Alexios III Angelos
Alexios III Angelos was Byzantine Emperor from March 1195 to July 17/18,1203. A member of the imperial family, Alexios came to throne after deposing, blinding. The most significant event of his reign was the attack of the Fourth Crusade on Constantinople in 1203, Alexios III took over the defense of the city, which he mismanaged, fled the city at night with one of his three daughters. From Adrianople, and Mosynopolis, he attempted to rally his supporters. Alexios III Angelos was the son of Andronikos Doukas Angelos. Andronikos was himself a son of Theodora Komnene Angelina, the youngest daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, thus Alexios Angelos was a member of the extended imperial family. Together with his father and brothers, Alexios had conspired against Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos and his younger brother Isaac was threatened with execution under orders of Andronikos I, their first-cousin once-removed, on September 11,1185. Isaac made an attack on the imperial agents and killed their leader Stephen Hagiochristophorites.
He took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia and from there appealed to the populace and his actions provoked a riot, which resulted in the deposition of Andronikos I and the proclamation of Isaac as Emperor. Alexios was now closer to the throne than ever before. By 1190 Alexios had returned to the court of his younger brother, in March 1195 while Isaac II was away hunting in Thrace, Alexios was acclaimed as emperor by the troops with the covert support of Alexios wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera. These actions inevitably led to the ruin of the state. At Christmas 1196, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI attempted to force Alexios to pay him a tribute of 5,000 pounds of gold or face invasion. Alexios gathered the money by plundering imperial tombs at the church of the Holy Apostles and taxing the people heavily, though Henrys death in September 1197 meant the gold was never dispatched. The able and forceful empress Euphrosyne tried in vain to sustain his credit and his court, the Emperors attempts to bolster the empires defences by special concessions to pronoiars in the frontier zone backfired, as the latter increased their regional autonomy.
Byzantine authority survived, but in a weakened state. Soon Alexios was threatened by a new and more formidable danger, in 1202, soldiers assembled at Venice to launch the Fourth Crusade. Alexios III took no measures to resist, and his attempts to bribe the crusaders failed
Hundred Years' War
Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, the war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries. After the Norman Conquest, the kings of England were vassals of the kings of France for their possessions in France, the French kings had endeavored, over the centuries, to reduce these possessions, to the effect that only Gascony was left to the English. Through his mother, Isabella of France, Edward III of England was the grandson of Philip IV of France and nephew of Charles IV of France, in 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, unable to claim the French throne for herself, the French rejected the claim, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right that she did not possess. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crecy, however, the greater resources of the French monarchy precluded a complete conquest.
Historians commonly divide the war into three separated by truces, the Edwardian Era War, the Caroline War, and the Lancastrian War. Later historians adopted the term Hundred Years War as a historiography periodization to encompass all of these events, the war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops. Although primarily a conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French. The wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, the war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire and thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics, English political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture. The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, the root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe.
The outbreak of war was motivated by a rise in tension between the Kings of France and England about Guyenne and Scotland. The dynastic question, which due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext. The question of succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, and his posthumous son John I lived only a few days, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, asserted that women were ineligible to succeed to the French throne. Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V of France, by the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, which passed to his younger brother, Charles IV, in 1322
Mount Fuji, located on Honshu Island, is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776.24 m. An active stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–08, Mount Fuji lies about 100 kilometres south-west of Tokyo, Mount Fuji is one of Japans Three Holy Mountains along with Mount Tate and Mount Haku. It is a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japans Historic Sites and it was added to the World Heritage List as a Cultural Site on June 22,2013. Per UNESCO, Mount Fuji has inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries, UNESCO recognizes 25 sites of cultural interest within the Mt. Fuji locality. These 25 locations include the mountain itself, Fujisan, in Shinto mythology, Kuninotokotachi is one of the two gods born from something like a reed that arose from the soil when the earth was chaotic. He is known by mythology to reside on top of Mount Fuji, Kuninotokotachi is described as a hitorigami and genderless in Kojiki, while as a male god in Nihon Shoki. Yoshida Kanetomo, the founder of the Yoshida Shintō sect, identified Kuninotokotachi with Amenominakanushi, the current kanji for Mount Fuji, 富 and 士, mean wealth or abundant and a man with a certain status respectively.
The origin of the name Fuji is unclear, having no recording of it being first called by this name. A text of the 10th century, Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, says that the name came from immortal, an early folk etymology claims that Fuji came from 不二, meaning without equal or nonpareil. Another claims that it came from 不尽, meaning neverending, a Japanese classical scholar in the Edo era, Hirata Atsutane, speculated that the name is from a word meaning, a mountain standing up shapely as an ear of a rice plant. It is pointed that huchi means an old woman and ape is the word for fire, research on the distribution of place names that include fuji as a part suggest the origin of the word fuji is in the Yamato language rather than Ainu. A Japanese toponymist Kanji Kagami argued that the name has the root as wisteria and rainbow. In English, the mountain is known as Mount Fuji, some sources refer to it as Fuji-san, Fujiyama or, redundantly, Mt. Fujiyama. Japanese speakers refer to the mountain as Fuji-san and this san is not the honorific suffix used with peoples names, such as Watanabe-san, but the Sino-Japanese reading of the character yama used in Sino-Japanese compounds.
In Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanization, the name is transliterated as Huzi, among the most renowned works are Hokusais 36 Views of Mount Fuji and his One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji, as well as Utagawa Hiroshiges similarly-titled 36 Views of Mount Fuji. The mountain is mentioned in Japanese literature throughout the ages and is the subject of many poems and it is thought that the first recorded ascent was in 663 by an anonymous monk. The summit has been thought of as sacred since ancient times and was forbidden to women until the Meiji Era, ancient samurai used the base of the mountain as a remote training area, near the present-day town of Gotemba. The shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo held yabusame in the area in the early Kamakura period, the first ascent by a foreigner was by Sir Rutherford Alcock in September 1868, from the foot of the mountain to the top in eight hours and three hours for the descent
Pope Sergius IV
It can refer to Sergius IV of Naples, Duke of Naples in 1002–36. Pope Sergius IV was Pope and the ruler of the Papal States from 31 July 1009 to his death in 1012 and he was born in Rome as Pietro Martino Buccaporci, which essentially translates as Peter Martin Pigs Snout. The date of his birth is unknown but is believed to be around 970, Buccaporci was the son of a shoemaker by the name of Pietro. Despite his familys background, he performed well after entering the Church. In 1004, he became the Cardinal-Bishop of Albano after he became a cardinal and he was elected pope after the abdication of Pope John XVIII in 1009, and adopted the name Sergius IV. The power held by Sergius IV was small and often overshadowed by John Crescentius III, some historians have claimed that Sergius IV was essentially a puppet ruler for Crescentius III. Others, claimed that the Pope resisted his power, acts sometimes attributed to Sergius IV include measures to relieve famine in the city of Rome, and the exemption of certain monasteries from episcopal rule.
More recently, Hans Martin Schaller has forcefully argued for the documents authenticity. Sergius IV died on 12 May 1012 and was buried in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, there was some suspicion that he was murdered, as he died within a week of Crescentius, considered by many to have been his patron. Sergius was followed in the papacy by Pope Benedict VIII
John Komnenos the Fat
John Komnenos, nicknamed the Fat, was a Byzantine noble who attempted to usurp the imperial throne from Alexios III Angelos in a short-lived coup in Constantinople on 31 July 1201. The coup drew on opposition to the ruling Angelid dynasty among both rival aristocratic families and the people, who were dissatisfied by the dynastys failures against external foes. Alexios III, secure in his residence in the northwestern Blachernae Palace, with most of the urban mob dispersed for the night, the Varangians had little difficulty in suppressing the coup. John Komnenos with many of his followers were captured and executed, John was the son of the distinguished protostrator Alexios Axouch. The Axouchoi were a prominent family of Turkish origin, which was associated with the Komnenian dynasty. The two families intermarried, Johns mother Maria was the daughter of Alexios Komnenos, eldest son, John was thus able to claim a pedigree comparable, if not superior, to the reigning Angeloi, albeit from the maternal side.
The most notable of these was an uprising in February 1200 against the warden of the praetorium, Constantinoples chief prison, John Lagos. He was certainly supported by a circle of nobles from the Komnenian era, possibly even the brothers Alexios Komnenos and David Komnenos. However, the revolt was fuelled by a general feeling of discontent and humiliation at the failures of the Angeloi. Then the conspirators marched towards the Great Palace, avoiding the Chalke Gate, which was held by the feared Varangian Guard, they made for the imperial box in the Hippodrome, the kathisma, which was connected to the palace precinct. Johns supporters indeed managed to drive off the Macedonian guard placed there, having gained control of the western portions of the palace, John sat on the imperial throne, which broke under his great weight. He took no actions to consolidate his position, other than appoint his chief followers to the Empires highest posts. At the same time, his supporters, who along with the mob included a sizeable group of Georgian and Italian mercenaries.
Mesarites and his men managed to drive the looters back, until he was wounded in the skirmish, with the coming of night, most of the crowd that had accompanied the storming of the palace earlier that day departed, intending to resume looting the next day. In the meantime, Alexios III, who resided in the Blachernae Palace in the northwestern corner. A small force was dispatched with boats around the peninsula to the Hodegetria Monastery north of the Great Palace. The loyalist force marched to the Hippodrome, where they drove away most of Johns supporters and they entered the palace, where they found scarce opposition from Johns attendants. A similar fate befell many of his supporters that night, while others were captured and tortured to extract the names of all the conspirators
Charles VII of France
Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death. In the midst of the Hundred Years War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances, in addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a war raged in France between the Armagnacs and the Burgundian party. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other cities on the Loire river. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates and this long-awaited event boosted French morale as hostilities with England resumed. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French had expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais, the last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France.
Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the residence in Paris. He was the child and fifth son of Charles VI of France. His four elder brothers, Charles and John had each held the title of Dauphin of France in turn, all died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and they decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau, the Duke assumed that the meeting would be entirely peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphins men reacted to the Dukes arrival by attacking and killing him, Charles level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his mens intentions, the assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, at the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt.
For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, for those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, who was in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press effectively for their candidates, the English, already in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was ruled by an English regent, Henry Vs brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
Pope John XVIII
Pope John XVIII was Pope and ruler of the Papal states from January 1004 to his abdication in June 1009. He was born Giovanni Fassano at Rapagnano, near Ascoli Piceno, during his whole pontificate he was allegedly subordinate to the head of the Crescentii clan who controlled Rome, the patricius John Crescentius III. This period was disrupted by continuing conflicts between the Ottonian Emperor Henry II and Arduin of Ivrea, who had styled himself King of Italy in 1002 after the death of Emperor Otto III. Rome was wracked with bouts of plague, and Saracens operated freely out of the Emirate of Sicily ravaging the Tyrrhenian coasts, as Pope, John XVIII occupied his time mainly with details of ecclesiastical administration. He authorized a new Diocese of Bamberg to serve as a base for missionary activity among the Slavs and he adjudicated a squabble between the abbot of Fleury and the bishops of Sens and Orléans. John was successful in creating, at least temporarily, a rapprochement between the Eastern and Western churches and his name could be found on Eastern diptychs and he was prayed for in masses in Constantinople.
Ultimately he abdicated and, according to one catalogue of Popes, retired to a monastery and his successor was Pope Sergius IV. Pope John XVIII was only the 17th pope called John, because John XVI was an antipope according to official reckoning and his status as an antipope was not recognized at the time, however, so the true 16th Pope John called himself John XVII. The true 17th pope called John took the regnal number XVIII, the true sequence of numbering has never been corrected. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, volume 5, The Popes In The Days of Feudal Anarchy, from Formosus to Damasus II, Part 2. London, Kegan Paul, Trubner & Co
Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, the Triumvirs defeated Caesars murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Romes eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt, ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, relations among the Triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavians sister, despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antonys relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs.
Their ongoing hostility erupted into war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavians direction, declared war on Cleopatra. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavians forces at the Battle of Actium and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide. With Antony dead, Octavian was the master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire. A member of the plebeian Antonia gens, Antony was born in Rome on January 14,83 BC. His father and namesake was Marcus Antonius Creticus, son of the noted orator by the name who had been murdered during the Marian Terror of the winter of 87–86 BC. His mother was Julia Antonia, a distant cousin of Julius Caesar, Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sullas march on Rome in 82 BC. According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antonys father was incompetent and corrupt, in 74 BC he was given military command to defeat the pirates of the Mediterranean, but he died in Crete in 71 BC without making any significant progress.
Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was constantly in debt due to the extravagance of his lifestyle and he was a major figure in the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy and was summarily executed on the orders of the Consul Cicero in 63 BC for his involvement. His death resulted in a feud between the Antonia and the famous orator, Antonys early life was characterized by a lack of proper parental guidance. According to the historian Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling, Antonys contemporary and enemy, claimed he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio. There is little information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of Publius Clodius Pulcher. He may have involved in the Lupercal cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order in life
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor, the lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, but in 1873, as part of Japans Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced. In Japan today, the old Chinese calendar is virtually ignored, celebrations of the Lunar New Year are thus limited to Chinese, Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Including The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced into Japan. It was often used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, though, the cycle is seldom used except around New Years. The era name system was introduced from China, and has been in continuous use since AD701.
Each Emperors reign begins a new era, before 1868 era names were declared for other reasons. Nengō are the means of dating years in Japan. It is in use in private and personal business. The Japanese imperial year or kigen 紀元 is based on the date of the founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. It was first used in the calendar in 1873. However, it never replaced era names, and since World War II has been abandoned, the Western Common Era system has gradually come into common use since the Meiji period. Now, most people know it, as well as era names, the official dating system known as nengō 年号, strictly speaking, gengō 元号, has been in use since the late 7th century. Years are numbered within eras, which are named by the reigning Emperor, the nengō system remains in wide use, especially on official documents and government forms. The imperial year system was used from 1872 to the Second World War, Imperial year 1 was the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan –660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar.
Usage of kōki dating can be a nationalist signal, pointing out that the history of Japans imperial family is longer than that of Christianity, kōki 2600 was a special year. The 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, the Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year
Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region and it was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture is Auxerre and its number is 89. It is the fourth most populous department in the region with a population of about 342,000, the biggest city is Auxerre, the capital, with a population of 35,000 in the city and roughly 43,000 in the urban area centred on it. The first evidence of occupation in this area is found in the Grottes dArcy-sur-Cure where paintings have been found dating back 28,000 years. The Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of that left behind numerous flint artefacts. Further waves of immigrants followed, the Chasséen culture, and the Michelsberg culture, the Celtic tribe in the area were named Icauna, after the River Yonne which they thought sacred, and the region was occupied by Gallic tribes. The area came under the control of the Romans, whose town was Sens.
It was the capital of their province of Gallia Lugdunensis, one of four provinces into which France was subdivided, the present main roads from Lyon to Boulogne, and from Sens to Alise-Sainte-Reine date from this period. In 1771, the part of the present department belonged to Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony. The current Yonne department saw its birth during the French Revolution, on March 4,1790 and it was carved out of parts of the provinces of Burgundy and Orléans, and to a lesser extent from parts of the Nivernais and Île-de-France. Yonne is a department in central France, one of the eight constituent departments of the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. To the northeast lies the department of Aube, to the east lies Côte-dOr, to the south lies Nièvre, to the west lies Loiret and to the northwest, the River Yonne flows northwards through the department. Auxerre, the capital of the department is situated on the River Yonne, the Canal de Bourgogne, which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, joins the River Yonne through locks at Migennes a little further north.
The second biggest town is Sens, situated at the confluence of the River Vanne, the geology of the department is complex with concentric rings of granite, Jurassic and Tertiary rocks and layers of sedimentary rocks. The terrain is mostly a low-lying plateau used for agriculture, the southwestern part is the Pays de Puisaye-Forterre at a higher elevation and is more wooded. To the centre and east, the inclines to the northwest where the higher land of the Tonnerrois region lies. To the east the rock is limestone and the Auxerrois region is renowned for the grapes grown here which are used in the production of Chablis