Mission San Antonio de Padua
Mission San Antonio de Padua is a Spanish mission established by the Franciscan order in present-day Monterey County, near the present-day town of Jolon. It was founded on July 14,1771, and was the mission founded in Alta California by Father Presidente Junípero Serra. The mission was the site of the first Christian marriage, today the mission is a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey. Mission San Antonio de Padua was the third Mission to be founded, Father Junipero Serra claimed the site on July 14,1771, and dedicated the Mission to Saint Anthony of Padua. Saint Anthony was born in 1195 in Lisbon, Portugal and is the patron Saint of the poor, Father Serra left Fathers Miguel Pieras and Buenaventura Sitjar behind to continue the building efforts, though the construction of the church proper did not actually begin until 1810. By that time, there were 178 Native Americans living at the Mission. By 1805, the number had increased to 1,300, but in 1834, after the laws went into effect. No town grew up around the Mission, as many did at other installations, in 1845, Mexican Governor Pío Pico declared all mission buildings in Alta California for sale, but no one bid for Mission San Antonio.
After nearly 30 years, the Mission was returned to the Catholic Church, the first attempt at rebuilding the Mission came in 1903, when the California Historical Landmarks League began holding outings at San Antonio. Preservation and restoration of Mission San Antonio began, the Native Sons of the Golden West supplied $1,400. Tons of debris were removed from the interior of the chapel, breaches in the side wall were filled in. Unfortunately, the earthquake of 1906, seriously damaged the building, in 1928, Franciscan Friars held services at San Antonio de Padua. It took nearly 50 years to restore the Mission. The State of California is requiring a $12–15 million earthquake retrofit that must be completed by 2015, there are 35 private families keeping the mission open, as of 2011. There is a campaign to raise funds for the retrofit. Today, the nearest city is King City, nearly 29 miles away, historians consider the Missions pastoral location in the valley of the San Antonio River along the Santa Lucia Mountains as an outstanding example of early mission life.
The mission is surrounded by the Fort Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, additional land was acquired from the Army in 1950 to increase the mission area to over 85 acres. This fort is still actively training troops today, Mission San Antonio de Padua is one of the designated tour sights of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217, Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was a leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons War of 1215-17 against King John of England, after his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed King of England by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216. He was never crowned and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled, in 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louiss short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion and he died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX.
In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed and this led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanches uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne. Johns plan was to split Philips forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the front against the emperor and his allies. The first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis, John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against Johns larger army.
The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king, left at something of a disadvantage, shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and Johns other allies, bringing an end to Johns hopes of retaking Normandy. In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons War, the barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, and Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Pauls Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, on 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom. But just when it seemed that England was his, King Johns death in October 1216 caused many of the barons to desert Louis in favour of Johns nine-year-old son
An Lushan was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion. An Lushan was of Sogdian and Göktürk origin, at least by adoption and he rose to military prominence by defending the northeastern Tang frontier from the Khitans and other threats. He was summoned to Changan, the Tang capital, several times and managed to gain favor with Chancellor Li Linfu and this allowed An Lushan to amass significant military power in northeast China. After the death of Li Linfu, his rivalry with General Geshu Han, in 755, An Lushan, following 8 or 9 years of preparation, instigated the An Lushan Rebellion, proclaiming himself the ruler of a new dynasty, Yan. In 757 An Lushan was assassinated by his own son, An Qingxu, the state of Yan fell into turmoil and eventually collapsed in 763. An Lushans mother was a Göktürk of the Ashide clan and served as a sorceress and his original name might have been Aluoshan or Galuoshan, which meant war in Old Turkic. His father died early, and his mother Lady Ashide married a Turkic general An Yanyan, an Lushan therefore took the name of An.
He settled in Ying Prefecture, the An are not to be confused with Anxi, which had been established as a prefecture by the Chinese in 661. His name has transcribed as Āluòshān or Yàluòshān. Serving with him was Shi Sugan, who was one day older than he was, in 732, when the general Zhang Shougui was governing You Prefecture, An was discovered to have stolen sheep. Zhang was set to execute An by caning, when An yelled out, Is it that you, why do you want to cane An Lushan to death. Zhang, seeing that he had a body and impressed by his plea, released him and had him serve as a police officer, along with Shi. Later, Zhang promoted him to be a military officer, as Zhang believed that he was obese, he did not dare to eat too much while in Zhangs presence, and this drew Zhangs favor. Zhang took him in and treated him like a son. At a time that was not recorded in history, he married a Lady Kang as his first wife, and she bore him at least one son, An Qingxu, however, was not his oldest son. By 736, An Lushan carried a title and was serving under Zhang Shougui as an officer of the Pinglu Army.
In 736, after An disobeyed Zhangs orders and made an aggressive attack against the Khitan. In 740, An became the Bingmashi of Pinglu Army, in 741, when the deputy chief imperial censor Zhang Lizhen was sent to survey the Hebei and visited Pinglu Army, An ingratiated himself with Zhang, so much so that he even bribed Zhangs servants
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from the Pope in 1209. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, the austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties, Saint Clare, under Franciss guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in final revision of the Rule in 1223, the degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the Observant branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins and Conventuals.
The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases, Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, the name of original order, Friars Minor, means lesser brothers, and stems from Francis of Assisis rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. Francis adopted of the tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order. Those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First Order The First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are commonly called simply the Franciscans and this Order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi.
Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum, St. Francis thus referred to his followers as Fraticelli, meaning Little Brothers. Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor, known as the Observants, most commonly simply called Franciscan friars, official name, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or simply Capuchins, official name, Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name, Friars Minor Conventual, Second Order The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. The order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as The Poor Ladies, The Poor Enclosed Nuns
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund von Luxembourg was the leader of the last West European Crusade - the Crusade of Nicopolis of 1396. Afterwards he founded the Dragon Order to fight the Turks and he was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages and was an outgoing person who took pleasure in the tournament. He was named after Saint Sigismund of Burgundy, the saint of Sigismunds father. From Sigismunds childhood he was nicknamed the fox in the Crown of Bohemia. King Louis named him as his heir and appointed him his successor as King of Hungary, King Wenceslaus gave him Neumark to facilitate communication between Brandenburg and Poland. Instead, the landlords of Lesser Poland gave it to Marys younger sister Jadwiga I of Poland, on the death of her father in 1382, his betrothed, became queen of Hungary and Sigismund married her in 1385 in Zólyom. The next year, he was accepted as Marys future co-ruler by the Treaty of Győr, Sigismunds mother-in-law was strangled, while Mary was liberated. Having secured the support of the nobility, Sigismund was crowned King of Hungary at Székesfehérvár on 31 March 1387.
Having raised money by pledging Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia, the central power was finally weakened to such an extent that only Sigismunds alliance with the powerful Czillei-Garai League could ensure his position on the throne. The restoration of the authority of the administration took decades of work. Not until 1395 did Nicholas II Garay succeed in suppressing them, Mary died heavily pregnant in 1395. To ease the pressure from Hungarian nobles, Sigismud tried to employ foreign advisors, which was not popular, this was not applied to Stibor of Stiboricz, who was Sigismunds closest friend and advisor. On a number of occasions, Sigismund was imprisoned by nobles, in 1396 Sigismund led the combined armies of Christendom against the Turks, who had taken advantage of the temporary helplessness of Hungary to extend their dominion to the banks of the Danube. This crusade, preached by Pope Boniface IX, was popular in Hungary. Sigismund set out with 90,000 men and a flotilla of 70 galleys, after capturing Vidin, he camped with his Hungarian armies before the fortress of Nicopolis.
Sultan Bayezid I raised the siege of Constantinople and, at the head of 140,000 men, the disaster in Nicopolis angered several Hungarian lords, leading to instability in the kingdom. However, he was unable to support Wenceslaus when he was deposed in 1400, on his return to Hungary in 1401, Sigismund was imprisoned once and deposed twice. In 1401 Sigismund helped an uprising against Wenceslaus, during the course of which the Bohemian king was taken prisoner, and Sigismund ruled Bohemia for nineteen months
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang Dynasty. In the early half of his reign he was a diligent, ably assisted by capable chancellors like Yao Chong, Song Jing and Zhang Yue, he was credited with bringing Tang China to a pinnacle of culture and power. Emperor Xuanzong, was blamed for over-trusting Li Linfu, Yang Guozhong and An Lushan during his late reign and this marked the beginning of the Tang dynastys decline. Li Longji was the son of Emperor Ruizong, and his mother was Emperor Ruizongs concubine Consort Dou. In 687, as the son, he was created the Prince of Chu. It was said that he was handsome as a child, and was talented in music. He had two older brothers – Li Chengqi, born of Emperor Ruizongs wife Empress Liu, and Li Chengyi and he has two full younger sisters, Princess Jinxian and Princess Yuzhen, who become Taoism nuns. In 690, Dowager Empress Wu had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her, in 692, Li Longji and his brothers were allowed to have residences outside the palace and were given staffs at their mansions.
Subsequently, all of Li Dans sons were reduced in title, and Li Longjis title was reduced to Prince of Linzi. In 705, Wu Zetian was overthrown in a coup, and Li Longjis uncle Li Xiăn, who was at that time crown prince, Li Longji was made the deputy minister of military supplies. In 708, he was made the general of Lu Prefecture. In 710, he was recalled to the capital Changan to attend to Emperor Zhongzong when Emperor Zhongzong was sacrificing to heaven and earth. For the time being, Emperor Zhongzongs son by a concubine, Li Chongmao the Prince of Wen, was named emperor, but Empress Wei retained actual power as empress dowager and regent. Originally, uu, and other officials Zhao Lüwen and Ye Jingneng were advising her to take the throne, like Wu Zetian did, the official Cui Riyong leaked their plan to Li Longji. Without first informing Li Dan, the rose on 21 July, first killing Wei Bo, Gao. When Empress Dowager Wei panicked and fled to an imperial guard camp, Li Guoer, Wu Yanxiu, and Lady Helou were killed as well.
Li Longji soon slaughtered a number of officials in Empress Dowagers faction as well as her clan, at the urging of Princess Taiping, Li Longji, and Li Longjis brother Li Chengqi, Li Dan soon took the throne from Li Chongmao and again became emperor. Li Chengqi declined consideration to be crown prince—stating to his father, If the state were secure, If the state were in danger, consideration should be first given for achievement
An Lushan Rebellion
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. The rebellion overtly began on 16 December 755, when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, thus establishing a rival Yan Dynasty, the rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction. It significantly weakened the Tang dynasty, and led to the loss of the Western Regions, beginning in 742, Eurasia entered a 13-year period of major political turmoil, with the regional empires generally suffering a major rebellion, revolution, or dynastic change. In this year the Türk dynasty of the eastern Eurasian Steppe was overthrown, in 747, the Abbasids began their rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in Merv, resulting in the proclamation of a new Abbasid Caliph in about 750. This rebellion seems to have been organized by merchants and persons identifying themselves as merchants, the Arabs did not proceed any further after the battle, and the Tang retained their Central Asian territories until the An Lushan rebellion.
Further, southern expansion of the empire was limited by the ineffective, the concurrent Tang campaign against the Tibetan Empire was proceeding more successfully, with the campaign to capture the Tibetans Central Asian territories appearing near success. With the assassination of the Tibetan emperor Me Agtsom in 755 in the midst of a rebellion within the Tibetan polity, final Tang victory over the Tibetan Empire seemed all. An Lushan was a general of uncertain origin, but thought to have been adopted by a Sogdian father. Eventually he managed to become a favorite of the emperor of China. His success in this regard is shown, for example, by the luxurious house Emperor Xuanzong built for him in 751, the house was furnished with luxuries such as gold and silver objects and a pair of ten-foot-long by six-foot-wide couches appliqued with rare and expensive sandalwood. He was appointed by Emperor Xuanzong to be commander of three garrisons in the north—Pinglu and Hedong, in effect, An was given control over the entire area north of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, including garrisons about 164,000 strong.
He was a favorite in the Tang court, even calling himself the son of Yang Guifei. He was thus protected from criticism, even when her relative, Chief Minister Yang Guozhong, at the end of 755 An Lushan revolted. His army surged down from Fanyang, along the way, An Lushan treated surrendered local Tang officials with respect. As a result and more of them joined his ranks and he moved rapidly along the Grand Canal and captured the Eastern Capital city of Luoyang within the year, defeating the poorly supplied General Feng Changqing. There, An Lushan declared himself Emperor of the new Great Yan dynasty and his next steps would be to capture the Tang western capital of Changan and to attempt to continue into southern China to complete his conquest. However, the horrific Battle of Yongqiu, in the spring of 756 and this prevented the Yan forces from conquering southern China, before the Tang were able to recover. The Yan army did not take control of the Suiyang District until after the Siege of Suiyang, almost two years after their initial capture of Luoyang
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Changan is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xian. Changan means Perpetual Peace in Classical Chinese, during the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed Constant Peace, yet after its fall in AD23, the old name was restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, the name was changed to Xian, meaning Western Peace. Changan had been settled since Neolithic times, during which the Yangshao Culture was established in Banpo in the citys suburb, from its capital at Xianyang, the Qin dynasty ruled a larger area than either of the preceding dynasties. The imperial city of Changan during the Han dynasty was located northwest of todays Xian. During the Tang dynasty, the area to be known as Changan included the area inside the Ming Xian fortification, plus small areas to its east and west. The Tang Changan hence, was 8 times the size of the Ming Xian, during its heyday, Changan was one of the largest and most populous cities in the world. Around AD750, Changan was called a million peoples city in Chinese records, while modern estimates put it at around 800, 000–1,000,000 within city walls.
According to the census in 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang,362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu, the strategic and economic importance of ancient Changan was mainly due to its central position. The roads leading to Gansu, Henan, the site of the Han capital was located 3 km northwest of modern Xian. As the capital of the Western Han, it was the political, economic and it was the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, and a cosmopolitan metropolis. By 2 AD, the population was 246,200 in 80,000 households and this population consisted mostly of the scholar gentry class whose education was being sponsored by their wealthy aristocratic families. In addition to civil servants was a larger underclass to serve them. Initially, Emperor Liu Bang decided to build his capital at the center of the sun and this location was the site of the holy city Chengzhou, home of the last Zhou emperors. The magical significance of location was believed to ensure a long-lasting dynasty like the Zhou.
However, in practice the strategic value of a capital located in the Wei Valley became the deciding factor for locating the new capital. To this end, it is recorded c 200 BC he forcibly relocated thousands of clans in the aristocracy to this region. First, it kept all potential rivals close to the new Emperor and his adviser Liu Jing described this plan as weakening the root while strengthening the branch