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M. G. Ramachandran's unrealized projects

The following is a list of unproduced M. G. Ramachandran projects in alphabetical order. During his career, Indian actor-filmmaker M. G. Ramachandran had worked on a number of projects which never progressed beyond the pre-production stage under his acting commitments or direction; some of these projects fell into development hell or were cancelled. The film, directed by C. V. Sridhar, began shooting in the 1960s, but was shelved when Ramachandran walked out after only a few days of shooting; the film was to be directed by Masthan. Ramachandran's brother Chakrapani produced this film, which got shelved after some progress, but Chakrapani remade this film as Arasa Kattalai with Ramachandran returning; the film was to be failed to commence shoot. In 1966, Ramachandran and J. P. Chandrababu came together for a film titled Maadi Veettu Ezhai, to be produced and directed by the latter. Although the film began shooting, it was shelved due to differences between the two; the film was abandoned. The film was to never came to fruition.

The film was to be based on the life of Jesus. Shooting ceased permanently after Ramachandran backed out; the film was to be shot in full length Eastmancolor and release in year 1961. In 1958, Ramachandran announced Ponniyin Selvan, a film adaptation of Kalki Krishnamurthy's novel of the same name. Ramachandran bought the film rights to the novel for ₹10,000, would produce and star in the adaptation, which would feature an ensemble cast including Vyjayanthimala, Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, B. Saroja Devi, M. N. Rajam, T. S. Balaiah, M. N. Nambiar, O. A. K. Thevar and Chittor V. Nagaiah. Before shooting could begin, Ramachandran met with an accident, the wound took six months to heal; the film would have featured Ramachandran in dual roles, but was shelved after Venus Pictures announced a film with the same name starring Sivaji Ganesan. Kannan, R.. MGR: A Life. India: Penguin Random House. ISBN 978-0-14-342934-0

Conflict criminology

Based on the writings of Karl Marx, conflict criminology holds that crime in capitalist societies cannot be adequately understood without a recognition that such societies are dominated by a wealthy elite whose continuing dominance requires the economic exploitation of others, that the ideas and practices of such societies are designed and managed in order to ensure that such groups remain marginalised and vulnerable. Members of marginalised and oppressed groups may sometimes turn to crime in order to gain the material wealth that brings equality in capitalist societies, or in order to survive. Conflict criminology derives its name from the fact that theorists within the area believe that there is no consensual social contract between state and citizen. Conflict theory assumes that every society is subjected to a process of continuous change and that this process creates social conflicts. Hence, social change and social conflict are ubiquitous. Individuals and social classes, each with distinctive interests, represent the constituent elements of a society.

As such, they are individually and collectively participants in this process but there is no guarantee that the interests of each class will coincide. Indeed, the lack of common ground is to bring them into conflict with each other. From time to time, each element's contribution may be positive or negative, constructive or destructive. To that extent, the progress made by each society as a whole is limited by the acts and omissions of some of its members by others; this limitation may promote a struggle for greater progress but, if the less progressive group has access to the coercive power of law, it may entrench inequality and oppress those deemed less equal. In turn, this inequality will become a significant source of conflict; the theory identifies the state and the law as instruments of oppression used by the ruling class for their own benefit. There are various strands of conflict theory, with many critiquing the others. Structural Marxist criminology, the most'pure' version of the above, has been accused of idealism, many critics point to the fact that the Soviet Union and such states had as high crime rates as the capitalist West.

Furthermore, some capitalist states such as Switzerland have low crime rates, thus making structural theory seem improbable. Instrumental Marxism holds to the above, but claims that capitalism in itself cannot be blamed for all crimes. A seminal book on the subject, The New Criminology, by Taylor and Young, was considered groundbreaking and ahead of its time at the point of its publication in 1973. However, 11 years co-author Jock Young turned against the work, claiming it too was overly idealistic, began to form yet another line of criminological thought, now known as Left realism. Sellin was a sociologist at the University of Pennsylvania and one of the pioneers of scientific criminology, his method involved a comprehensive view of the subject, incorporating historical, sociological and legal factors into the analysis. He applied both Marxism and Conflict Theory to an examination of the cultural diversity of modern industrial society. In a homogenous society, norms or codes of behaviour will emerge and become laws where enforcement is necessary to preserve the unitary culture.

But where separate cultures diverge from the mainstream, those minority groups will establish their own norms. Socialization will therefore be to the mainstream norms; when laws are enacted, they will represent the norms and interests of the dominant cultural or ethnic group which may produce border culture conflict. When the two cultures interact and one seeks to extend its influence into the other, each side is to react protectively. If the balance of power is equal, an accommodation will be reached, but if the distribution of power is unequal, the everyday behaviour of the minority group may be defined as deviant. The more diversified and heterogeneous a society becomes, the greater the probability of more frequent conflict as subgroups who live by their own rules break the rules of other groups. Vold suggests, in Theoretical Criminology, approaching an understanding of the social nature of crime as a product of the conflict between groups within the same culture. Humans are social beings, forming groups out of shared interests and needs.

The interests and needs of groups interact and produce competition in an political arena over maintaining and/or expanding one group's position relative to others in the control of necessary resources. The challenge for all groups is to control the state for their own sectional interests. Hence, the group which proves most efficient in the control of political processes, obtains the mandate to enact laws that limit the behaviour of other groups and, in some cases, prevent the fulfillment of minority group needs. Although the theory has some interest, it is limited in its application to the criminal law because it is not so much the law that represents sectional interests, but the way in which it is enforced. For example, the definition of theft might remain constant but the allocation of resources to investigate and prosecute theft may be unequally distributed between blue-collar and white-collar versions of the behaviour. Turk draws on the work of Ralf Dahrendorf, who expanded on Marxism's emphasis on the social relations of production as a key to understanding power and focused on the struggle in a modern industrial society for institutional authority.

This is power exercised by the social institutions.


Kruzhka is a chain of restaurants in Moscow serving beer. Kruzhka restaurants can be identified outside by their orange КРУЖКА signs, which are illuminated and difficult to miss; the orange theme continues inside, where the brick walls and wooden furniture give most Kruzhka restaurants a somewhat rugged character. It is common in Moscow and other Russian cities for there to be little difference between bars, restaurants and cafes, Kruzhka is no exception; these "beer restaurants" tend to be popular with students, though the cheap food and beer attracts expatriates as well as Russians. However, that does not mean that Kruzhka has a "Western" character. Sports events, such as Russian football internationals, are shown in many Kruzhka, either on televisions or big screens. In late 2005 a television advert was created to highlight the advantages of going to Kruzhka for Russian football fans; the ad shows a Russian man excitedly returning home to watch an important match. However, he finds both of the televisions in his flat are in use.

A. T.u. Concert; the punchline of the ad is. The majority of items available at Kruzhka are cheap; this is one of the major appeals of the chain. Several main dishes include kebabs or Shaurma with potato fries and/or sauerkraut. Sauces like ketchup and mayonnaise are included free with most meals Perhaps a more unusual offering is grilled trout for 160 roubles. Kruzhka attempted to cash-in on the fashion for Japanese food in Moscow by putting sushi on the menu at its Arbat Restaurant in December 2004. However, this item was removed from the menu a year reportedly because it took too long to prepare. For dessert, various flavours of ice cream, as well as cake are available. Customers can choose to take-away any dish on the menu; the most famous drink on offer is Kruzhka's own beer, which, at 50 roubles for half a litre, is one of the most popular items on the menu. Other beers on tap include Sibirskaya Staropramen. A wide range of spirits and non-alcoholic drinks are available. Kruzhka are not fast food restaurants like McDonald's or KFC, nor are they self-service "cafeteria" style restaurants, which can be found at places like Kaferii and Moo-Moo and were common in Soviet times.

Instead orders are taken by orange t-shirt wearing waiters and waitresses and food is served at your table. As in many cafes and restaurants these jobs are poorly paid, so are taken by young people or Gastarbeiter from the former Soviet republics. Menus are available in English as well as Russian; the first Kruzhka opened in Konkovo in April 2002. From there it spread throughout Moscow and has begun expanding into the Moscow suburbs; the chain now has over 20 locations. This kind of expansion has been experienced by other restaurants chains, as the popularity of eating out in Moscow has increased dramatically. Despite arguably being down market of other restaurant chains such as Moo-Moo), many Kruzhka can be found in prime locations. For example, there is one on the Arbat and another close to Lokomotiv Stadium. In March 2006 a large Kruzhka opened at about 200 metres from Red Square. In a move that seems targeted to the many tourists present in the area. Many Kruzhka are close to metro stations. This, together with their distinctive signs, give the restaurants a ubiquitous presence in the city.

In March 2004 the opening of an outlet in the Okrug of Zelenograd marked the first Kruzhka restaurant to be located beyond the MKAD. The first Kruzhka outside of Moscow was opened in the Black Sea resort of Sochi. There is one Kruzhka in Minsk, the capital of Belarus. Http:// - Official page - Official page - Review, scroll down page

VM Brasseur

V M Brasseur is the director of Open Source Strategy for Juniper Networks and former Vice President of the Open Source Initiative. She is the author of Forge Your Future with Open Source; the book was listed number 11 in BookAuthority's 21 Best New Software Development Books To Read In 2019. She is an author and former moderator for She is the winner of the Perl White Camel Award in 2014 and the O'Reilly Open Source Award in 2016. Brasseur is a frequent keynote speaker at tech conferences where she discusses issues of community management and technological challenges in open source projects and environments when they intersect with business environments. Personal website Brasseur, VM. Forge Your Future with Open Source. ISBN 978-1-68050-301-2

2012–13 Hong Kong Reserve Division League

The 2012–13 Hong Kong Reserve Division League was the fifty-fifth season since the establishment of the Hong Kong Reserve Division League. The events in the senior league during the 2011–12 season saw Sham Shui Po and Hong Kong Sapling relegated and replaced by Southern and Yokohama FC Hong Kong; each First Division teams will participate in the reserve division league, play the teams in the league home and away, making a total of 18 matches played for each team. Updated to games played on 15 May 2013 Source: Reserve Division Score Table Rules for classification: 1) points. = Champion. Only applicable when the season is not finished: = Qualified to the phase of tournament indicated. Head-to-Head: used when head-to-head record is used to rank tied teams. Updated to games played on 15 May 2013 Source: Fixtures - Reserve Division1 The home team is listed in the left-hand column. Colours: Blue = home team win. For coming matches, an indicates. 1Since Yokohama FC Hong Kong Reserves breached the rule of game, the Hong Kong Football Association awarded Biu Chun Rangers Reserves a 3–0 win.

The match ended 5–3 to Biu Chun Rangers. 2012–13 Hong Kong First Division League 2012–13 in Hong Kong football