Middle Eastern Studies (journal)
Middle Eastern Studies is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of Middle-Eastern studies. It was established in 1964 by Elie Kedourie, who served as editor-in-chief from 1964–1992, is published by Taylor & Francis. From 1992–2016, the journal was edited by Sylvia Kedourie, it is now co-edited by Helen Kedourie. The journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 0.443. Official website
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the vice president and prime minister of the United Arab Emirates, ruler of the Emirate of Dubai. Since his accession in 2006, after the death of his brother Sheikh Maktoum, he has undertaken reforms in the UAE's government, starting with the UAE Federal Government Strategy in April 2007. In 2010 he launched the UAE vision 2021 with the aim of making the UAE'one of the best countries in the world' by 2021, he is responsible for the growth of Dubai into a global city, as well as the launch of a number of major enterprises including Emirates Airline, DP World, the Jumeirah Group. Many of these are held by Dubai Holding, a company with multi-diversified businesses and investments. Sheikh Mohammed has overseen the development of numerous projects in Dubai including the creation of a technology park and a free economic zone, Dubai Internet City, Dubai Media City, the Dubai International Finance Centre, the Palm Islands and the Burj Al Arab hotel, he drove the construction of Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world.
An equestrian, he is the founder of the Maktoum family-owned Godolphin racing stable and the owner of Darley, a thoroughbred breeding operation with operations in six countries. In 2012, he rode, he is a recognised poet in his native Arabic. He has a special relationship with Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, is seen as the de facto leader of the UAE. Sheikh Mohammed is the third of Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's four sons, members of Dubai's ruling Al Maktoum family and descendants of the House of Al-Falasi, of which Sheikh Mohammed is the tribal leader, his mother was Sheikha Latifa bint Hamdan Al Nahyan, daughter of Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan the ruler of Abu Dhabi. From the age of four, he was tutored in Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1955, he began his formal education at Al Ahmedia School. At the age of 10, he moved to Al Shaab School, two years went to Dubai Secondary School.
In 1966, with his cousin Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, he attended the Bell Educational Trust's English Language School in the United Kingdom. He subsequently studied at the Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, passing out with the sword of honour as the top Commonwealth student, he travelled to Italy to train as a pilot. As a young man, in January 1968, he was present when Sheikh Rashid and Sheikh Zayed first met in the desert between Dubai and Abu Dhabi at Argoub El Sedira to agree to the formation of a union of emirates following British notification of intent to withdraw from the Trucial States; when the new nation of the United Arab Emirates was founded on 2 December 1971, he became its first Minister of Defence. On his return from military training to Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed's father appointed him head of the Dubai Police Force and the Dubai Defence Force, to become part of the Union Defence Force. A period of uncertainty and instability followed the Union of the United Arab Emirates, including skirmishes between tribes over property straddling new borders.
On 24 January 1972, the exiled former ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, Saqr bin Sultan Al Qasimi led an insurrectionist coup against the ruler, Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi. Following a spirited firefight between the Union Defence Force and Saqr's forces - Egyptian mercenaries who had entered the UAE through Ras Al Khaimah - Sheikh Mohammed accepted Saqr's surrender. Sheikh Khalid had been killed in the action, leading to the accession of his brother Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi as ruler of Sharjah. Mohammed delivered Saqr to Sheikh Zayed. In 1973, Sheikh Mohammed was involved in protracted negotiations with the hijackers of JAL 404, led by Japanese Red Army member Osamu Maruouka, which landed in Dubai after being hijacked as it departed Schiphol. Although unsuccessful in obtaining the release of the hostages, he was more successful in a negotiation with the three hijackers of KLM 861, who released the balance of their hostages and handed over the plane in return for safe passage. Sheikh Mohammed has been responsible for the creation and growth of a number of businesses and economic assets of Dubai, with a number held by two companies under his ownership, Dubai World and Dubai Holding.
Dubai World was launched on 2 July 2006, as a holding company consolidating a number of assets including logistics company DP World, property developer Nakheel Properties, investment company Istithmar World. With more than 50,000 employees in over 100 cities around the globe, the group has real estate and other business investments in the United States, the United Kingdom, South Africa. Dubai Holding develops and manages hospitality, business parks, real estate, telecommunications through four operating units: Jumeirah Group, TECOM Investments, Dubai Properties Group and Emirates International Telecommunications; the company's investment group operating units include Dubai International Capital. He holds a controlling interest in property developer and event management, investment company Meraas Holding, developing a number of retail and themed developments in Dubai, including Legoland and a Bollywood movie theme park. Sheikh Mohammed was responsible for the launch of Emirates Airline, as well as heading the development of both Dubai International Airport and Dubai World Central - Al Maktoum International Airport.
He was al
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins. Opinions and practice vary across the world. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriage is considered ideal and encouraged. In some countries, this practice is common. In others, it is seen as incestuous and is prohibited: it is banned in China and Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, the Philippines and 24 of the 50 United States. Supporters of cousin marriage where it is banned may view the prohibition as discrimination, while opponents may appeal to moral or other arguments. Worldwide, more than 10 % of marriages are between second cousins. In the past, cousin marriage was practised within indigenous cultures in Australia, North America, South America, Polynesia. Various religions have ranged from prohibiting sixth cousins or closer from marrying, to allowing first-cousin marriage. Cousin marriage is an important topic in alliance theory. Children of first-cousin marriages may have an increased risk of genetic disorders if their parents both carry a harmful recessive mutation, but this can only be estimated empirically, those estimates are to be specific to particular populations in specific environments.
Children of more distantly related cousins have less risk of genetic disorders. In fact, a study of Icelandic records indicated that marriages between third or fourth cousins may produce the most children and grandchildren. According to Professor Robin Fox of Rutgers University, 80% of all marriages in history may have been between second cousins or closer; the founding population of Homo sapiens was 700 to 10,000 individuals. Proportions of first-cousin marriage in Western countries have declined since the 19th century. In the Middle East, cousin marriage is still favoured. Cousin marriage has been chosen to keep cultural values intact, preserve family wealth, maintain geographic proximity, keep tradition, strengthen family ties, maintain family structure or a closer relationship between the wife and her in-laws. Many such marriages are arranged. Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love". In ancient China, some evidence indicates in some cases, two clans had a longstanding arrangement wherein they would only marry members of the other clan.
Some men practiced sororate marriage, that is, a marriage to a former wife's sister or a polygynous marriage to both sisters. This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable. In the ancient system of the Erya dating from around the third century BC, the words for the two types of cross cousins were identical, with father's brother's children and mother's sister's children both being distinct. However, whereas it may not have been permissible at that time, marriage with the mother's sister's children became possible by the third century AD; the mother's sister's children and cross cousins shared one set of terms, with only the father's brother's children retaining a separate set. This usage remains today, with biao cousins considered "outside" and paternal tang cousins being of the same house. In some periods in Chinese history, all cousin marriage was prohibited, as law codes dating from the Ming Dynasty attest.
However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored. The following is a Chinese poem by Po Chu-yi. Anthropologist Francis Hsu described mother's brother's daughter as being the most preferred type of Chinese cousin marriage, mother's sister's daughter as being tolerated, father's brother's daughter as being disfavored; some writers report this last form as being nearly incestuous. One proposed explanation is that in FBD marriage, the daughter does not change her surname throughout her life, so the marriage does not result in an extension of the father's kinship ties. In Chinese culture, these patrilineal ties are most important in determining the closeness of a relation. In the case of the MSD marriage, no such ties exist, so this may not be viewed as cousin marriage. One reason that MBD marriage is most common may be the greater emotional warmth between a man and his mother's side of the family. Analyses have found regional variation in these patterns.
By the early to mid-20th century, anthropologists described cross-cousin marriage in China as "still permissible... but... obsolete" or as "permitted but not encouraged". Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history. Anthropologists have debated the significance of the practice. Little numerical evidence exists of rates of cousin marriage in the past. Raphael Patai reports that in central Arabia, no relaxation of a man's right to the father's brother's daughter, seems to have taken place in the past hundred years before his 1962 work. Here the girl is not forced to marry her male cousin, but she cannot marry another unless he gives consent; the forc
Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum
Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the Crown Prince of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. He is popularly known as Fazza, the name under which he publishes his poetry, which means "the one who helps" in Arabic. Hamdan Bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the son of Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum and Sheikha Hind bint Maktoum bin Juma Al Maktoum, the senior wife of Mohammed, he is the fourth of his father's children. Hamdan's elder full brother was Sheikh Rashid bin Mohammed. Hamdan Bin Mohammed al Maktoum was educated in Dubai at the Rashid School For Boys, at the Dubai School of Government, he continued his studies in the United Kingdom where he graduated from Sandhurst in 2001, attended the London School of Economics. In his interview with Vision he described how Sandhurst taught him the importance of self-discipline, virtue, endurance, teamwork and the benefits of hard work. Hamdan was appointed as the chairman of the Dubai executive council in September 2006. On 1 February 2008, he was named as the Crown Prince of Dubai.
As the new hereditary prince, he appointed new key personal and financial advisors such as a global economist and a hedge fund tycoon from HN Capital LLP. In July 2009, he was appointed president of Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University Hamdan Bin Mohammed e-University, he is the head of the Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Establishment for young entrepreneurs, sits on the Dubai sports council and the Dubai autism centre. He was part of the Dubai World Expo 2020 delegation when Dubai was awarded the rights to host the event, he went to the top floor of the Burj Khalifa to wave the UAE flag, a few days after the World Expo 2020 win. He is the founder of the Hamdan International Photography Award, launched in 2011; the Crown Prince's Instagram account has more than 7.5 million followers as of February 2019. Hamdan Al Maktoum is a horse rider, a skydiver and a diver, he dives in Fujairah. He is known for his patriotic poems, he publishes his poems under the name Faz3. He is a camel jockey and a speed car racer.
He plays a major role in the Godolphin stables. He is a member of the Royal Ascot. Sheikh Hamdan won a gold medal at the Alltech FEI World Equestrian Games™ 2014 in Normandy, team gold in 2012 and a bronze medal in 2010, he led a team of five UAE riders at Championships in Samorín on September 17, 2016. 14 November 1982 – 4 January 2006: Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum 4 January 2006 – 1 February 2008: His Excellency Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum 1 February 2008 – Present: His Highness Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Civil Merit. Cannes Award for Education in recognition of his role in the field of education in the Middle East and North Africa and for leading Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University. Official Website - Arabic & English Official Instagram Account Official and only instagram account of Hamdan
Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Dubai is a global business hub of the Middle East, it is a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, aviation, real estate, financial services. Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa; as of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai", meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement; the history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE.
The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra found several artefacts from the Umayyad period; the earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf; this led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892. In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds.
The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was subsequently put to death. In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance; these policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo; the frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.
Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh'bids fair to become complete and permanent', that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States. The'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates t