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Mycobacterium abscessus

Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a group of growing, multidrug-resistant non-tuberculous mycobacteria species that are common soil and water contaminants. Although M. abscessus complex most cause chronic lung infection and skin and soft tissue infection, the complex can cause infection in all human organs in patients with suppressed immune systems. Amongst NTM species responsible for disease, infection caused by M. abscessus complex are more difficult to treat due to antimicrobial drug resistance. M. abscessus cells are gram-positive, acid-fast rods about 1.0–2.5 µm long by 0.5 µm wide. They may form colonies on Löwenstein–Jensen media that appear smooth or rough, white or greyish and nonphotochromogenic. M. abscessus shows growth at 28 °C and 37 °C after 7 days but not at 43 °C. It may grow on MacConkey agar at 28 °C and 37 °C, it shows tolerance to saline media as well as 0.2 % picrate. Strains of the species have been shown to degrade the antibiotic p-aminosalicylate. M. abscessus has been shown to produce arylsulfatase but not of nitrate reductase and Tween 80 hydrolase.

It shows a negative result for the iron uptake test and no utilisation of fructose, oxalate or citrate as sole carbon sources. M. abscessus and M. chelonae can be distinguished from M. fortuitum or M. peregrinum by their failure to reduce nitrate and to take up iron. Tolerance to 5% NaCl in Löwenstein-Jensen media, tolerance to 0.2% picrate in Sauton agar, non-utilisation of citrate as a sole carbon source are characteristics that distinguish M. abscessus from M. chelonae. M. abscessus and M. chelonae sequevar I share an identical sequence in the 54-510 region of 16S rRNA, though both species can be differentiated by their hsp65, ITS or rpoB gene sequences. A draft genome sequence of M. abscessus subsp. Bolletii BDT was completed in 2012. Since a large number of strains from this subspecies have had their genomes sequenced, leading to a clarification of subspecies boundaries. In 1992, M. abscessus was first recognised as a distinct species. In 2006, this group was separated into three subspecies: abscessus and massiliense.

In 2011, massiliense and bolletii were merged into a single subspecies, but were subsequently separated again following greater availability of genome sequence data, which showed the three subspecies formed genetically distinct groups. These distinct groups correspond to important biological differences. Clinically important differences include differing susceptibilities to antibiotics. M. abscessus subsp. Abscessus and bolletii carry a common antibiotic resistance gene which confers resistance to macrolide antibiotics, while massiliense is thought to carry a non-functional copy, is therefore more susceptible to antibiotics and more treated. M. abscessus can cause lung disease, skin infections, central nervous system infections, eye infections, other, less common diseases. Chronic lung disease occurs most in vulnerable hosts with underlying lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and prior tuberculosis. Clinical symptoms of lung infection vary in scope and intensity but include chronic cough with purulent sputum.

Haemoptysis may be present. Systemic symptoms include malaise and weight loss in advance disease; the diagnosis of M. abscessus pulmonary infection requires the presence of symptoms, radiologic abnormalities, microbiologic cultures. M. abscessus can cause skin infections in immunodeficient patients, patients who have undergone surgery, tattooing or acupuncture, or after exposure to hot springs or spas. It can be associated with middle ear infections; the incidence of M. abscessus. Outbreaks of M. abscessus have been reported in clinical settings worldwide. While outbreaks of major clinical concern involve transmission between vulnerable patients such as those receiving lung transplants or being treated for cystic fibrosis, outbreaks have been reported at clinics providing cosmetic surgery, mesotherapy and IV infusion of cell therapy, although these are more attributable to contaminated disinfectants and instruments than contact between patients. A study from 2019 supported the capability of phages in killing resistant bacteria unable to be treated with antibiotics.

Research laboratories came together in order to find these phages by collecting and exposing them to resistant Mycobacterium abscessus, isolated from a patient in London. A bacteriophage known as Muddy had proved effective at killing the patient’s distinct Mycobacterium abscessus strain, while phages like ZoeJ and BPs had reduced capabilities at infecting GD01. A mixture of phages and engineered versions of ZoeJ and BPs, though infected and killed GD01. A cocktail of bacteriophages, ZoeJ, BPs killed a strain of Mycobacterium abscessus in vitro; the potential this showed encouraged the commencement of patient treatments towards the GD01 infection. Every 12 hours, the patient received a treatment of the bacteriophage cocktail. One day of treatment showed high bacteriophage levels in the bloodstream; this suggested that they were being released into the bloodstream and replicating to infect bacteria. No significant side effects were reported; the right phages were found for this patient, but a different strain of Mycobacterium abscessus may be sensitive to different phages.

The type strain of M. abscessus, most referred to as ATCC19977, was isolated in 1953 from a human knee infection presenting with abscess-like lesions, lea

Trigger Happy TV

Trigger Happy TV is a hidden camera/practical joke reality television series. The original British edition of the show, produced by Absolutely Productions, starred Dom Joly and ran for two series on the British television channel Channel 4 from 2000 to 2003. Joly made a name for himself as the sole star of the show, which he produced and directed with cameraman Sam Cadman. Trigger Happy TV and World Shut Your Mouth, his other major show, would both be categorised as deadpan or "dry humour"; the show returned for a one-off Christmas special on Channel 4 after 13 years, airing Christmas Eve 2016. The show consists of Joly deliberately entering into ludicrous or embarrassing situations in public places, which were filmed surreptitiously by Cadman. Sketches took place in a variety of locations, though most appeared to be filmed on the streets of Central London and Cheltenham. Unlike most hidden camera shows, many of the scenes in Trigger Happy TV do not revolve around trapping normal people into embarrassing and impossible situations.

Instead, he makes fun of himself rather than others, many scenes made people stop and either laugh or wonder what was going on. Such scenes include Joly answering a gigantic novelty mobile phone and shouting at the top of his voice into it, a chef chasing an actor in a large rat costume out of a restaurant, two actors dressed as masked Mexican wrestlers getting into spontaneous fights in grocery stores. Other scenes included people dressed as animals breaking into a fight and the progress of various costumed pedestrians across a zebra crossing in London. Joly often dressed as a Cub Scout, a foreign person with bad English, or a park attendant; the show does not include a laugh track, instead playing instrumental and sometimes sad music during sketches. Bands such as Eels and The Crocketts have been used several times in the series. Two series and two Christmas specials of the show were produced in the UK, from 2000 to 2003. Three DVDs were released, containing the Christmas specials. Despite the show's popularity over two continents, Joly says he will not make any more in Britain, as his face and voice are now too well known.

The comedy was known for its contrastingly sombre musical soundtrack, released commercially. He notes in the booklet of the soundtrack CD for Series 2 "Also Johnny Vaughan ask me why all the music is so sad and not plinky-plonk, happy-clappy cartoon type stuff,'cos I don't want to be the Big Breakfast,'nuff said." A series of 8 short episodes became available on All 4 on 26 September 2016, as well as a Christmas special which aired on Channel 4 on 24 December 2016. The signature sketch of the series sees Joly innocuously present in a public location a place of relative quiet such as an art gallery, a library or an, when a loud Nokia ring tone sounds. After a moment's pause, he lifts an oversized model of a mobile phone into view and shouts "Hello?!" into it. He proceeds to yell conversational dialogue about where he is and what he's doing. Apart from an occasion where he was "On a boat in Holland!", this was while he exits the area. It always concluded with him saying some variation of "Yeah, it's rubbish...ciao!"The status of this sketch premise as synonymous with the series, arguably Dom Joly's eventual boredom with it, was reflected in the final episode, where it served as the final sketch.

It began with him sitting on a bench at a train station, beneath a sign reading "The End". He looks somewhat downbeat, with the phone resting beside him. In time the familiar ring tone sounds and he lifts the phone only to speak in a low and measured voice "Hello? No... No... I can't talk now, bye." and soon a fade to black. A random customer about to enter a grocery store is told by Joly that they are the millionth customer and anything they can get in their shopping trolley in a one-minute "dash" will be free; the customer proceeds to speed through the store filling up their cart while he and the other actors removed the set and left. Joly is seen dressed in a stereotype burglar costume and asks a random passerby to aide him in some criminal endeavour. Invariably after completing his "crime" he'd start yelling his joy at the success and implicate the passerby as an accomplice, while departing the scene. One instance saw him shouting from the upstairs window of a house asking a passerby to put a ladder back up for him and hold it while he climbs down, upon reaching the bottom he runs away screaming "We burgled the house!

Me and him just burgled the house!", leaving the passerby holding the ladder. Joly, dressed in authentic costumes, would walk up to people sitting at a table or bench outside a restaurant, offer to perform some form of entertainment, most play a musical instrument, sing or perform a dance. Whether they accepted or refused the offer, he'd proceed to give a performance of terrible quality and, however they reacted, hold out a hand in expectation of a tip. On one occasion, wearing a porkpie hat and white jumpsuit, walks up to a couple sitting on a bench in a park. Despite no encouragement, he proceeded to do a terrible Morris dance; when finished, he calmly places his hand out as if asking for change. Joly is seen in a laundrette with boxer shorts and an undershirt on, wearing a hockey mask on his face, � la Jason Voorhees, he stuffs a bloody jumpsuit into the washer. Outsid