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South Pacific convergence zone

The South Pacific Convergence Zone, a reverse-oriented monsoon trough, is a band of low-level convergence and precipitation extending from the Western Pacific Warm Pool at the maritime continent south-eastwards towards French Polynesia and as far as the Cook Islands. The SPCZ is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone which lies in a band extending east-west near the Equator but can be more extratropical in nature east of the International Date Line, it is considered the largest and most important piece of the ITCZ, has the least dependence upon heating from a nearby landmass during the summer than any other portion of the monsoon trough. The SPCZ can affect the precipitation on Polynesian islands in the southwest Pacific Ocean, so it is important to understand how the SPCZ behaves with large-scale, global climate phenomenon, such as the ITCZ, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Interdecadal Pacific oscillation, a portion of the Pacific decadal oscillation; the SPCZ occurs where the southeast trades from transitory anticyclones to the south meet with the semipermanent easterly flow from the eastern South Pacific anticyclone.

The SPCZ can change its orientation and location. It is distinct from the ITCZ over Australia, but at times they become one continuous zone of convergence; the location of the SPCZ is affected by Interdecadal Pacific oscillation conditions. It stretches from the Solomon Islands through Vanuatu, Fiji and Tonga. Low-level convergence along this band forms cloudiness as well as thunderstorms. Thunderstorm activity, or convection, within the band is dependent upon the season, as the more equatorward portion is most active in the Southern Hemisphere summer, the more poleward portion is most active during transition seasons of fall and spring; the convergence zone shifts east or west depending on the existence of El Niño, or the phase of ENSO. The climatological position can be estimated by computing its mean position over 30 or more years. There are several metrics to measure the position of the SPCZ; the location of maximum rainfall, maximum of low level convergence, maxima of the 500 hPa vertical motion, the minimum in outgoing longwave radiation are four indicators of the SPCZ axis.

Figure 1 shows qualitative agreement between all of these SPCZ indicators. The position of the SPCZ can change on seasonal and longer timescales. Research into SPCZ movements of the 20th century are linked to changes in the IPO and ENSO. Folland et al. 2002 defined an index to describe the Interdecadal Pacific oscillation with sea surface temperature and night marine air temperature to determine how the SPCZ varies with the IPO. When the IPO index has negative temperature anomalies, the SPCZ is displaced southwest and moves northeastward when the IPO index has positive temperature anomalies; the Southern Oscillation Index is a metric for describing warm- and cold-phase conditions associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and can describe movements of the position of the SPCZ. Negative SOI index values are associated with warm-phase or El Niño-like conditions and a northeastward displacement of the SPCZ. Positive SOI index values, on the other hand, describe cold-phase or La Niña-like conditions and a southwestward displacement of the SPCZ.

Determining the position of the SPCZ over longer timescales in the past has been studied using coral records of the southwest Pacific. Linsley et al. reconstructed sea-surface temperature and sea surface salinity in the southwest Pacific starting circa 1600CE by measuring the oxygen isotopic composition of four Porites coral records from Rarotonga and two from Fiji. Coral isotope measurements provide information on both sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity, so they can indicate times of increased or decreased temperature and/or precipitation associated with changes in the position of the SPCZ, their coral oxygen isotope index indicated an eastward shift of the decadal mean position of the SPCZ since the mid 1800s. A shift of the SPCZ in this direction suggests there were more La Niña-like or cold-phase conditions in the Pacific, during this period called the Little Ice Age. Additional paleoclimate studies are still needed in order to test the reliability of these coral results; the IPO and ENSO can interact together to produce changes in the position of the SPCZ.

West of about 140 W, both ENSO and IPO influence the SPCZ latitude, but farther east only ENSO is a significant factor. Only near 170 W is there any indication of an interaction between the two factors. Besides observations of the SPCZ and movement in its position, there have been modelling studies as well. Widlansky et al. used a number of climate models of differing complexity to simulate rainfall bands in the southwest Pacific and see how the magnitude and areal extent was affected by the SPCZ and ENSO. During El Niño or warm-phase conditions, the SPCZ shifted northeastward with dryer conditions on islands to the southwest, in agreement with observations. Conversely, a southwestward shift in rainfall accompanied La Niña or cold-phase events in the simulations. Widlanksy et al. argued the sea surface temperature biases in models created uncertainty in the rainfall projections and produce what has been named “the double ITCZ problem”. The impact of sea surface temperature bias was further investigated by using uncoupled atmospheric models with prescribed sea surface temperatures, those 3 models each with differing complexity showed less severe double ITCZ bias than the ensemble of coupled models.

At its southeast edge, the circulation around the feature for

Free & Equal Elections Foundation

The Free & Equal Elections Foundation is a 501 non-profit, non-partisan organization in the United States, the mission of, to empower American voters through education and advocacy of electoral reforms. Free & Equal leads national and local efforts to open the electoral process in the United States by hosting all-inclusive gubernatorial and senatorial debates. Free & Equal was first organized in 1982 as the Foundation for Free Campaigns and Elections, before being formally reorganized in 2008 by Christina Tobin, an American activist and leader in the election reform and voters' rights movement. During the 2008 presidential election, Free & Equal hosted a presidential debate at the Mayflower Renaissance Hotel in Washington, D. C. on October, 23rd, 2008. Constitution Party candidate Chuck Baldwin and independent candidate Ralph Nader participated in a debate moderated by journalist Chris Hedges; the Free & Equal debate was the only presidential debate featuring independent and third-party candidates held during the 2008 election to be broadcast to a national audience.

The debate was broadcast live on C-SPAN2 in prime time. In 2012, Free & Equal sponsored the October 23, 2012 debate among four third party candidates for President of the United States, it featured Gary Johnson, Jill Stein, Virgil Goode, Rocky Anderson. The debate was moderated by Christina Tobin, it was televised by RT TV, Al Jazeera English, C-SPAN. On November 5, RT TV broadcast the two candidates voted winners of that debate, Gary Johnson and Jill Stein, from RT TV’s Washington, DC studio. Free & Equal hosted an open debate along with Student Voices Count at the University of Colorado Boulder's Macky Auditorium on October 25, 2016. All presidential candidates with ballot access sufficient to represent a majority of electoral votes were invited. In October 2016, Free and Equal extended the invitation to all candidates with ballot lines representing at least fifteen percent of potential voters: the Democratic, Libertarian, Constitution and Socialism and Liberation parties, as well as independent candidate Evan McMullin.

Gary Johnson, who participated in the 2012 debate, had publicly declined in July 2016 to debate Jill Stein on The Young Turks because of a matter of "just time". Since 2009, Free & Equal has hosted electoral reform symposiums to unite intellectuals and experts to share and debate reforms to the U. S. electoral system. Past panelists and speakers include President of The League of Women Voters of Colorado Nancy Crow, Deputy Secretary of State of Colorado Suzanne Staiert, Founder of FairVote Rob Richie, Founder of Nexus Earth Colin Cantrell, Founder of Ballot Access News Richard Winger and more. In 2014, Free & Equal launched United We Stand, a festival and tour uniting the younger generations with musicians and thought leaders to promote political and cultural change. Since its inception, the tour has made stops at Belasco Theater in Los Angeles in 2014 and 2015, University of Colorado Boulder in 2016, Texas A&M University in 2018; the 2019 tour includes Indiana, Colorado and Tennessee. Free & Equal Elections Foundation, official website

Keltic Lodge

Keltic Lodge is a resort hotel located in the village of Ingonish, Nova Scotia in Canada, on the northeastern coast of Cape Breton Island. The Keltic Lodge has 32 guest rooms and two luxury suites in the Main Lodge, 40 guest rooms at the Inn at Keltic, five two-bedroom cottages and five four-bedroom cottages with fireplaces and verandahs. Several executive cottages with private cliff-side backyards are available. Recreation facilities on the property or in the surrounding area include a heated outdoor pool, nearby Ingonish Beach, hiking wilderness trails, lawn games, whale watching, Aveda Spa, boat cruises. Adjacent to the resort is a highlight of Cape Breton golf—the 18-hole championship Highlands Links Golf Course, ranked by Score Golf Magazine as Atlantic Canada's Top Public Course in 2009; the Keltic Lodge operates from June to October annually and has been in business since July 1940. It is owned by the Nova Scotia Provincial Government and is managed and operated by New Castle Hotels and Resorts, LLC.

It is one of the three Nova Scotia Signature Resorts. In 1936, the land was expropriated by the Nova Scotia government from Henry and Julia Corson of Akron, Ohio; the Middlehead Peninsula, on which the Corson's land was situated, was desired after the federal government created the Cape Breton Highlands National Park. The Keltic Lodge was in operation for two seasons, but because of wartime shortages and overseas fighting, the government closed the hotel in 1942. 1943-44, with the abandoned luxury and nearby protected harbour, Keltic Lodge was a favorite shore leave destination for U-boat crews. In 1946, after the end of the war, the hotel reopened. In November 1997, an electrical fire claimed the gift coffee complex; the blaze erupted on a stormy evening and local firefighters had to battle high winds and snow to save the nearby structures from harm. In 1999, the Atlantic Restaurant and Birch Tree Shop opened on the site of the original complex; the Keltic Lodge continues to play a major role in the community of Ingonish as a source of employment and as a major attraction, drawing tourists to the area.

The resort has been included on the prestigious Gold List of Conde Nast Traveller, where it had been recognized as one of the most desirable destinations in the world. The mystique of the Keltic Lodge is enhanced by its prime location on the famous Cabot Trail, within Cape Breton Highlands National Park and by its proximity to Highlands Links, the number one golf course in Canada. Keltic Lodge official website

The Portuguese in Dhaka

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in Bengal as well as in Dhaka. The Portuguese who came to Dhaka were missionaries and merchants came from their main base in Hugli. In sixteenth century, some Portuguese traders settled in Dhaka and they used to export Muslin and silk goods to Europe and Southeast Asia. According to Campos, the writer of Portuguese in Bengal, the Portuguese settled in Dhaka in 1580. From some documents, it can be found that the Portuguese settlement was doing good in Dhaka till the early eighteenth century. Portuguese Augustine Fathers set up churches in Dhaka in this period. A church in Tejgaon is said to have been built by St. Augustine Missionaries prior to 1599; the Portuguese bought two villages in Bhowal, bought a piece of land in present-day Narinda. They built a church in Narinda in the site of the present day Christian cemetery, Dhaka in the early seventeenth century. In 1616, they settled a mission in Dhaka. In 1632, Mughal emperor Shahjahan started to drive out the Portuguese from Bangal.

The church in Narinda was not damaged. Shaista Khan allowed the Portuguese to make a settlement on the bank of Ichamati River as the Portuguese showed loyalty to the Mughals; the place where they made settlement located in present-day Muktarpur–Mirkadim area of Munshiganj is still known as "Firingibazaar". Narinda church is thought to be functioning again at this time as Father Anthony Barbier mentioned to spend Christmas at the church in his visit to Dhaka in 1713. From documents of 1789 it can be seen that the only church active at that time is the one in Tejgaon, a village four miles north of Dhaka's centre at that time, it is thought. But from the map of Major James Rennell, the Portuguese still had settlement around the area of the old church, the current Narinda-Laxmibazar area, they had a factory in that area. From 1620, other European merchants started to receive trade permit from the Mughals. So, a competition between the Portuguese and other European traders started from this time, but they continued their business in Dhaka till the 18th century.

In the 18th century they started to lose their business in competition with Dutch and English merchants and had to shut down their business in Dhaka by the end of the century. It is thought that some missionaries still continued to be in Dhaka as another church was established in Dhaka district in 1815. History of Bengal History of Dhaka


Hyperjacking is an attack in which a hacker takes malicious control over the hypervisor that creates the virtual environment within a virtual machine host. The point of the attack is to target the operating system, below that of the virtual machines so that the attacker's program can run and the applications on the VMs above it will be oblivious to its presence. Hyperjacking involves installing a malicious, fake hypervisor that can manage the entire server system. Regular security measures are ineffective because the operating system will not be aware that the machine has been compromised. In hyperjacking, the hypervisor operates in stealth mode and runs beneath the machine, it makes more difficult to detect and more gain access to computer servers where it can affect the operation of the entire institution or company. If the hacker gains access to the hypervisor, everything, connected to that server can be manipulated; the hypervisor represents a single point of failure when it comes to the security and protection of sensitive information.

For a hyperjacking attack to succeed, an attacker would have to take control of the hypervisor by the following methods: Injecting a rogue hypervisor beneath the original hypervisor Directly obtaining control of the original hypervisor Running a rogue hypervisor on top of an existing hypervisor Some basic design features in a virtual environment can help mitigate the risks of hyperjacking: Security management of the hypervisor must be kept separate from regular traffic. This is a more network related measure than hypervisor itself related. Guest operating systems should never have access to the hypervisor. Management tools should not be installed or used from guest OS. Patching the hypervisor; as of early 2015, there had not been any report of an actual demonstration of a successful hyperjacking besides "proof of concept" testing. The VENOM vulnerability had the potential to affect many datacenters. Hyperjackings are rare due to the difficulty of directly accessing hypervisors. Virtual machine escape