The Recollects were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly known today as the Franciscans. They used the post-nominal initials O. F. M, denoted by their gray habits and pointed hoods, the Recollects took vows of poverty and devoted their lives to prayer and spiritual reflection. Today, they are best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world, in 1897 Pope Leo XIII officially dissolved the Recollects order and integrated it as a part of the Franciscan order, officially changing their name to Friars Minor. It was observed by communities of friars in France in Tulle in 1585, at Nevers in 1592, at Limoges in 1596, at the same time, they were active in many pastoral ministries, becoming especially known as military chaplains to the French Army. The French Recollects had 11 provinces with 2,534 friaries by the late 18th century, the branch was suppressed during the French Revolution. The Recollects were important as early missionaries to the French colonies in Canada, when Samuel de Champlain returned from his sixth voyage to Canada on the 26th of May 1613, he made plans to bring missionaries on his next voyage.
Champlain had initially turned to the Recollects after receiving advice from his friend Sieur Louis Houel, Secretary to King Louis XIII, Houel was familiar with the Recollects who had been established in Brouage since 1610. Champlain was influenced by the successful Franciscan missions in the New World, the Jesuit Acadian mission had failed in 1613 following a British raid led by Captain Samuel Argall against Port Royal in present-day Nova Scotia. Although the Recollects were not the first religious order in New France, they were the first to enter, upon arrival the Recollet Fathers formed a conclave to divide the territory of Quebec. Jean Dolbeau was assigned the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence Valley, Joseph Le Caron was given the Huron Mission and other Amerindian populations in the regions of Grands Lacs. Denis Jamet receives missions between Quebec City and Trois-Rivières, as part of the Anglo-French War of 1626-1629 in Europe, the British captured Quebec City on July 20,1629. On September 9 of that year, the Recollects were forced to return to France along with the Jesuits.
The two groups of Friars were transported to Calais, where arrived on October 29,1629. Several Recollects, including veteran missionary Joseph Le Caron, appealed to the Capuchin missionaries, originally from New England, the Capuchins acquiesced, but Cardinal Richelieu ordered that the Jesuits replace the Capuchins in Quebec, additionally forbidding the Recollects from traveling on French ships to New France. Frustrated with the French bureaucracy, the Recollects petitioned the papacy in Rome to return to New France, they were once again denied passage aboard French ships. This conflict continued in 1643 when Queen Anne of Austria, the regent of France, who granted their request, the Recollects would not re-enter New France until 1670, nearly forty years since their expulsion After returning, they reestablished missions at Quebec, Trois-Rivières, and Montreal. In 1759, British conquest once again interfered with the Franciscans, five years later, the Bishop of Quebec, Jean-François Hubert, annulled the vows of any friar professed after 1784.
Their numbers gradually decreased until, by 1791, only five friars remained, the last Canadian Recollect, Father Louis Demers, died in Montreal in 1813
Battle of Palermo
The Dutch and Spanish ships were at bay making repairs from an earlier Battle of Augusta where Dutch Lt. Admiral General de Ruyter suffered lethal injuries. His death caused an impact on morale of the Dutch. The command of their fleet was transferred to Vice Admiral den Haen while the command was assumed by Spanish Admiral de Ibarra. The French fleet under command of Comte de Vivonne arrived from Messina. The actual planning of the battle belonged to Vice Admiral Duquesne, Rear Admiral de Tourville, the Dutch were inclined to meet the French at sea, but they were disappointed greatly by the Spanish conduct in the previous battle. The Dutch and Spanish ships of the line and frigates were springed in a battle line order across the bay with the Spanish galleys in front of them to protect from enemy fireships, the French fleet was larger and more powerful. Many Spanish ships were of older designs equipped with low calibre cannons, the Dutch crews were very well trained, though incomplete due to irrecoverable losses in the previous battles and a dysentery epidemic.
The Spanish ships couldnt maintain the order for a long time. Many of them cut spring ropes and left the line without order, three Spanish frigates were burnt due to a French fireship attack. Two Spanish galleys were destroyed by fire with Admiral de Villaroel killed. When Spanish resistance on the side of the line collapsed. The Spanish flagship, 70-gun Nuestra Señora del Pilar, was attacked by four French fireships, caught fire and exploded with 200 sailors, all three Dutch ships caught fire and exploded, though most of their crews escaped successfully. Rear Admiral van Middelandt was killed on board Steenbergen, the Dutch continued to resist though. Vice Admiral den Haen was killed by a cannonball while commanding his flagship, with all Dutch and Spanish admirals killed, a flag officer of late de Ruyter, Captain Callenburgh of 76-gun Eendracht, assumed general command. One of Spanish coastal batteries exploded and the town caught fire, the Dutch and Spanish were in a dire position, though the French lost all their fireships by this time and Vivonne ordered a return to Messina.
It could be argued the French were able to achieve a complete destruction of the allied Dutch, Vivonne decided the battle had been won already and it was better to return without losing a single warship. The French victory, achieved little, and the French forces in Sicily were recalled on 1 January 1678, as in the Franco-Spanish War of 1635-1659, in the Franco-Dutch War Spain retained its position in Italy and proved able to thwart French hopes of major gains. Tucker, A Global Chronology of Conflict, From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, aBC-CLIO2009, ISBN9781851096725, p.654 David S. T. Blackmore, Warfare on the Mediterranean in the Age of Sail, A History, 1571-1866
Salem witch trials
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. The trials resulted in the executions of twenty people, fourteen of them women, twelve other women had previously been executed in Massachusetts and Connecticut during the 17th century. Despite being generally known as the Salem Witch Trials, the hearings in 1692 were conducted in several towns, Salem Village, Salem Town, Ipswich. The most infamous trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town, the episode is one of Colonial Americas most notorious cases of mass hysteria. It has been used in political rhetoric and popular literature as a cautionary tale about the dangers of isolationism, religious extremism, false accusations. It was not unique, but a Colonial American example of the broader phenomenon of witch trials in the early modern period. Many historians consider the effects of the trials to have been highly influential in subsequent United States history.
According to historian George Lincoln Burr, the Salem witchcraft was the rock on which the theocracy shattered, at the 300th anniversary events in 1992 to commemorate the victims of the trials, a park was dedicated in Salem and a memorial in Danvers. In November 2001, the Massachusetts legislature passed an act exonerating all of those convicted and listing them by name, in January 2016, the University of Virginia announced its Gallows Hill Project team had determined the execution site in Salem, where the nineteen witches had been hanged. The city owns the site and is planning a memorial to the victims, in Against Modern Sadducism, Joseph Glanvill claimed that he could prove the existence of witches and ghosts of the supernatural realm. Glanvill wrote about the denial of the resurrection, and the spirits. In his treatise, Glanvill claimed that men should believe in witches and apparitions, if they doubted the reality of spirits, they not only denied demons. Glanvill wanted to prove that the supernatural could not be denied, works by men such as Glanvill and Cotton Mather tried to prove that demons were alive.
The earliest recorded execution was that of Alse Young in 1647 in Hartford. Historian Clarence F. Jewett included a list of people executed in New England in The Memorial History of Boston, Including Suffolk County. New England had been settled by religious refugees seeking to build a pure and they lived closely with the sense of the supernatural. The original 1629 Royal Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was vacated in 1684, Andros was ousted in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution in England replaced the Catholic James II with the Protestant co-rulers William and Mary. At the same time tensions erupted between English colonists settling in the Eastward and French-supported Wabanaki Indians of that territory in what came to be known as King Williams War
Siege of Antioch
The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. The first siege, by the crusaders against the Muslim-held city, Antioch lay in a strategic location on the crusaders route to Palestine. Supplies and retreat could all be controlled by the city, anticipating that it would be attacked, the Muslim governor of the city, Yaghi-Siyan, began stockpilling food and sending requests for help. The Byzantine walls surrounding the city presented an obstacle to its capture. The crusaders arrived outside the city on 21 October and began the siege, the garrison sortied unsuccessfully on 29 December. After stripping the area of food, the crusaders were forced to look farther afield for supplies, opening themselves to ambush. On the 31 December, a force of 20,000 crusaders encountered an army led by Duqaq of Damascus heading to Antioch. As the siege went on, supplies dwindled and in early 1098 one in seven of the crusaders was dying from starvation, a second relief force, this time under the command of Ridwan of Aleppo, advanced towards Antioch, arriving on 9 February.
Like the army of Duqaq before, it was defeated, Antioch was captured on 3 June, although the citadel remained in the hands of the Muslim defenders. Kerbogha began the siege, against the crusaders who had occupied Antioch. The second siege ended when the crusaders exited the city to engage Kerboghas army in battle, on seeing the Muslim army routed, the defenders remaining in the citadel surrendered. There are a number of sources relating to the Siege of Antioch. There are four accounts, those of Fulcher of Chartres, Peter Tudebode, and Raymond of Aguilers. Nine letters survive relating to or from the army, five of them were written while the siege was underway and another in September. While there are many sources the number of people on crusade is unclear because they fluctuated regularly, lying on the slopes of the Orontes Valley, in 1097 Antioch covered more than 3.5 square miles and was encircled by walls studded by 400 towers. The river ran along the northern wall before entering Antioch from the northwest.
Mount Silpius, crested by a citadel, was the Antiochs highest point, there were six gates through which the city could be entered, three along the northern wall, and one on each of the south and west sides. The valley slopes made approaching from the south, east, or west difficult, the citys defences dated from the reign of the Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century
The war ended with the Treaty of Nijmegen, by which Spain ceded the Franche-Comté and some cities in Flanders and Hainaut to France, while France returned some of its conquests to the Dutch. The year 1672, when an invasion of English, French. In the 1560s, the future Dutch Republicans formed an alliance with France, the alliance lasted for a century. Louis XIV of France considered the Dutch to be trading rivals, seditious republicans and Protestant heretics – and this was until the Dutch signed the Triple Alliance with England and Sweden in support of Spain, and countered French expansion in the Spanish Netherlands in the War of Devolution. To Louis, it seemed clear that France had to deal with the Republic before making another move on the Spanish Netherlands, Louis prepared for war against the Republic. His first and primary objective was to gain the support of England, England felt threatened by the Dutch naval power, it had therefore fought the first and second of the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Thus, the English did not need encouragement to leave the Triple Alliance.
Sweden agreed to support the invasion of the Republic, by threatening Brandenburg-Prussia if that state should intervene. Measures taken by Louvois, Louis Secretary of War, allowed France to mobilise about 180,000 men, of these about 120,000 would be used directly against the Republic. The bulk of the French army was divided into two bodies, the body led by field marshal Turenne was stationed in Charleroi, France. The body led by Condé waited in Sedan, both would march through the pro-France Prince-Bishopric of Liège, join near Maastricht and gain the Rhine. On the Rhine, a body would be waiting. It had been created from the armies of Münster and Cologne and was placed under the command of Luxembourg. The combined armies would attack the duchy of Cleves and the region of Nijmegen. A fourth body was to be an English expeditionary force, the alliances clashed when England declared war on the Republic, on 7 April 1672. Louis arrived in Charleroi on 5 May 1672, Turennes 50,000 men set off on 11 May.
Arrived at Visé, Louis decided not to lay siege to Maastricht but only to occupy the forts of Tongeren, Maaseik. Moving along the Rhine, Wesel and Orsoy were taken, Turenne took Nijmegen, with 4,000 infantry and 400 cavalry, and from there Fort Crèvecœur near s-Hertogenbosch, which fell after only two days
Quebec City, Ville de Québec, officially Québec) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The citys landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and La Citadelle, the National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, and the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. Thus, Québec is officially spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French, although the accent is not used in common English usage. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America, while many of the major cities in Latin America date from the sixteenth century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. Also, Quebecs Old Town is the only North American fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist, French explorer Jacques Cartier built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536.
He came back in 1541 with the goal of building a permanent settlement, Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat on 3 July 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, called The Father of New France, served as its administrator for the rest of his life, the name Canada refers to this settlement. Although called the cradle of the Francophone population in North America, the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony. In 1629 there was the surrender of Quebec, without battle, Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had already ended, he worked to have the lands returned to France. As part of the negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city, one-quarter of the people were members of religious orders, secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu.
Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French, in the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763, at the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its architecture, affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets, during the American Revolution revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to liberate Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the Battle of Quebec
Bridget Bishop was the first person executed for witchcraft during the Salem witch trials in 1692. All together about 72 people were accused and tried, while 20 were executed, Bishop may have been accused because she owned one or more taverns, played shuffleboard, dressed in very provocative clothing, and was outspoken. One interpretation of the record suggests that she was a resident of Salem Town. Perhaps she did not know her accusers and this would be supported in her deposition in Salem Village before the authorities stating, I never saw these persons before, nor I never was in this place before. The indictments against her clearly note that she was from Salem which meant Salem Town, as other indictments against residents of Salem Village specified their locations as such. In the transcripts there is indication of confusion between Sarah Bishop, wife of a tavern owner in Salem Village, and Bridget Bishop, not a tavern owner. Bridgets maiden name seems to have been Magnus and she had one son from her marriage to Thomas Oliver, named Christian Oliver, born 8 May 1667.
She married her first husband Samuel Wesselbe on 13 April 1660, at St. Mary-in-the-Marsh, Norwich and her second marriage on 26 July 1666 was to Thomas Oliver, a widower and prominent businessman. She was earlier accused of bewitching Thomas Oliver to death, but was acquitted for lack of evidence and her last marriage circa 1687 was to Edward Bishop, a prosperous sawyer, whose family lived in Beverly. Bishop was accused of bewitching five young women, Abigail Williams, Ann Putnam, Jr. Mercy Lewis, Mary Walcott, a record was given of her trial by Cotton Mather in The Wonders of the Invisible World. In his book, Mather recorded that several people testified against Bishop, stating that the shape of Bishop would pinch, the shape threatened to drown one victim if she did not write her name in a certain book. During the trial, anytime Bishop would look upon one of those supposed to be tortured by her, they would be struck down. More allegations were made during the trial including that of a saying that the apparition of Bishop tore her coat.
Mather mentions that the truth of many accusations carried too much suspicion. William Stacy, an aged man in Salem Town, testified that Bishop had previously made statements to him that other people in the town considered her to be a witch. He confronted her with the allegation that she was using witchcraft to torment him, another local man, Samuel Shattuck, accused Bishop of bewitching his child and of striking his son with a spade. He testified that Bishop asked him to dye lace, which apparently was too small to be used on anything but a poppet. John and William Bly and son, testified about finding poppets in Bishops house and about their cat appeared to be bewitched, or poisoned
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the half of the Carolingian Empire. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a de-centralised, feudal monarchy, in Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France, during the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War.
Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars, religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France, Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America, the Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the great powers in 1814. During the years of the elderly Charlemagnes rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks, after Charlemagnes death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Viking advances were allowed to increase, and their dreaded longboats were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other waterways, wreaking havoc. During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, that was to become Normandy. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years. Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, and married Frances newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, after the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne. The death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line, under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman, so the throne passed to Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word mission originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning act of sending or mittere, meaning to send. The word was used in light of its usage, in the Latin translation of the Bible. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology, a Christian missionary can be defined as one who is to witness across cultures. The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations and this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The New Testament-era missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul expanded throughout the Roman Empire and beyond to Persia, in 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England.
In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe, about the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans started moving into Asia and the Far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa and these are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some missions accompanied imperialism and oppression, others were relatively peaceful, contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice forms a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of inculturation in their missionary work. Over time, the Vatican gradually established a church structure in the mission areas, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures. The two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive success in central Europe. The Byzantines expanded their work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century, Orthodox missionaries worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. Quaker publishers of truth visited Boston and other mid-17th century colonies, the Danish government began the first organized Protestant mission work through its College of Missions, established in 1714. This funded and directed Lutheran missionaries such as Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar, India and he got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. Within thirty years, Moravian missionaries had become active on every continent, and they are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the Native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes
Salem is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts North Shore. It is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan American history, the citys reported population was 41,340 at the 2010 census. Salem and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County, though the county government was abolished in 1999, much of the citys cultural identity reflects its role as the location of the Salem witch trials of 1692, as featured in Arthur Millers The Crucible. Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites and a vibrant downtown that has more than 60 restaurants, cafes, in 2012, the Retailers Association of Massachusetts chose Salem for their inaugural Best Shopping District award. President Barack Obama signed executive order HR1339 on January 10,2013, more than one million tourists from all around the world visit Salem annually, bringing in at least $100 million in tourism spending each year.
More than 250,000 visited Salem over Halloween weekend in 2016, Salem is located at the mouth of the Naumkeag river at the site of an ancient American Indian village and trading center. It was first settled by Europeans in 1626, when a company of fishermen arrived from Cape Ann, led by Roger Conant. Conants leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but he was replaced by John Endecott, one of the new arrivals, Conant graciously stepped aside and was granted 200 acres of land in compensation. These New Planters and the Old Planters agreed to cooperate, in part due to the diplomacy of Conant. In 1628, Endecott ordered that the Great House be moved from Cape Ann, when Higginson arrived in Salem, he wrote that we found a faire house newly built for the Governor which was remarkable for being two stories high. A year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Matthew Craddock as its governor in London, John Winthrop was elected Governor in late 1629, and arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, beginning the Great Migration.
In 1639, Endecotts was one of the signatures on the contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the First Church in Salem. This document remains part of the records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life, Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the First Church of Salem, which is the original Puritan church in North America. Endecott already had a relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him. Roger Conant died in 1679 at the age of 87, a statue commemorating him stands overlooking Salem Common. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including Marblehead, most of the accused in the Salem witch trials lived in nearby Salem Village, now known as Danvers, although a few lived on the outskirts of Salem. Salem Village included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly, Topsfield and Manchester-by-the-Sea were once parts of Salem
The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Land, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. An additional goal became the principal objective—the Christian reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. During the crusades, knights and serfs from many regions of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea, first to Constantinople and on towards Jerusalem. The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem, launched an assault on the city and they established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. The First Crusade was followed by the Second to the Ninth Crusades and it was the first major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The majority view is that it had elements of both in its nature, the origin of the Crusades in general, and particularly that of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians.
The confusion is due to the numerous armies in the first crusade. The similar ideologies held the armies to similar goals, but the connections were rarely strong, the Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria and North Africa from the predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire, and Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom. In North Africa, the Umayyad empire eventually collapsed and a number of smaller Muslim kingdoms emerged, such as the Aghlabids, who attacked Italy in the 9th century. Pisa and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign and battles at Majorca and Sardinia. Essentially, between the years 1096 and 1101 the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived at Constantinople in three separate waves, in the early summer of 1096, the first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be undisciplined and ill-equipped as an army and this first group is often called the Peasants’ or People’s Crusade.
It was led by Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans Avoir and had no knowledge of or respect for the wishes of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. The second wave was not under the command of the Emperor and was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders. Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60,000, the second wave was led by Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, the brother of King Philip I of France. Also among the wave were Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse. It was this wave of crusaders which passed through Asia Minor, captured Antioch in 1098 and finally took Jerusalem 15 July 1099. ”The third wave, composed of contingents from Lombardy, France. At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th century and it was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex Vigilanus compiled in 881