Let's Move! was a public health campaign in the United States, led by Michelle Obama, wife of then-President Barack Obama. The campaign aims to encourage a healthy lifestyle in children; the initiative has the stated goal of "solving the challenge of childhood obesity within a generation so that children born today will reach adulthood at a healthy weight." Let's Move seeks to decrease childhood obesity to 5% by 2030. The campaign was announced on February 2010 by Michelle Obama, she indicated the campaign would encourage healthier food in schools, better food labeling and more physical activity for children. On the same date, Obama signed a presidential memorandum creating the Task Force on Childhood Obesity to review current programs and develop a national action plan; the Task Force reviews policy and programs related to physical activity. It hopes to create change through a national action plan with five goals: Creating a healthy start for children Empowering parents and caregivers Providing healthy food in schools Improving access to healthy, affordable foods Increasing physical activityThe White House Task Force hopes to bring the childhood obesity rate down to five percent by 2030.
A song, "Move Your Body", was released to promote the campaign called Let's Move! Flash Workout; the song was by Beyoncé and Swizz Beatz, the video was filmed in a school cafeteria where Beyoncé was dancing with children. The initiative was led for several years by Sam Kass, the personal chef to the Obamas who became the first-ever White House Senior Policy Advisor on Nutrition, he was succeeded in 2015 as both Executive Director of Let's Move! and Senior Policy Advisor on Nutrition by Debra Eschmeyer, a cofounder of FoodCorps. Since the Let's Move initiative was a collaboration of many government agencies and private entities, it lacked full-time employees. Department heads, business executives, teachers and others carry out the mission and goals of Let's Move in conjunction with their primary work obligations. Michelle Obama is the chief spokeswoman and promoter, but she does not have staff dedicated to carrying out the Let's Move initiative. Body mass index is a measurement of weight in relation to height that can help to determine weight status.
In children, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention determine, overweight if he/she is above the 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile and obese if at or above the 95th percentile. The CDC indicates that there are several factors that can contribute to childhood obesity: genetic factors. Overweight and obesity pose many potential consequences: psychological. Today nearly one in five children in the U. S. between ages 6–19 are obese, one in three are overweight. The childhood obesity rate tripled from 1980–1999 creating an epidemic and a generation where children may have shorter life spans than their parents; the Let's Move! initiative focuses on the reform of behavioral factors and environmental factors by focusing on active lifestyles and healthy eating through community involvement, including but not limited to schools, work places, healthcare providers. To promote healthy eating, the Let's Move! initiative emphasizes nutrition information, a next generation food "icon", food nutrition labeling and having pediatricians as partners.
The United States Department of Agriculture presents its Let's Move food choice guidelines on the webpage called MyPlate, located at ChooseMyPlate.gov. Guidelines take. Let's Move! provides consumers with nutrition information through the U. S. Food and Drug Administration's "New Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative" and "New Menu and Vending Machines Labeling Requirements". Let's Move! Advocates healthy eating habits to be promoted by families and communities. Let's Move! Urges mothers to eat more healthily when pregnant and offers links to a special "MyPyramid Plan for Moms" so they can create a personalized and healthy diet; the initiative provides guidelines for parents to set up and promote healthy eating habits for their entire family and children. In order for healthier eating to be promoted at schools, Let's Move! Promotes the USDA's HealthierUS School Challenge; the HealthierUS School Challenge is a voluntary initiative established in 2004 to recognize those schools participating in the National School Lunch Program that have created healthier school environments through promotion of nutrition and physical activity.
In February 2010, First Lady Michelle Obama introduced Let's Move!, incorporating the HealthierUS School Challenge into her campaign to raise a healthier generation of kids. At the time, monetary incentive awards became available for each HUSSC award level: Bronze, Silver and Gold Award of Distinction. Random House publishers has said Michelle Obama will be writing a book on her White House garden, her family's favorite healthy cooking ideas. For Let's Move to work the community needs to be involved. Schools need to implement health programs. Parents need to teach their children healthy habits; the following sections describe how organizations and businesses have gotten involved in this nationwide movement. Chefs Move to Schools was founded in May 2010 as part of First Lady Michelle Obama's Let's Move campaign; the Chefs Move to Schools program is a nationwide effort to teach culinary skills to school children and to get them to try new, healthful food options. Professional
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama is an American lawyer, university administrator and writer, First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th U. S. President, Barack Obama, was the first African-American First Lady. Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In her early legal career, she worked at the law firm Sidley Austin, she subsequently worked in non-profits and as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Michelle married Barack in 1992 and they have two daughters. Obama campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, she returned to speak for him at the 2012 Democratic National Convention. During the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, a former First Lady.
As First Lady, Obama served as a role model for women, worked as an advocate for poverty awareness, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating. She was considered a fashion icon. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson was born on January 17, 1964, in Chicago, Illinois, to Fraser Robinson III, a city water plant employee and Democratic precinct captain, Marian Shields Robinson, a secretary at Spiegel's catalog store, her mother was a full-time homemaker. The Robinson and Shields families trace their roots to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South. On her father's side, she is descended from the Gullah people of South Carolina's Low Country region, her paternal great-great grandfather, Jim Robinson, was born into slavery in 1850 on Friendfield Plantation, near Georgetown, South Carolina. He became a freedman at age 15 after the war; some of Obama's paternal family still reside in the Georgetown area. Her grandfather Fraser Robinson, Jr. built his own house in South Carolina. He and his wife LaVaughn returned to the Low Country from Chicago after retirement.
Among her maternal ancestors was her great-great-great-grandmother, Melvinia Shields, born into slavery in South Carolina but sold to Henry Walls Shields, who had a 200-acre farm in Clayton County, Georgia near Atlanta. Melvinia's first son, Dolphus T. Shields, was biracial and born into slavery about 1860. Based on DNA and other evidence, in 2012 researchers said his father was 20-year-old Charles Marion Shields, son of Melvinia's master, they may have had a continuing relationship, as she had two more mixed-race children and lived near Shields after emancipation, taking his surname. As was the case, Melvinia did not talk to relatives about Dolphus' father. Dolphus Shields with his wife Alice moved to Alabama after the Civil War, they were great-great-grandparents of Michelle Robinson. Other of their children's lines migrated to Ohio in the 20th century. All four of Robinson's grandparents had multiracial ancestors, reflecting the complex history of the U. S, her extended family has said that people did not talk about the era of slavery when they were growing up.
Her distant ancestry includes Irish and Native American roots. Among her contemporary extended family is rabbi Capers Funnye. Funnye converted to Judaism after college, he is a paternal first cousin once-removed. Robinson's childhood home was on the upper floor of 7436 South Euclid Avenue in Chicago's South Shore community area, which her parents rented from her great-aunt, who had the first floor, she was raised in what she describes as a "conventional" home, with "the mother at home, the father works, you have dinner around the table". Her elementary school was down the street, she and her family enjoyed playing games such as Monopoly and saw extended family on both sides. She played piano, learning from her great-aunt, a piano teacher; the Robinsons attended services at nearby South Shore United Methodist Church. They used to vacation in a rustic cabin in Michigan, she and her 21-month older brother, skipped the second grade. Her father suffered from multiple sclerosis, which had a profound emotional effect on her as she was growing up.
She was determined to stay out of trouble and be a good student, what her father wanted for her. By sixth grade, Michelle joined a gifted class at Bryn Mawr Elementary School, she attended Whitney Young High School, Chicago's first magnet high school, established as a selective enrollment school, where she was a classmate of Jesse Jackson's daughter Santita. The round-trip commute from the Robinsons' South Side home to the Near West Side, where the school was located, took three hours. Michelle recalled being fearful of how others would perceive her, but disregarded any negativity around her and used it "to fuel me, to keep me going", she recalled facing gender discrimination growing up, for example, that rather than asking her for her opinion on a given subject, people tended to ask what her older brother thought. She was on the honor roll for four years, took advanced placement classes, was a member of the National Honor Society, served as student council treasurer, she graduated in 1981 as the salutatorian of her class.
She was inspired to follow her brother to Prince
Francois Henri Jack LaLanne was an American fitness and nutrition expert and motivational speaker, sometimes referred to as the "Godfather of Fitness" and the "First Fitness Superhero". He described himself as being a "sugarholic" and a "junk food junkie" until he was age 15, he had behavioral problems, but "turned his life around" after listening to a public lecture about the benefits of good nutrition by health food pioneer Paul Bragg. During his career, he came to believe that the country's overall health depended on the health of its population, referred to physical culture and nutrition as "the salvation of America". Decades before health and fitness began being promoted by celebrities like Jane Fonda and Richard Simmons, LaLanne was widely recognized for publicly preaching the health benefits of regular exercise and a good diet, he published numerous books on fitness and hosted the fitness television program The Jack LaLanne Show between 1953 and 1985. As early as 1936, at age 21, he opened one of the nation's first fitness gyms in Oakland, which became a prototype for dozens of similar gyms bearing his name.
One of his 1950s television exercise programs was aimed toward women, whom he encouraged to join his health clubs. He invented a number of exercise machines, including the pulley and leg extension devices and the Smith machine. Besides producing his own series of videos, he coached the elderly and disabled not to forgo exercise, believing it would enable them to enhance their strength. LaLanne gained recognition for his success as a bodybuilder, as well as for his prodigious feats of strength. Arnold Schwarzenegger once exclaimed "That Jack LaLanne's an animal!" after a 54-year-old LaLanne beat 21-year-old Schwarzenegger badly in an informal contest. On the occasion of LaLanne's death, Schwarzenegger credited LaLanne for being "an apostle for fitness" by inspiring "billions all over the world to live healthier lives", and, as governor of California, had earlier placed him on his Governor's Council on Physical Fitness. Steve Reeves credited LaLanne as his inspiration to build his muscular physique while keeping a slim waist.
LaLanne has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. LaLanne was born in San Francisco, the son of Jennie and Jean/John LaLanne, French immigrants from Oloron-Sainte-Marie. Both entered the U. S. in the 1880s as young children at the Port of New Orleans. LaLanne had two older brothers, who died in childhood, Norman, who nicknamed him "Jack", he grew up in Bakersfield and moved with his family to Berkeley, California circa 1928. In 1939, his father died at the age of 58 in a San Francisco hospital, which LaLanne attributed to "coronary thrombosis and cirrhosis of the liver". In his book The Jack LaLanne Way to Vibrant Health, LaLanne wrote that as a boy he was addicted to sugar and junk food, he had violent episodes directed against himself and others, describing himself as "a miserable goddamn kid... it was like hell". Besides having a bad temper, LaLanne suffered from headaches and bulimia, temporarily dropped out of high school at age 14; the following year, at age 15, he heard health food pioneer Paul Bragg give a talk on health and nutrition, focusing on the "evils of meat and sugar".
Bragg's message had a powerful influence on LaLanne, who changed his life and started focusing on his diet and exercise. In his own words, he was "born again", besides his new focus on nutrition, he began working out daily. Describing his change of diet, LaLanne stated, "I had to take my lunch alone to the football field to eat so no one would see me eat my raw veggies, whole bread and nuts. You don't know the crap I went through."Writer Hal Reynolds, who interviewed LaLanne in 2008, notes that he became an avid swimmer and trained with weights, describes his introduction to weight lifting: LaLanne went back to school, where he made the high school football team, went on to college in San Francisco where he earned a Doctor of Chiropractic degree. He studied Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body and concentrated on bodybuilding and weightlifting. In 1936, he opened the nation's first health and fitness club in Oakland, where he offered supervised weight and exercise training and gave nutritional advice.
His primary goal was to motivate his clients to improve their overall health. Doctors, advised their patients to stay away from his health club, a business unheard of at the time, warned their patients that "LaLanne was an exercise'nut,' whose programs would make them'muscle-bound' and cause severe medical problems." LaLanne recalls the initial reaction of doctors to his promotion of weight-lifting: LaLanne designed the first leg extension machines, pulley machines using cables, the weight selectors that are now standard in the fitness industry. He invented the original model of. LaLanne encouraged women to lift weights. By the 1980s, Jack LaLanne's European Health Spas numbered more than 200, he licensed all his health clubs to the Bally company, now known as Bally Total Fitness. Though not associated with any gym, LaLanne continued to lift weights until his death. LaLanne's gym ownership led to a brief professional wrestling career in 1938. Wrestlers were among the few a
National Geographic Kids
National Geographic Kids is a children's magazine published by the National Geographic Society. Its first issue was printed in September 1975 under the original title National Geographic World; the magazine was published for twenty-six years as National Geographic World, until the title of the magazine was changed in 2002 to National Geographic Kids. In a broad sense, the publication is a version of National Geographic, the flagship magazine of the National Geographic Society, intended for children. National Geographic Kids publishes ten issues annually; the headquarters of the magazine is in Washington, D. C; as of June, 2006, the magazine reports a circulation of more than 1.3 million in English, with an estimated English language readership of more than 4.6 million. There are eighteen editions of National Geographic Kids in languages other than English, published in Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Italy, Latin America, Belgium/Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, South Africa and the United Kingdom.
The magazine is written for children between the ages of fourteen. It solicits reader feedback after each issue; the magazine launched a spin-off, National Geographic Little Kids, targeted toward children under kindergarten age. In 2009 the magazine launched their first almanac called National Geographic Kids Almanac 2010. In 2010 the almanac continued with an updated book, National Geographic Kids Almanac 2011. There have been new updates to the almanac issued annually since then. World Atlas 1st Edition World Atlas 2nd Edition World Atlas 3rd Edition World Atlas 4th Edition These are some of the regular features, most of which appear periodically, Amazing Animals Fun Stuff The Inside Scoop Kids Did It! Go On Safari! What in the World Video Game Central Weird But True Cool Inventions Stupid Criminals Just Joking Sports Funnies Guinness World Records Wildlife Watch Unleashed Naughty Pets The Green List Bet You Didn't Know The twenty-eighth anniversary issue in June, 2002 was well publicized, it featured a "Top 25" list of the things readers most enjoyed a collection of cards people had sent to the magazine, a special "Kids Did It" column that featured updates on the lives of celebrities, featured in the magazine when they were kids, such as Michelle Kwan.
The thirtieth anniversary issue in September, 2005 featured an article describing what life might be like in thirty years. It featured thirty "cool things" of the future. Karwootadang Science education National Geographic Kids Media Kit URL accessed on November 16, 2007 Official website
Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism or non-living mechanical system propels itself through the air along a ballistic trajectory. Jumping can be distinguished from running and other gaits where the entire body is temporarily airborne, by the long duration of the aerial phase and high angle of initial launch; some animals, such as the kangaroo, employ jumping as their primary form of locomotion, while others, such as frogs, use it only as a means to escape predators. Jumping is a key feature of various activities and sports, including the long jump, high jump and show jumping. All jumping involves the application of force against a substrate, which in turn generates a reactive force that propels the jumper away from the substrate. Any solid or liquid capable of producing an opposing force can serve as a substrate, including ground or water. Examples of the latter include dolphins performing traveling jumps, Indian skitter frogs executing standing jumps from water.
Jumping organisms are subject to significant aerodynamic forces and, as a result, their jumps are governed by the basic physical laws of ballistic trajectories. While a bird may jump into the air to initiate flight, no movement it performs once airborne is considered jumping, as the initial jump conditions no longer dictate its flight path. Following the moment of launch, a jumper will traverse a parabolic path; the launch angle and initial launch velocity determine the travel distance and height of the jump. The maximum possible horizontal travel distance occurs at a launch angle of 45 degrees, but any launch angle between 35 and 55 degrees will result in ninety percent of the maximum possible distance. Muscles do physical work, adding kinetic energy to the jumper's body over the course of a jump's propulsive phase; this results in a kinetic energy at launch, proportional to the square of the jumper's speed. The more work the muscles do, the greater the launch velocity and thus the greater the acceleration and the shorter the time interval of the jump's propulsive phase.
Mechanical power and the distance over which that power is applied are the key determinants of jump distance and height. As a result, many jumping animals have long legs and muscles that are optimized for maximal power according to the force-velocity relationship of muscles; the maximum power output of muscles is limited, however. To circumvent this limitation, many jumping species pre-stretch elastic elements, such as tendons or apodemes, to store work as strain energy; such elastic elements can release energy at a much higher rate than equivalent muscle mass, thus increasing launch energy to levels beyond what muscle alone is capable of. A jumper may be either moving when initiating a jump. In a jump from stationary, all of the work required to accelerate the body through launch is done in a single movement. In a moving jump or running jump, the jumper introduces additional vertical velocity at launch while conserving as much horizontal momentum as possible. Unlike stationary jumps, in which the jumper's kinetic energy at launch is due to the jump movement, moving jumps have a higher energy that results from the inclusion of the horizontal velocity preceding the jump.
Jumpers are able to jump greater distances when starting from a run. Animals use a wide variety of anatomical adaptations for jumping; these adaptations are concerned with the launch, as any post-launch method of extending range or controlling the jump must use aerodynamic forces, thus is considered gliding or parachuting. Aquatic species display any particular specializations for jumping; those that are good jumpers are adapted for speed, execute moving jumps by swimming to the surface at a high velocity. A few aquatic species that can jump while on land, such as mud skippers, do so via a flick of the tail. In terrestrial animals, the primary propulsive structure is the legs, though a few species use their tails. Typical characteristics of jumping species include long legs, large leg muscles, additional limb elements. Long legs increase the time and distance over which a jumping animal can push against the substrate, thus allowing more power and faster, farther jumps. Large leg muscles can generate greater force.
In addition to elongated leg elements, many jumping animals have modified foot and ankle bones that are elongated and possess additional joints adding more segments to the limb and more length. Frogs are an excellent example of all three trends: frog legs can be nearly twice the body length, leg muscles may account for up to twenty percent of body weight, they have not only lengthened the foot and thigh, but extended the ankle bones into another limb joint and extended the hip bones and gained mobility at the sacrum for a second'extra joint'; as a result, frogs are the undisputed champion jumpers of vertebrates, leaping over fifty body lengths, a distance of more than eight feet. Grasshoppers use elastic energy storage to increase jumping distance. Although power output is a principal determinant of jump distance, physiological constraints limit muscle power to 375 Watts per kilogram of muscle. To overcome this limitation, grasshoppers anchor their legs via an internal "catch mechanism" while their muscles stretch an elastic apodeme.
When the catch is released, the apodeme releases its energy
John J. Pershing
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing was a senior United States Army officer. His most famous post was when he served as the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces on the Western Front in World War I, 1917–18. Pershing rejected British and French demands that American forces be integrated with their armies, insisted that the AEF would operate as a single unit under his command, although some American divisions fought under British command, he allowed all-black units to be integrated with the French army. Pershing's soldiers first saw serious battle at Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, Soissons. To speed up the arrival of the doughboys, they embarked for France leaving the heavy equipment behind, used British and French tanks, artillery and other munitions. In September 1918 at St. Mihiel, the First Army was directly under Pershing's command. For the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Pershing shifted 600,000 American soldiers to the defended forests of the Argonne, keeping his divisions engaged in hard fighting for 47 days, alongside the French.
The Allied Hundred Days Offensive, which the Argonne fighting was part of, contributed to Germany calling for an armistice. Pershing was of the opinion that the war should continue and that all of Germany should be occupied in an effort to permanently destroy German militarism. Pershing is the only American to be promoted in his own lifetime to General of the Armies rank, the highest possible rank in the United States Army. Allowed to select his own insignia, Pershing chose to use four gold stars to distinguish himself from those officers who held the rank of General, signified with four silver stars. After the creation of the five-star General of the Army rank during World War II, his rank of General of the Armies could unofficially be considered that of a six-star general, but he died before the proposed insignia could be considered and acted on by Congress; some of his tactics have been criticized both by other commanders at the time and by modern historians. His reliance on costly frontal assaults, long after other Allied armies had abandoned such tactics, has been blamed for causing unnecessarily high American casualties.
In addition to leading the A. E. F. to victory in World War I, Pershing notably served as a mentor to many in the generation of generals who led the United States Army during World War II, including George Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Lesley J. McNair, George S. Patton, Douglas MacArthur. Pershing was born on a farm near Laclede, Missouri, to businessman John Fletcher Pershing and homemaker Ann Elizabeth Thompson. Pershing's great-great-grandfather, Frederick Pershing, whose name was Pfersching, emigrated from Alsace, leaving Amsterdam on the ship Jacob, arriving in Philadelphia on October 2, 1749. Pershing's mother was of English descent, he had five siblings: brothers James F. and Ward, sisters Mary Elizabeth, Anna May and Grace. When the Civil War began, his father supported the Union and was a sutler for the 18th Missouri Volunteer Infantry. Pershing attended a school in Laclede, reserved for precocious students who were the children of prominent citizens. Completing high school in 1878, he became a teacher of local African American children.
While pursuing his teaching career, Pershing studied at the State Normal School in Kirksville, from which he graduated in 1880 with a bachelor of science degree in scientific didactics. Two years he applied to the United States Military Academy. Pershing admitted that serving in the military was secondary to attending West Point, he had applied because the education offered was better than that obtainable in rural Missouri. Pershing was sworn in as a West Point cadet in the fall of 1882, he was selected early for leadership positions and became successively First Corporal, First Sergeant, First Lieutenant, First Captain, the highest possible cadet rank. Pershing commanded, ex officio, the honor guard that saluted the funeral train of President Ulysses S. Grant as it passed West Point in August 1885. Pershing graduated in the summer of 1886 ranked 30th in his class of 77, was commissioned a second lieutenant. Pershing considered petitioning the Army to let him study law and delay the start of his mandatory military service.
He considered joining several classmates in a partnership that would pursue development of an irrigation project in Oregon. He decided against both courses of action in favor of active Army duty. Pershing reported for active duty on September 30, 1886, was assigned to Troop L of the 6th U. S. Cavalry stationed in the New Mexico Territory. While serving in the 6th Cavalry, Pershing participated in several Indian campaigns and was cited for bravery for actions against the Apache. During his time at Fort Stanton and close friends Lt. Julius A. Penn and Lt. Richard B. Paddock were nicknamed "The Three Green P's," spending their leisure time hunting and attending Hispanic dances. Pershing's sister Grace married Paddock in 1890. Between 1887 and 1890, Pershing served with the 6th Cavalry at various postings in California and North Dakota, he became an expert marksman and, in 1891, was rated second in pistol and fifth in rifle out of all soldiers in the U. S. Army. On December 9, 1890, Pe