Louis IX of France
Louis IX known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier; as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most-powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Taillebourg, his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably parts of Aquitaine and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king was the supreme judge to whom anyone could appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment, he banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure.
To enforce the application of this new legal system, Louis IX created bailiffs. Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, he died from dysentery during the latter crusade, was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Catholic devotion, he decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution. He spent exorbitant sums on presumed relics of Christ, for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle, he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds and other Jewish books, he is the only canonized king of France, there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Joinville was a close friend and counselor to the king, he participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonisation in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, his chaplain, William of Chartres.
While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king, all three are biased favorably to the king. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' 19th century biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church, his grandfather on his father's side was king of France. Tutors of Blanche's choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, government, he was nine years old when his grandfather Philip II died and his father ascended as Louis VIII. Louis was 12 years old when his father died on 8 November 1226, he was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral. Because of Louis's youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority.
Louis' mother trained him to be a good Christian. She used to say: I love you, my dear son, as much as a mother can love her child, his younger brother Charles I of Sicily was created count of Anjou, thus founding the Capetian Angevin dynasty. No date is given for the beginning of Louis's personal rule, his contemporaries viewed his reign as co-rule between the king and his mother, though historians view the year 1234 as the year in which Louis began ruling with his mother assuming a more advisory role. She continued to have a strong influence on the king until her death in 1252. On 27 May 1234, Louis married Margaret of Provence, whose sister Eleanor became the wife of Henry III of England; the new queen's religious zeal made her a well suited partner for the king. He enjoyed her company, was pleased to show her the many public works he was making in Paris, both for its defense and for its health, they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. This attention raised a certain amount of jealousy in his mother, who tried to keep them apart as much as she could.
In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, translated the Talmud and pressed 35 charges against it to Pope Gregory IX by quoting a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin selected an injunction of the Talmud that permits Jews to kill non-Jews; this led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX, where rabbi Yechiel of Paris defended the Talmud against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud from Judeo Aramaic to a non-Jewish, profane language was seen by Jews as a profound violation; the disputation led to the burning of thousands of copies. When Louis was 15, his mother brought an end to the Albigensian Crusade in 1229 after signing an agreement with Count Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse that cleared the latter's father of wrongdoing. Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse had been suspected of murde
Battle of Höchstädt (1800)
The Battle of Höchstädt was fought on 19 June 1800 on the north bank of the Danube near Höchstädt, resulted in a French victory under General Jean Victor Marie Moreau against the Austrians under Baron Pál Kray. The Austrians were subsequently forced back into the fortress town of Ulm. Instead of attacking the fortified, walled city, which would result in massive losses of personnel and time, Moreau dislodged Kray's supporting forces defending the Danube passage further east; as a line of retreat eastward disappeared, Kray abandoned Ulm, withdrew into Bavaria. This opened the Danube pathway toward Vienna; the Danube passage connecting Ulm, Donauwörth and Regensburg had strategic importance in the ongoing competition for European hegemony between France and the Holy Roman Empire. The end result of the battle was the opposite of what had occurred on those same fields 100 years earlier, when the armies of the Grand Alliance had faced the armies of France during the War of the Spanish Succession.
At the Second Battle of Höchstädt in 1704, called the Battle of Blenheim by the English, the overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance. France's loss during that engagement opened the pathway into France for the allied English and Austrian forces. Although the First Coalition forces achieved several initial victories at Verdun, Neerwinden, Amberg and Würzburg, the efforts of Napoleon Bonaparte in northern Italy pushed Austrian forces back and resulted in the negotiation of the Peace of Leoben and the subsequent Treaty of Campo Formio; this treaty proved difficult to administer. Austria was slow to give up some of the Venetian territories. A Congress convened at Rastatt for the purposes of deciding which southwestern German states would be mediatised to compensate the dynastic houses for territorial losses, but was unable to make any progress. Supported by French republican forces, Swiss insurgents staged several uprisings causing the overthrow of the Swiss Confederation after 18 months of civil war.
By early 1799, the French Directory had become impatient with stalling tactics employed by Austria. An uprising in Naples raised further alarms, recent gains in Switzerland suggested the timing was fortuitous for the French to venture on another campaign in northern Italy and southwestern Germany. At the beginning of 1800, the armies of France and Austria faced each other across the Rhine. Feldzeugmeister Pál Kray led 120,000 troops. In addition to his Austrian regulars, his force included 12,000 men from the Electorate of Bavaria, 6,000 troops from the Duchy of Württemberg, 5,000 soldiers of low quality from the Archbishopric of Mainz, 7,000 militiamen from the County of Tyrol. Of these, 25,000 men were deployed east of Lake Constance to protect the Vorarlberg. Kray posted his main body of 95,000 soldiers in the L-shaped angle where the Rhine changes direction from a westward flow along the northern border of Switzerland to a northward flow along the eastern border of France. Unwisely, Kray set up his main magazine at Stockach, near the northwestern end of Lake Constance, only a day's march from French-held Switzerland.
General of Division Jean Victor Marie Moreau commanded a modestly-equipped army of 137,000 French troops. Of these, 108,000 troops were available for field operations while the other 29,000 watched the Swiss border and held the Rhine fortresses. Napoleon Bonaparte offered a plan of operations based on outflanking the Austrians by a push from Switzerland, but Moreau declined to follow it. Rather, Moreau planned to cross the Rhine near Basel. A French column would distract Kray from Moreau's true intentions by crossing the Rhine from the west. Bonaparte wanted Claude Lecourbe's corps to be detached to Italy after the initial battles, but Moreau had other plans. Through a series of complicated maneuvers in which he flanked, double flanked, reflanked Kray's army, Moreau's forces lay on the eastern slope of the Black Forest, while portions of Kray's army was still guarding the passes on the other side. Battles at Engen and Stockach were fought on 3 May 1800 between Kray's armies; the fighting near Engen resulted in a stalemate with heavy losses on both sides.
However, while the two main armies were engaged at Engen, Claude Lecourbe captured Stockach from its Austrian defenders under the Joseph, Prince of Lorraine-Vaudemont. The loss of this main supply base at Stockach compelled Kray to retreat north to Messkirch, where his army enjoyed a more favorable defensive position, it meant, that any retreat by Kray into Austria via Switzerland and the Vorarlberg was cut off. On 4 and 5 May, the French launched repeated and fruitless assaults on the Messkirch. At nearby Krumbach, where the Austrians had the superiority of position and force, the 1st Demi-Brigade took the village and the heights around it, which gave them a commanding aspect over Messkirch. Subsequently, Kray withdrew his forces to Sigmaringen, followed by the French. Fighting at nearby Biberach. Again, on 10 May, the Austrians withdrew with this time to Ulm. Sources are unclear, it was 40,000 troops, 60,000, well above the 10,000–30,000 total Austrian and Württemberg n
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325. This ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Hosius of Corduba, one of the papal legates, may have presided over its deliberations, its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, promulgation of early canon law. The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church. Most it resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent local and regional councils of Bishops to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy—the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom.
Derived from Greek, "ecumenical" means "worldwide" but is assumed to be limited to the known inhabited Earth, at this time in history is synonymous with the Roman Empire. One purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements arising from within the Church of Alexandria over the nature of the Son in his relationship to the Father: in particular, whether the Son had been'begotten' by the Father from his own being, therefore having no beginning, or else created out of nothing, therefore having a beginning. St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position; the council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly. Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate Easter, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar, decreed in an epistle to the Church of Alexandria in, stated:We send you the good news of the settlement concerning the holy pasch, namely that in answer to your prayers this question has been resolved. All the brethren in the East who have hitherto followed the Jewish practice will henceforth observe the custom of the Romans and of yourselves and of all of us who from ancient times have kept Easter together with you.
Significant as the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, the Council was the first occasion where the technical aspects of Christology were discussed. Through it a precedent was set for subsequent general councils to adopt canons; this council is considered the beginning of the period of the First seven Ecumenical Councils in the History of Christianity. The First Council of Nicaea was convened by Emperor Constantine the Great upon the recommendations of a synod led by Hosius of Córdoba in the Eastertide of 325; this synod had been charged with investigation of the trouble brought about by the Arian controversy in the Greek-speaking east. To most bishops, the teachings of Arius were dangerous to the salvation of souls. In the summer of 325, the bishops of all provinces were summoned to Nicaea, a place reasonably accessible to many delegates those of Asia Minor, Armenia, Egypt and Thrace; this was the first general council in the history of the Church summoned by emperor Constantine I.
In the Council of Nicaea, "The Church had taken her first great step to define revealed doctrine more in response to a challenge from a heretical theology." Constantine had invited all 1,800 bishops of the Christian church within the Roman Empire, but a smaller and unknown number attended. Eusebius of Caesarea counted more than 250, Athanasius of Alexandria counted 318, Eustathius of Antioch estimated "about 270". Socrates Scholasticus recorded more than 300, Evagrius, Hilary of Poitiers, Dionysius Exiguus, Rufinus recorded 318; this number 318 is preserved in the liturgies of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Delegates came including Britain; the participating bishops were given free travel to and from their episcopal sees to the council, as well as lodging. These bishops did not travel alone. Eusebius speaks of an innumerable host of accompanying priests and acolytes. A Syriac manuscript lists the names of the eastern bishops which included twenty two from Coele-Syria, nineteen from Palestine, ten from Phoenicia, six from Arabia, etc. but the distinction of bishops from presbyters had not yet formed.
The Eastern bishops formed the great majority. Of these, the first rank was held by the patriarchs: Alexander of Alexandria and Eustathius of Antioch. Many of the assembled fathers—for instance, Paphnutius of Thebes, Potamon of Heraclea, Paul of Neocaesarea—had stood forth as confessors of the faith a
The Roanoke Colony known as the Lost Colony, was the first attempt at founding a permanent English settlement in North America. It was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's North Carolina; the colony was sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh. The initial settlement was established in the summer of 1585, but a lack of supplies and bad relations with the local Native Americans caused many of its members to return to England with Sir Francis Drake a year leaving behind a small detachment; these men had all disappeared by the time a second expedition led by John White, who served as the colony's governor, arrived in July 1587. White, whose granddaughter Virginia Dare was born there shortly thereafter, left for England in late 1587 to request assistance from the government, but was prevented from returning to Roanoke until August 1590 due to the Anglo-Spanish War. Upon his arrival, the entire colony was missing with only a single clue to indicate what happened to them: the word "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.
For many years, it was accepted that the colonists were massacred by local tribes, but no bodies were discovered, nor any other archaeological evidence. The most prevalent hypothesis now is that environmental circumstances forced the colonists to take shelter with local tribes, but, based on oral histories and lacks conclusive evidence; some artifacts were discovered in 1998 on Hatteras Island where the Croatan tribe was based, but researchers could not definitively say these were from the Roanoke colonists. The enterprise was financed and organized by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who drowned in 1583 returning from a voyage to the fishing settlement at St. John's, Newfoundland, his half-brother, Sir Walter Raleigh gained Gilbert's charter from the Queen and subsequently executed its details through his delegates Ralph Lane and Richard Grenville, Raleigh's distant cousin. On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I granted Raleigh a charter for the colonization of the area of North America; this charter specified that Raleigh needed to establish a colony in North America, or lose his right to colonization.
The Queen and Raleigh intended. The queen's charter said that Raleigh was supposed to "discover, find out, view such remote heathen and barbarous Lands and territories... to have, hold and enjoy". The queen's charter said that Raleigh was supposed to establish a base from which to send privateers on raids against the treasure fleets of Spain; the purpose of these raids was to tell Spain. The original charter told Raleigh to establish a military base to counteract the activities of the Spaniards. Raleigh himself never visited North America, although he led expeditions in 1595 and 1617 to South America's Orinoco River basin in search of the legendary golden city of El Dorado. On April 27, 1584, Raleigh dispatched an expedition led by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the eastern coast of North America, they arrived on Roanoke Island on July 4 and soon established relations with the local natives, the Secotans and Croatans. Barlowe returned to England with two Croatans named Manteo and Wanchese, who were able to describe the politics and geography of the area to Raleigh.
Based on the information given, Raleigh organized a second expedition, to be led by Sir Richard Grenville. Grenville's fleet departed Plymouth on April 9, 1585, with five main ships: Tiger, Red Lion and Dorothy. A severe storm off the coast of Portugal separated Tiger from the rest of the fleet; the captains had a contingency plan if they were separated, to meet up again in Puerto Rico, Tiger arrived in the "Baye of Muskito" on May 11. While waiting for the other ships, Grenville established relations with the resident Spanish while engaging in some privateering against them, he built a fort. Elizabeth arrived soon after the fort's construction. Grenville tired of waiting for the remaining ships and departed on June 7; the fort was abandoned, its location remains unknown. Tiger sailed through Ocracoke Inlet on June 26, but it struck a shoal, ruining most of the food supplies; the expedition succeeded in repairing the ship and, in early July, reunited with Roebuck and Dorothy, which had arrived in the Outer Banks with Red Lion some weeks previous.
Red Lion had left for Newfoundland for privateering. During the initial exploration of the mainland coast and the native settlements, the Europeans blamed the natives of the village of Aquascogoc for stealing a silver cup; as retaliation, the settlers burned the village. English writer and courtier Richard Hakluyt's contemporaneous reports describe this incident. Despite this incident and a lack of food, Grenville decided to leave Ralph Lane and 107 men to establish a colony at the north end of Roanoke Island, promising to return in April 1586 with more men and fresh supplies; the group disembarked on August 17, 1585, built a small fort on the island. There are no surviving renderings of the Roanoke fort, but it was similar in structure to the one in Guayanilla Bay. Grenville in the Tiger on only his seventh day of sail captured a rich Spanish galleon, Santa Maria de San Vicente off Bermuda which he took with him as a prize back to England; as April 1586 passed, there was no sign of Grenvill
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Civil war era in Norway
The civil war era in Norway began in 1130 and ended in 1240. During this time in Norwegian history, some two dozen rival kings and pretenders waged wars to claim the throne. In the absence of formal laws governing claims to rule, men who had proper lineage and wanted to be king came forward and entered into peaceful, if still fraught, agreements to let one man be king, set up temporary lines of succession, take turns ruling, or share power simultaneously. In 1130, with the death of King Sigurd the Crusader, his possible half-brother, Harald Gillekrist, broke an agreement he and Sigurd had made to pass the throne to Sigurd's only son, the bastard Magnus. On bad terms before Sigurd's death, the two men and the factions loyal to them went to war. In the first decades of the civil wars, alliances shifted and centered on the person of a king or pretender. However, towards the end of the 12th century, two rival parties, the Birkebeiner and the Bagler, emerged. From this point, the civil wars were less about putting a particular "legitimate" king in power and more about ensuring and When they reconciled in 1217, a more ordered and codified governmental system freed Norway from wars to overthrow the lawful monarch.
In 1239, Duke Skule Bårdsson became the third pretender to wage war against King Håkon Håkonsson, but he was defeated in 1240, bringing more than 100 years of civil wars to an end. The unification of Norway into one kingdom is traditionally held to have been achieved by King Harald Fairhair at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in 872, but the process of unification took a long time to complete and consolidate. By the mid-11th century the process seems to have been completed. However, it was still not uncommon for several rulers to share the kingship; this seems to have been the common way of solving disputes in cases where two or more worthy candidates for the throne existed. The relationship between such co-rulers was tense, but open conflict was averted. Clear succession laws did not exist; the main criterion for being considered a worthy candidate for the throne was to be a descendant of Harald Fairhair through the male line—legitimate or illegitimate birth was not an issue. King Sigurd the Crusader had shared the kingdom with his brothers, King Øystein and King Olav, but when they both died without issue, Sigurd became sole ruler and his son, heir-apparent.
However, in the late 1120s a man called Harald Gille arrived in Norway from Ireland, claiming to be a son of King Sigurd's father, King Magnus Barefoot. King Magnus had spent some time campaigning in Ireland, Harald would thus be King Sigurd's half-brother. Harald proved his case through an ordeal of fire, the common way of settling such claims at the time, King Sigurd recognized him as his brother. However, Harald had to swear an oath that he would not claim the title of king as long as Sigurd or his son was alive; when Sigurd died in 1130, Harald broke his oath. Sigurd's son Magnus was proclaimed king, but Harald claimed the royal title, received much support. A settlement was reached whereby Harald would both be kings and co-rulers. Peace between them lasted until 1134. In 1135 Harald succeeded in capturing Magnus in Bergen. Magnus was blinded, castrated and imprisoned in a monastery, he was thereafter known as Magnus the Blind. At about the same time Sigurd Slembe, another man from Iceland, arrived claiming to be a son of Magnus Barefoot.
He claimed to have gone through an ordeal by fire in Denmark to prove his claim. Harald did not recognize him as his half-brother. In 1136 Sigurd murdered Harald in his sleep in Bergen, had himself proclaimed king. Harald's supporters would not accept him and had Harald's two infant sons, Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback, named king. Sigurd Slembe liberated Magnus the Blind from his enforced monastic life and allied himself with him; the war between Sigurd Slembe and Magnus the Blind on the one side, Harald Gille's old supporters with his young sons on the other, dragged on until 1139, when Magnus and Sigurd were defeated in Battle of Holmengrå fought near Hvaler. Magnus was killed in the battle, Sigurd was tortured to death; the power-sharing between Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback functioned well as long as they were both minors. In 1142, once again, a king's son arrived in Norway from west of the North Sea; this time it was a son of Harald Gille. Øystein claimed part of his father's inheritance and was given the title of king, with a third of the kingdom.
The three brothers ruled together in peace, until 1155. According to the sagas, Øystein and Sigurd Munn laid plans to depose their brother Inge and divide his share of the kingdom between them. At the urging of his mother Ingrid Ragnvaldsdotter and the influential lendmann Gregorius Dagsson, Inge decided to strike first, at a meeting among the three kings in Bergen. Sigurd Munn was killed by Inge's men before Øystein had had time to arrive in the city. Inge and Øystein reached a tenuous settlement, but conditions between them soon deteriorated into open warfare, ending with Øystein's capture and murder in Bohuslän in 1157. Whether or not Inge himself ordered the killing of his brother seems to have been disputed at the time; the followers of Inge's dead brothers, Øystein and Sigurd Munn, were not inclined to submit to Inge and instead chose a new pretender, Sigurd Munn's son, Håkon the Broadshouldered. This development has been seen as the first sign of a new stage in the civil wars: The warring parties no longer sprung up around a king or pretender but stayed together after the fall of their leader and elected a
Nidaros, Niðarós or Niðaróss was the medieval name of Trondheim when it was the capital of Norway's first Christian kings. It was named for its position at the mouth of the River Nid. Although the capital was moved to Oslo, Nidaros remained the centre of Norway's spiritual life until the Protestant Reformation; the Archdiocese of Nidaros was separated from Lund by the papal legate Nicholas Breakspeare in 1152, the shrine to Saint Olaf in Nidaros Cathedral was Northern Europe's most important pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages. Archbishop Olav Engelbrektsson led Norway in its attempted resistance against the Danish Reformation, was forced into exile by King Christian III in 1537; the archdiocese was replaced with a Lutheran diocese. The Christianization of Norway was begun by Haakon the Good and was continued by Olaf Trygvesson and Saint Olaf Haraldsson, two Vikings who had converted at Andover in England and Rouen in Normandy, respectively. Olaf Trygvesson founded Nidaros in 997, built a Kongsgård estate and church there.
From this base, he worked to spread Christianity in Norway, Shetland, the Faroes and Greenland. Olaf Haraldsson established Nidaros as a see, installed the monk Grimkill as its first bishop. Since Norway had no universities at the time, many English and German priests were brought in for its parishes and dioceses; the Norwegian bishops were at first dependent on Hamburg, on Lund in Sweden. Pope Eugene III resolved to create a metropolitan see at Nidaros, sent Nicholas Breakspeare as his legate in 1151. Nicholas installed bishop of Stavanger, as the first archbishop of Nidaros; the bishops of Oslo, Stavanger, Orkney, Skálholt and Hólar in Iceland, Garđar in Greenland were made its suffragans. Jon Birgerson was succeeded as archbishop by Eystein, former royal secretary and treasurer and an intelligent, strong-willed, pious man; those characteristics were needed to defend the Catholic Church against King Sverre, who wanted to make the church a tool of temporal power. The archbishop fled from to England.
Sverre renewed his attacks at Eystein's death, Archbishop Eric took refuge with Archbishop Absalon of Lund. When Sverre attacked the papal legate, Pope Innocent III placed the king and his partisans under interdict. King Håkon III Sverresson and successor of Sverre, made peace with the church whose liberty was preserved by the support of the pope and his archbishops. Norwegian Protestant ecclesiastical historian Anton Christian Bang asked what would have happened "if the Church, deprived of all liberty, had become the submissive slave of absolute royalty? What influence would it have exercised at a time when its chief mission was to act as the educator of the people and as the necessary counterpoise to defend the liberty of the people against the brutal whims of the secular lords? And what would have happened when a century royalty left the country? After that time the Church was, in reality, the sole centre of, grouped the whole national life of our country". To regulate ecclesiastical affairs, Innocent IV sent Cardinal William of Sabina as legate to Norway in 1247.
He intervened against encroachments by bishops, reformed abuses, abolished the ordeal by hot iron. Due to the papal legates, Norway became more linked with the pope. Secular priests and Benedictines, Augustinians and Franciscans worked together for the prosperity of the church. Archbishops Eilif Kortin, Paul Baardson and Arne Vade were most notable. Provincial councils were held at which efforts were made to eliminate abuses and to encourage Christian education and morality. St. Olaf, Norway's patron saint and Rex perpetuus Norvegiae, is entombed at Nidaros and the national and ecclesiastical life of the country was centred there, his tomb was a site of pilgrimage. The feast of St. Olaf on 29 July was a day of reunion for "all the nations of the Northern seas, Swedes, Cimbrians and Slavs" in the cathedral of Nidaros, where the saint's reliquary was near the altar. Built in Romanesque style by King Olaf Kyrre, the cathedral was enlarged by Archbishop Eystein in ogival style, it was finished in 1248 by Archbishop Sigurd Sim.
Although the cathedral was damaged several times by fire, it was restored each time until the Reformation. Archbishop Erik Valkendorf was exiled in 1521, his successor, Olaf Engelbrektsson, fled from the threat of Christian III. The reliquaries of St. Olaf and St. Augustine were melted down; the bones of St. Olaf were buried, unmarked, in the cathedral; when Norway regained self-rule as a separate kingdom in a union with Sweden in 1814, a period of national romanticism began in which attention was paid to the remnamts of the independent medieval kingdom. It was resolved to restore the ancient cathedral of Nidaros. Trondheim changed its name back to Nidaros on January 1, 1930. After widespread opposition to the name, the Norwegian Parliament restored the city's name on March 6, 1931; the pilgrimage route to Nidaros Cathedral has been revived. Using Norwegian spelling, the route is known as Saint Olav's Way; the main, 640-kilometre route begins in the ruins of Oslo's Old City and heads north along the lak