This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. Among present-day Christians, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church, Unity of the Brethren, the arrest of Hus in 1414 caused considerable resentment in Czech lands. The authorities of both countries appealed urgently and repeatedly to King Sigismund to release Jan Hus, when news of his death at the Council of Constance in 1415 arrived, disturbances broke out, directed primarily against the clergy and especially against the monks. Even the Archbishop narrowly escaped from the effects of popular anger. The treatment of Hus was felt to be a disgrace inflicted upon the whole country, King Wenceslaus, prompted by his grudge against Sigismund, at first gave free vent to his indignation at the course of events in Constance. His wife openly favoured the friends of Hus, avowed Hussites stood at the head of the government. The university would arbitrate any disputed points, the entire Hussite nobility joined the league.
Other than verbal protest of the treatment of Hus, there was little evidence of any actions taken by the nobility until 1417. The chalice of wine became the central identifying symbol of the Hussite movement, the prospect of a civil war began to emerge. Pope Martin V as Cardinal Otto of Colonna had attacked Hus with relentless severity and he energetically resumed the battle against Huss teaching after the enactments of the Council of Constance. He wished to completely the doctrine of Hus, for which purpose the co-operation of King Wenceslaus had to be obtained. In 1418, Sigismund succeeded in winning his brother over to the standpoint of the council by pointing out the inevitability of a war if the heretics in Bohemia found further protection. Hussite statesmen and army leaders had to leave the country and Roman Catholic priests were reinstated and these measures caused a general commotion which hastened the death of King Wenceslaus by a paralytic stroke in 1419. Hussism organised itself during the years 1415–1419, the moderate party, who followed Hus more closely, sought to conduct reform while leaving the whole hierarchical and liturgical order of the Church untouched.
This required the removal of the hierarchy and the secularisation of ecclesiastical possessions. The radicals preached the sufficientia legis Christi—the divine law is the rule and canon for human society, not only in the church. But above all they clung to Wycliffes doctrine of the Lords Supper, denying transubstantiation, the radicals had their gathering-places all around the country. Their first armed assault fell on the town of Ústí, on the river Lužnice
Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000 making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century, within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key institutions, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the Centre of Learning. Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with a population of 1,200,000 people. The city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, in contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011.
In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks. As of 2012, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, the site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name is of Indo-European origin and a Middle Persian compound of Bagh god and dād given by, translating to Bestowed by God or Gods gift. In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog god, a similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning gift of Mithra. There are a number of locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan. The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins, when the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace.
This was the name on coins and other official usage. By the 11th century, Baghdad became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis, after the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital whence they could rule. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762, the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city, mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying, This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward. The citys growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors, it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, the abundance of water in a dry climate
Bay Islands Department
The Bay Islands is a group of islands off the coast of Honduras. Collectively, the form one of the 18 Departments of Honduras. The departmental capital is Roatan, on the island of Roatán, the total surface area of the islands is 250 km2. In 2013, they had an population of 71,500 people. These islands have been administered as a department of the Republic of Honduras since 1872, Roatan is the largest with a length of about 60 kilometres and a maximum width of 14 kilometres at its widest point. Roatán, is characterized by its mountainous backbone, composed of hilltops that run west-to-east across the entire island and these hilltops are often crowned by outcrops of exposed metamorphic rocks such as marble and serpentine. The island of St. Helene has been described as a extension of Roatán. This island has an elevated hill at its center, but is characterized by a large number of caves. Guanaja is the second largest and is more mountainous than Roatan. Guanaja presents a mixture of thetopographic and geologic features that characterize the two large islands.
This island is divided into three sections by a series of hilltops, the highest of which rises to over 350 m above sea level. These hilltops include important deposits of granite and serpentine, in between these hills are moderately-sized alluvial plains that cut across these deposits, which have been densely populated since prehistory. Barbareta and the Hog Islands are all small, though a small island, is nevertheless highly distinctive in that it contains several hilltops, the tallest of which reaches a height of 143 m above sea level. Barbareta has the largest deposit of serpentine in the Bay Islands, Morat is the smallest and flattest of the Bay Islands and is composed of a single ridge with two small hilltops, which are composed mainly of sedimentary rocks, with some serpentinite intrusions. There are no rivers on any of the islands and only a few small streams, springs of cool water are rather numerous. Roatan is marked by a number of lagoons or drowned valleys. They were anciently known as Las Guanajas, from Guanaja, which was discovered by Christopher Columbus, in his 4th and last voyage to the New World, the Admiral named it Isle of Pines, and claimed it.
for Spain. It was from this island that he first discovered the coast of the American continent, on which he landed on the 14th of August following, the Spanish Laws prohibited slavery, governors interested in traffic labeled the Indians, cannibals and opposed to Christianity
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a republic in Central America. It has at times referred to as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras. Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, the Spanish introduced Roman Catholicism and the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras has the worlds highest murder rate, Honduras spans about 112,492 km2 and has a population exceeding 8 million. Its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone, as reflected in the areas demographics and culture. Honduras is known for its natural resources, including minerals, tropical fruit, and sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles industry. Honduras literally means depths in Spanish, the name could either refer to the bay of Trujillo as an anchorage, fondura in the Leonese dialect of Spanish, or to Columbuss alleged quote that Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras.
It was not until the end of the 16th century that Honduras was used for the whole province, prior to 1580, Honduras only referred to the eastern part of the province, and Higueras referred to the western part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica. In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area, in the west, the Maya civilization flourished for hundreds of years. The dominant state within Hondurass borders was in Copán, Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Chorti, remains of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. On 30 July 1502 Columbus sent his brother Bartholomew to explore the islands and Bartholomew encountered a Mayan trading vessel from Yucatán, carrying well-dressed Maya and a rich cargo. Bartholomews men stole whatever cargo they wanted and kidnapped the elderly captain to serve as an interpreter in what was the first recorded encounter between the Spanish and the Maya.
In March 1524, Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to enter Honduras as a conquistador, followed by Hernán Cortés, bringing forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest was done in the two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, and by those loyal of Francisco Montejo. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied heavily on armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans, resistance to conquest was led in particular by Lempira, and many regions in the north never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spains vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala and Gracias were the first city-capitals
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain, The Father of New France, was a French navigator, draftsman, explorer, ethnologist and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3,1608 and he is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements. Born into a family of mariners, while still a man, began exploring North America in 1603 under the guidance of François Gravé Du Pont. Then, in 1608, he established the French settlement that is now Quebec City, Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes, and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives. He formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu and with others farther west, with Algonquin and with Huron Wendat, in 1620, Louis XIII of France ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France and he established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St.
Lawrence River valley until his death in 1635. The most notable of these is Lake Champlain, which straddles the border between northern New York and Vermont, extending slightly across the border into Canada. Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain and Marguerite Le Roy, in either Hiers-Brouage, or the city of La Rochelle. He was born on or before August 13,1574 according to a recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, although Léopold Delayant wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguets estimate was wrong, the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous monuments dedicated to Champlain and is regarded as accurate. In the first half of the 20th century, some authors disagreed, in 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about these estimates of Champlains birth year and concluded, Samuel Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France. Liebel asserts that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and Laverdière, Champlain claimed to be from Brouage in the title of his 1603 book, and to be Saintongeois in the title of his second book.
The exact location of his birth is not known with certainty. Born into a family of mariners, Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, make nautical charts and his education did not include Ancient Greek or Latin, so he did not read or learn from any ancient literature. During this time he claimed to go on a secret voyage for the king. By 1597 he was a capitaine dune compagnie serving in a garrison near Quimper, in 1598, his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship Saint-Julien was chartered to transport Spanish troops to Cádiz pursuant to the Treaty of Vervins, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him. After a difficult passage, he spent some time in Cadiz before his uncle, whose ship was chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the West Indies. His uncle, who gave command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera and this journey lasted two years, and gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish holdings from the Caribbean to Mexico City
The Americas, collectively called America, encompass the totality of the continents of North America and South America. Together they make up most of the land in Earths western hemisphere, along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earths total surface area and 28. 4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago, a second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Ericson, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned.
The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, diseases introduced from Europe and Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including numbers of indentured servants. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in 1776, the population is over 1 billion, with over 65% of them living in one of the three most populous countries. As of the beginning of the 2010s, the most populous urban agglomerations are Mexico City, New York, Sao Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro, all of them megacities. The name America was first recorded in 1507 in the Cosmographiae Introductio, apparently written by Matthias Ringmann and it first applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. Amerigen means land of Amerigo and derives from Amerigo and gen, America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. When conceived as a continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular.
However, without a context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States of America. In some countries of the world, America is considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the glacial maximum
The Beaver Wars—also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars—encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in eastern North America. During the 17th century, the Beaver Wars were battles for economic welfare throughout the St. Lawrence, the wars were between the Iroquois trying to take control of the fur trade from the Hurons, the northern Algonquians, and their French allies. From medieval times, Europeans had obtained furs from Russia and Scandinavia, the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European markets and the tribes of the western Great Lakes region. They were a confederation of five nations—Mohawk, Onondaga, each of these Native American nations has beliefs in tribal sovereignty and a collective body called a league. These nations had a supralevel affirmation in the sovereignty of the two leagues between Onondaga and New York, government officials in Washington DC and Ottawa recognized the Iroquois sovereignty only in existence of individual tribal governments.
The Iroquois Confederation, led by the dominant Mohawk, mobilized against the largely Algonquian-speaking tribes of the Great Lakes region, the Iroquois were armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, the Algonquian were backed by the French, their chief trading partner. The wars were brutal and are considered one of the bloodiest series of conflicts in the history of North America and they pushed some eastern tribes to the west of the Mississippi River, or southward into the Carolinas. The Iroquois gained control of the Ohio Valley lands as hunting ground, the Ohio Country and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan had become virtually empty of Native people as refugees fled westward to escape the Iroquois warriors. Both Algonquian and Iroquoian societies were disrupted by these wars. After the Iroquois became trading partners with the English, their alliance was a component of the English expansion. The English used the Iroquois conquests as a claim to the old Northwest Territory, the expeditions of French explorer Jacques Cartier in the 1540s made the first written records of the Native Americans in North America.
French explorers and fishermen had traded in the region near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River estuary a decade before for valuable furs. Cartier recorded an ongoing war between the Stadaconans and another known as the Toudaman, who had destroyed one of their forts the previous year. Wars and politics in Europe distracted French efforts at colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley until the beginning of the 17th century, when the French returned to the area, they found the sites of both Stadacona and Hochelaga abandoned, completely destroyed by an unknown enemy. When the French returned, they found no inhabitants in this part of the river valley. The Iroquois and the Iroquoian-speaking Huron used it as hunting ground and this was perhaps in response to the formation of the League of the Iroquois. Before 1603, Champlain had formed an alliance against the Iroquois. He decided that the French would not trade firearms to the Iroquois and he had a commercial rationale, the northern Natives provided the French with valuable furs and the Iroquois, based in present-day New York, interfered with that trade
Guanaja is one of the Bay Islands of Honduras and is in the Caribbean. It is about 70 kilometres off the north coast of Honduras, one of the cays off Guanaja, called Guanaja or Bonacca or Low Cay, is near the main island, and contains most of the approximately 10,000 people who live in Guanaja. The densely populated cay has been described as the Venice of Honduras because of the waterways that run through it, the other two main settlements on Guanaja are Mangrove Bight and Savannah Bight. Smaller settlements include East End and North East Bight, the primary source of income for the islanders is fishing and shrimping. Tourism is confined to a handful of resorts that cater to divers, snorkelers. The islands warm, clear waters support an extensive coral reef that is part of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, there is still access to fresh water on Guanaja, and several waterfalls can be seen. Guanaja was discovered by Christopher Columbus on his voyage in 1502. Notably, this was the first time he came across cacao and he landed on Soldado Beach on the north side of the island.
In years Cayman Islanders settled in the Bay Islands, which explains the diffusion of Spanish and English language, homer Hickam, author of Rocket Boys/October Sky, was one of the first scuba explorers of Guanaja, first visiting in 1973. Along with a team of other explorers, he extensively mapped the reef system around the island for sport divers. He still owns property on the northeast end of the island, in late October 1998, most of the buildings and homes on the island were destroyed by Hurricane Mitch. The islanders have since rebuilt, and although there are repercussions to the economy from Mitch. The majority of the mangrove and pine forests, which were destroyed as a consequence of the passage of the hurricane sweeping across the island for two days, are slowly making a comeback. British Colony of Bay Islands 1852, ceded to The Republic of Honduras 1861. Brief History of the settlers of Guanaja In 1502 Columbus discovered this island and called it Isla de Los Pinos although it already had a name, used by the natives that inhabited it.
This name appears as early as 1511 on a map drawn by Peter Martyr but it was corrupted by English pirates and settlers and was pronounced Bonacca. There has been other names for the island over the years before the Bay Islands were turned over to Honduras as the English, the Dutch, the main settlement is called The Cay, an abbreviation of Lower Cays, the original name. They eventually stayed and deeded the southernmost cay to the Kirkconnells, many other families, among others the Boddens, the Phillips and the Woods, came and by the 1880s a thriving community had developed
Fort Ticonderoga, formerly Fort Carillon, is a large 18th-century star fort built by the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain in northern New York in the United States. It was of importance during the 18th-century colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France, and again played an important role during the American Revolutionary War. The site controlled a river alongside the mouth of the rapids-infested La Chute River in the 3. The terrain amplified the importance of the site, the name Ticonderoga comes from the Iroquois word tekontaró, meaning it is at the junction of two waterways. During the 1758 Battle of Carillon,4,000 French defenders were able to repel an attack by 16,000 British troops near the fort, in 1759, the British returned and drove a token French garrison from the fort. Cannons captured were transported to Boston where their deployment forced the British to abandon the city in March 1776. The only direct attack on the fort took place in September 1777, the British abandoned the fort after the failure of the Saratoga campaign, and it ceased to be of military value after 1781.
It fell into ruin, leading people to strip it of some of its stone, metal. It became a stop on tourist routes of the area in the 19th century and its private owners restored the fort early in the 20th century. A foundation now operates the fort as a tourist attraction, the route was relatively free of obstacles to navigation, with only a few portages. Although the site provides commanding views of the extent of Lake Champlain, Mount Defiance, at 853 ft. Indians had occupied the area for centuries before French explorer Samuel de Champlain first arrived there in 1609, Champlain recounted that the Algonquins, with whom he was traveling, battled a group of Iroquois nearby. In 1642, French missionary Isaac Jogues was the first white man to traverse the portage at Ticonderoga while escaping a battle between the Iroquois and members of the Huron tribe and these colonial conflicts reached their height in the French and Indian War, which began in 1754. The next year saw the building of the four main bastions, work slowed in 1757, when many of the troops prepared for and participated in the attack on Fort William Henry.
The barracks and demi-lunes were not completed until spring 1758, the French built the fort to control the south end of Lake Champlain and prevent the British from gaining military access to the lake. The Joannes and Languedoc bastions overlooked the lake to the south, the walls were seven feet high and fourteen feet thick, and the whole works was surrounded by a glacis and a dry moat five feet deep and 15 feet wide. When the walls were first erected in 1756, they were made of squared wooden timbers, the French began to dress the walls with stone from a quarry about one mile away, although this work was never fully completed. When the main defenses became ready for use, the fort was armed with cannons hauled from Montreal, the fort contained three barracks and four storehouses
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. The Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, the historic Erie, Wyandot, and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, the most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin. The first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, other spellings occurring in the earliest sources include Erocoise, Hyroquoise, Iriquois, Iroquaes and Yroquois. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that the Charlevoix etymology was dubious, Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa they who smoke or Cayuga iakwai a bear. Hewitt responded to Hales etymology in 1888 by expressing doubt that either of those words even exist in the respective languages, a more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M.
Day in 1968, who elaborates upon an earlier etymology given by Charles Arnaud in 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning terrible man, Day proposes a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning a man, an Iroquois, as the origin of this term. More recently, Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for Iroquois. g and he proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil to kill, ko, and a. He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as the killer people, a different term, Haudenosaunee, is the designation more commonly used by the Iroquois to refer to themselves. It is preferred by scholars of Native American history who consider the name Iroquois to be derogatory in origin. An alternate designation, Ganonsyoni, is encountered as well. More transparently, the Iroquois confederacy is referred to simply as the Six Nations.
The history of the Iroquois Confederacy goes back to its formation by the Peacemaker in 1142, each nation within the Iroquoian family had a distinct language and function in the League. Iroquois influence extended into present-day Canada, westward along the Great Lakes, the League is governed by a Grand Council, an assembly of fifty chiefs or sachems, each representing one of the clans of one of the nations. The original Iroquois League or Five Nations, occupied areas of present-day New York State up to the St. Lawrence River, west of the Hudson River. The League was composed of the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, in or close to 1722, the Tuscarora tribe joined the League, having migrated from the Carolinas after being displaced by Anglo-European settlement
House of Burgesses
The Virginia House of Burgesses /ˈbɜːrdʒəsɪz/ was the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America. From 1619 to 1776, the branch of the legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses. Jamestown remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699, when the government was moved to Williamsburg, in 1776 the colony became the independent Commonwealth of Virginia and the House of Burgesses became the House of Delegates. Originally a synonym of burgher or bourgeois, the word came to mean a borough representative in local or parliamentary government. The Colony of Virginia was founded by an English stock company, early governors provided the stern leadership and harsh judgments required for the colony to survive its early difficulties. To encourage settlers to come to Virginia, in 1618–1619, the Virginia Companys leaders drew up a great charter, emigrants who paid their own way to Virginia would receive fifty acres of land. They would not be mere tenants, civil authority would control the military.
A council of burgesses, representatives chosen by the inhabitants of the colony for their government, the House of Assembly was created at the same time in Bermuda and held its first session in 1620. A handful of Polish craftsmen, brought to the colony to supply skill in the manufacture of pitch, tar and they downed tools in protest, but returned to work after being declared free and enfranchised, apparently by agreement with the Virginia Company. On July 30,1619, the first European-style legislative assembly in the Americas convened for a meeting at the church on Jamestown Island. Together, the House of Burgesses and the Council would be the Virginia General Assembly, the Houses first session of July 30,1619, accomplished little, being cut short by an outbreak of malaria. By 1624, the government in London had heard enough about the problems of the colony. Virginia became a colony and the governor and council would be chosen by the king. Nonetheless, the form of government of the colony was retained.
In 1634, the General Assembly divided the colony into eight shires for purposes of government, administration, by 1643, the expanding colony had 15 counties. All of the county offices, including a board of commissioners, sheriff, only the members of the House of Burgesses were elected by a vote of the people. Women had no right to vote, while all free men originally were given the right to vote, by 1670 only property owners were allowed to vote. In 1652, the forces of Oliver Cromwell forced the colony to submit to their takeover of the English government