SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Velificatio

Velificatio is a stylistic device used in ancient Roman art to frame a deity by means of a billowing garment. It represents "vigorous movement," an epiphany, or "the vault of heaven," appearing with celestial, weather, or sea deities, it is characteristic of the iconography of the Aurae, the Breezes personified, one of the elements which distinguish representations of Luna, the Roman goddess of the Moon, alluding to her astral course. A figure so framed is a velificans. Not all deities are portrayed as velificantes, but the device might be used to mark a member of the Imperial family, divinized. Velificatio is a frequent device in Roman art, including painting, mosaic and sculpture, though it poses technical difficulties for freestanding sculpture; the Athenian sculptor Praxiteles was able to achieve it. The term is used to describe Hellenistic art; the device continued to be used in Western art, in which it is sometimes described as an aura, "a breeze that blows from either without or from within that lifts the veil to reveal the face of an otherwise invisible being."

In classical Latin, the abstract noun velificatio is uncommon, refers to the act of setting sail, from velum, "sail" and the -fic- combining element from -ficio, -ficere. The verbal form was the basis for modern scholarly usage. Pliny describes Aurae velificantes sua veste, the Breezes "making a sail with their own garment" at the Porticus Octaviae; such depictions of the Aurae are known from extant Roman art, have been used as comparative material to identify the pair of velificantes in a scene from the Augustan Altar of Peace. On the basis of a passage from the Carmen Saeculare of Horace and performed for Augustus's staging of the Saecular Games in 17 BC, the central figure is identified as Tellus: Fertile in produce and cattle, let Tellus grant Ceres a crown of grain. Not all scholars agree on this analysis of the scene; the creatures on which the velificantes are seated suggest Nereids, the reference may point to the Cult of the Nymphs. The significance of the veil is sometimes explained in terms of the initiation rites of the mystery religions.

Initiates wore drapery or a veil, lifted by a priestess. The veil was a symbol of death, its removal in the rite signified the initiate's rebirth; the velificatio thus appears in other funerary art. The velificatio motif may be found with numerous deities, divine beings, divi, including: Nyx Aura Nereids Horae Maenads Niobids Niobe Selene or Luna Helios Caelus Europa Dionysus Ariadne Poseidon or Neptune Amphitrite Aphrodite or Venus Mars Tarpeia Vibia Sabina Halo Aureola Aura

George P. Washburn

George Putnam Washburn was a prominent architect practicing in Kansas. Washburn came to Kansas in 1870, worked as a carpenter and architect, in 1882 opened an architecture practice in Ottawa, Kansas, his son joined his firm which became George P. Son. In 1910 George P.'s son-in-law, Roy Stookey, joined the firm, George P. retired. After George P. died in 1922 the firm became Stookey. Washburn designed nine Carnegie library buildings in Kansas, is most known for the 13 courthouses he designed. A number of his buildings are listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places, with several of the libraries being listed under one study. Works include: Anderson County Courthouse, Oak Sts. Garnett, built 1902, Romanesque style, NRHP-listed Atchison County Courthouse, SW corner of 5th and Parallel Sts. Atchison, Kansas, NRHP-listed Burlington Carnegie Free Library, 201 N. Third, Kansas, NRHP-listed Butler County Courthouse, 205 W. Central Ave. El Dorado, Kansas, NRHP-listed Cherryvale Carnegie Free Library, 329 E. Main, Kansas, NRHP-listed Columbus Public Carnegie Library, 205 N. Kansas, Kansas, NRHP-listed Doniphan County Courthouse, Courthouse Sq. bounded by Walnut, Liberty and Main Sts.

Troy, Kansas, NRHP-listed Eureka Carnegie Library, 520 N. Main, Kansas, NRHP-listed Franklin County Courthouse, Main St. Ottawa, Kansas, NRHP-listed Harper County Courthouse, 200 N. Jennings Ave. Anthony, Kansas, NRHP-listed Jackson Hotel, 139 W. Peoria St. Paola, Kansas, NRHP-listed Kingman County Courthouse, 120 Spruce St. Kingman, Kansas, NRHP-listed Miami County Courthouse, E of jct. of Miami and Silver Sts. Paola, Kansas, NRHP-listed Ottawa High School and Junior High School, 526 and 506 S. Main St. Ottawa, Kansas, NRHP-listed Ottawa Library, 5th and Main Sts. Ottawa, Kansas, NRHP-listed Sennett and Bertha Kirk House, 145 W. Fourth Ave. Garnett, Kansas, NRHP-listed Sterling Free Public Carnegie Library, 132 N. Broadway, Kansas, NRHP-listed Woodson County Courthouse, Courthouse Sq. between Main, Rutledge and Butler Sts. Yates Center, Kansas, NRHP-listed One or more works in Historic Ottawa Central Business District bounded by Marias des Cygnes R. S 5th St. Walnut St. and Hickory St. Ottawa, Kansas, NRHP-listed Gardner Masonic Temple, 105 1/2 S. Elm St. Gardner, built in 1907 after the original structure burned down