of the 2011 Census an electoral ward covering only part of Alnwick Parish name existed. The total population of this ward was 4,766, formerly a largely rural and agrarian community, the town now lies well within the travel to work radius of Morpeth and Newcastle upon Tyne and has a sizeable commuter population. The castle is the hub of a number of commercial, from 1945 to 1975, it was the location of a teacher training college for young women and mature students. The castle is open to tourists from April to September, and it is the second largest inhabited castle in England, after Windsor Castle.
Benjamin Disraeli describes Alnwick as Montacute in his novel Tancred, the centre of town is the market place, with its market cross, and the relatively modern Northumberland Hall, used as a meeting place. Surrounding the market place are the shopping streets, Fenkle Street. The last of these is a wide road fronted by commercial buildings, in medieval times, Alnwick was a walled town, although due to fluctuating economic conditions during the Middle Ages, the walls were never completed. Hotspur Tower, a gate, is extant, dividing Bondgate Within from Bondgate Without
Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 to his death. Alexander was born at Roxburgh, the son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander III was the grandson of William the Lion, Alexanders father died on 8 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249. The former dominated the years of Alexanders reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durwards party. On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262 and he laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, and in the following year responded with a formidable invasion, sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, and negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks until the autumn storms should begin, at length Haakon, weary of delay, only to encounter a terrific storm which greatly damaged his ships.
The Battle of Largs proved indecisive, but even so, Haakons position was hopeless, baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263. The Isles now lay at Alexanders feet, and in 1266 Haakons successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man, Norway retained only Orkney and Shetland in the area. Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence and she died in 1275, after they had three children. Towards the end of Alexanders reign, the death of all three of his children within a few made the question of the succession one of pressing importance. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285. Alexander died in a fall from his horse riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 18 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day. He had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and he was advised by them not to make the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but he travelled anyway.
Alexander became separated from his guides and it is assumed that in the dark his horse lost its footing, the 44-year-old king was found dead on the shore the following morning with a broken neck. Some texts have said that he fell off a cliff, although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found, there is a very steep rocky embankment, which would have been fatal in the dark
William the Lion
William the Lion, sometimes styled William I, known by the nickname Garbh, the Rough, reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214. He had the second-longest reign in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, james VI would have the longest. He became king following his brother Malcolm IVs death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165, in contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans. Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the Declaration of Arbroath and he was not known as The Lion during his own lifetime, and the title did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. It was attached to him because of his flag or standard and this went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland.
It became attached to him because the chronicler John of Fordun called him the Lion of Justice, William was grandson of David I of Scotland. He inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152 from his father, however he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria, William was a key player in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, Now we shall see which of us are good knights. He was unhorsed and captured by Henrys troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, Henry sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior, the church of Scotland was subjected to that of England. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise and he was allowed to return to Scotland.
In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle, the humiliation of the Treaty of Falaise triggered a revolt in Galloway which lasted until 1186, and prompted construction of a castle at Dumfries. The aim to discourage the Norse Earls of Orkney from expanding beyond Caithness, a further rising in 1181 involved Donald Meic Uilleim, descendant of King Duncan II. Donald briefly took over Ross, not until his death was William able to reclaim Donalds stronghold of Inverness, further royal expeditions were required in 1197 and 1202 to fully neutralise the Orcadian threat. The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the fifteen years. Then the English king Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks, William attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard in 1194, as he had a strong claim over it
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the resistance against the orders of an established authority. The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, I renew war (from re- + bellō, the rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the rebellion refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation, Rebellion can be individual or collective, peaceful or violent In political terms and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims. If rebellion generally seeks to evade an oppressive power, a revolt seeks to overthrow and destroy that power, the goal of rebellion is resistance while a revolt seeks a revolution. As power shifts relative to the adversary, or power shifts within a mixed coalition, or positions harden or soften on either side. The following theories broadly build on the Marxist interpretation of rebellion and they explore the causes of rebellion from a wide lens perspective.
Marx writes about the structure of society that must be elucidated through an examination of the direct relationship of the owners of the conditions of production to the direct producers. The mismatch, between one mode of production, between the forces and the social ownership of the production, is at the origin of the revolution. The inner imbalance within these modes of production is derived from the modes of organization, such as capitalism within feudalism. The dynamics engineered by these class frictions help class consciousness root itself in the collective imaginary, for example, the development of the bourgeoisie class went from oppressed merchant class to urban independence, eventually gaining enough power to represent the state as a whole. Social movements, are determined by a set of circumstances. The proletariat must also, according to Marx, go through the process of self-determination which can only be achieved by friction against the bourgeoisie. In Marxs theory revolutions are the locomotives of history, it is because rebellion has for ultimate goal to overthrow the ruling class and its antiquated mode of production.
Later, rebellion attempts to replace it with a new system of political economy, one that is suited to the new ruling class. The cycle of rebellion, replaces one mode of production by another through the constant class friction, in his book Why Men Rebel, Ted Gurr looks at the roots of political violence itself applied to a rebellion framework. He defines political violence as, all collective attacks within a political community against the political regime, the concept represents a set of events, a common property of which is the actual or threatened use of violence
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the third of the island of Great Britain. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a war of independence. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, in 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. The Crown was the most important element of government, the Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a largely itinerant institution, before Edinburgh developed as a capital city in the second half of the 15th century. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European courts, Parliament emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy, but was never as central to the national life as its counterpart in England.
In the 17th century, the creation of Justices of Peace, the continued existence of courts baron and the introduction of kirk sessions helped consolidate the power of local lairds. Scots law developed into a system in the Middle Ages and was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, in 1532, the College of Justice was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of lawyers. David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage, Early Scottish coins were virtually identical in silver content to English ones, but from about 1300 their silver content began to depreciate more rapidly than the English coins. At the union of the Crowns in 1603 the Scottish pound was fixed at only one-twelfth the value of the English pound, the Bank of Scotland issued pound notes from 1704. Scottish currency was abolished by the Act of Union, Scotland is half the size of England and Wales in area, but has roughly the same length of coastline.
Geographically Scotland is divided between the Highlands and Islands and the Lowlands, the Highlands had a relatively short growing season, which was further shortened during the Little Ice Age. From Scotlands foundation to the inception of the Black Death, the population had grown to a million, following the plague and it expanded in the first half of the 16th century, reaching roughly 1.2 million by the 1690s. Significant languages in the kingdom included Gaelic, Old English and French. Christianity was introduced into Scotland from the 6th century, in the Norman period the Scottish church underwent a series of changes that led to new monastic orders and organisation. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk, there were a series of religious controversies that resulted in divisions and persecutions. The Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, Land forces centred around the large common army, but adopted European innovations from the 16th century, and many Scots took service as mercenaries and as soldiers for the English Crown
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237. It was a member of the Livonian Confederation, from 1435 to 1561, the Order was formed from the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword after their defeat by Samogitians in 1236 at the Battle of Schaulen. They were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights and became known as the Livonian Order in 1237, in 1298 Lithuanians took Karkus castle north of Riga, and defeated the order in the Battle of Turaida, killing Livonian Land Master Bruno and 22 knights. In 1346, the Order bought the Duchy of Estonia from King Valdemar IV of Denmark, life within the Orders territory is described in the Chronicle of Balthasar Russow. The Livonian Orders defeat in the Battle of Swienta on September 1,1435, during the Livonian War, the Order suffered a decisive defeat by troops of Muscovite Russia in the Battle of Ergeme in 1560. After coming to an agreement with Sigismund II Augustus and his representatives, in the southern part of the Brothers lands he created the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia for his family.
Most of the lands were seized by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The north of Estonia was taken back by Denmark and Sweden, the Livonian Master, like the grandmaster of the Teutonic Order, was elected by his fellow knights for a life term. The grandmaster exercised supervisory powers and his advice was considered equal to a command, the grandmaster of Teutonic knights did not limit local autonomy, he rarely visited Livonia or sent ambassadors for oversight
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Henry II of England
Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mothers efforts to claim the throne of England, occupied by Stephen of Blois and he inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled. Stephen agreed to a treaty after Henrys military expedition to England in 1153. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henrys desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Beckets murder in 1170, Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a cold war over several decades. By 1172, he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the half of Ireland and the western half of France.
Henry and Eleanor had eight children, as they grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henrys heir apparent, Young Henry, rebelled in protest, he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother, Scotland and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henrys vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them new men appointed for their loyalty, Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, resulting in Young Henrys death. The Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, Philip successfully played on Richards fears that Henry would make John king, and a final rebellion broke out in 1189. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from an ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon in Anjou. Henrys empire quickly collapsed during the reign of his youngest son John, many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, had long-term consequences.
Historical interpretations of Henrys reign have changed considerably over time, in the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, Henry was born in France at Le Mans on 5 March 1133 as the eldest child of the Empress Matilda and her second husband, Geoffrey the Fair, Count of Anjou. In theory, the county answered to the French king, but royal power over Anjou weakened during the 11th century, Henrys mother, firstly married to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, was the eldest daughter of Henry I, King of England and Duke of Normandy. She was born into a ruling class of Normans, who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy. Geoffrey took advantage of the confusion to attack the Duchy of Normandy but played no role in the English conflict, leaving this to Matilda and her half-brother.
The war, termed the Anarchy by Victorian historians, dragged on, Henry probably spent some of his earliest years in his mothers household, and accompanied Matilda to Normandy in the late 1130s
Battle of Gravelines (1558)
The Battle of Gravelines was fought on 13 July 1558 at Gravelines, near Calais, France. It occurred during the war between France and Spain. The battle resulted in a victory by the Spanish forces, led by Lamoral, Count of Egmont, over the French, the Spanish were supported by the English Navy, who opened fire on the French as they reached the sand dunes at Gravelines. Following the dominance of the Spanish forces, led by Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, at the Battle of San Quentin and he recruited a new army in Picardy, which he put in the hands of Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers. He asked the Ottoman Sultan for naval support and encouraged the Scots to invade England from the north. Francis, Duke of Guise, seized the port of Calais from the English and moved to the city of Thionville, marshall de Thermes invaded with another army consisting of 12,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry, armed with a considerable amount of artillery. After crossing the Aa River at its mouth, de Thermes commandeered his army to conquer both Dunkirk and Nieuwpoort, consequently threatening Brussels and it is reported that a Spanish army was to intercept the dukes army at the Aa River.
The Duke of Savoy and Philip met an army of 15,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, giving the command to the Count of Egmont. He deployed his army on the bank of the river, creating a double line with the cavalry and artillery in one row. Sighting the French positions, Egmont placed his troops in a crescent, with the cavalry on the flanks. The French used their artillery, and a battle was fought between the cavalry of both sides. The Spanish arquebusiers, who were armed and trained, peppered the French cavalry. They shot at the infantry sheltered behind the baggage train, Egmont, at the head of his horsemen, decided to attack the French center with his cavalry. Biscay and English ships bombarded the French rear, causing numerous casualties, the outcome of the battle could not have been worse for the French, only 1,500 men had managed to flee, the rest lay dead or were taken prisoner. The lord of Thermes was taken prisoner, the French were forced to retreat to the border. This defeat, coupled with the loss at the Battle of St.
Quentin, forced Henry II of France to make peace with Philip II in the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis of 1559
Battle of Durbe
The Battle of Durbe was a medieval battle fought near Durbe,23 km east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade. On 13 July 1260, the Samogitians soundly defeated the joint forces of the Teutonic Knights from Prussia, some 150 knights were killed, including Livonian Master Burchard von Hornhausen and Prussian Land Marshal Henrik Botel. It was by far the largest defeat of the knights in the 13th century, in the second-largest, the battle inspired the Great Prussian Uprising and the rebellions of the Semigallians, the Couronians, and the Oeselians. The battle undid two decades of Livonian conquests and it took thirty years for the Livonian Order to restore its control. The Livonian Order had been fighting the Samogitians since 1253, when Mindaugas was crowned as King of Lithuania, the Samogitians did not recognize the transfer and fought for their independence. For the knights, Samogitia was an important region as it physically separated their Prussian and Livonian branches.
After the Samogitians killed 12 knights in the Battle of Memel, near the newly built Memel Castle in 1257, once the truce expired, the Samogitians invaded Courland and defeated the knights in the Battle of Skuodas in 1259. The success encouraged the Semigallians to rebel, the knights attempted to strengthen their strategic position and attacked Tērvete hoping to turn the Semigallian outpost into a Teutonic castle. When the attack failed, they built a fortress in nearby Dobele, the Semigallians attacked Dobele, due to poor siege tactics, suffered heavy casualties. The Samogitians did not attack Georgenburg directly but built a nearby, cutting off the castle from its supplies. Livonian Grand Master Burchard von Hornhausen organized an army for a campaign against the Samogitians. On 25 January 1260, the knights obtained a papal bull blessing the crusade from Pope Alexander IV, when the armies of the Prussian and Livonian orders and their allies met in the Memel Castle, they planned to reinforce the besieged Georgenburg.
However, they learned that a large Samogitian force was raiding Courland, the enemies met on the southern shore of Durbe Lake. The knights were plagued by internal disagreements, for example, Danes from Estonia refused to dismount from their heavy horses, which were not well-suited for battle in swampy terrain. When the battle started, local Curonians abandoned the knights because the knights did not agree to any captured Curonians from the Samogitian camp. Peter von Dusburg even alleged that the Curonians attacked the knights from the rear, the Estonians and other local people soon followed the Curonian example and abandoned the knights. After this loss the knights were surrounded and suffered heavy losses, some 150 knights perished along with hundreds of secular knights and low-ranking soldiers. Though the battle is described in the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle in detail, only Simon Grunau, in his chronicle written ca