The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ub Iwerks, A. S. C. was an American animator, character designer and special effects technician, who created Oswald the Lucky Rabbit and Mickey Mouse. The works Iwerks produced alongside Walt Disney went on to win numerous awards, including multiple Academy Awards, he was born in Missouri. His father, Eert Ubbe Iwwerks, immigrated to the U. S. in 1869 from the village of Uttum in East Frisia. Ub's full name, Ubbe Ert Iwwerks, can be seen on early "Alice" shorts. Several years he simplified his name to "Ub Iwerks", sometimes written as "U. B. Iwerks", he is the father of Disney Legend Don Iwerks and grandfather of documentary film producer Leslie Iwerks. Iwerks was considered by many to be Walt Disney's oldest friend, spent most of his career with Disney; the two met in 1919 while working for the Pesmen-Rubin Art Studio in Kansas City, would start their own commercial art business together. Disney and Iwerks found work as illustrators for the Kansas City Slide Newspaper Company. While working for the Kansas City Film Ad Company, Disney decided to take up work in animation, Iwerks soon joined him.
He was responsible for the distinctive style of the earliest Disney animated cartoons, was responsible for designing Mickey Mouse. In 1922, when Disney began his Laugh-O-Gram cartoon series, Iwerks joined him as chief animator; the studio went bankrupt, in 1923 Iwerks followed Disney's move to Los Angeles to work on a new series of cartoons known as “the Alice Comedies” which had live action mixed with animation. After the end of this series, Disney asked Iwerks to come up with a new character; the first Oswald the Lucky Rabbit was animated by Iwerks. Following the first cartoon, Oswald was redesigned on the insistence of Universal, who agreed to distribute the new series of cartoons in 1927. In spring 1928, Disney lost control of the Oswald character, much of his staff was hired away, he promised never to work with a character he did not own again. Disney asked Iwerks. Iwerks tried sketches of frogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were created at this time by Iwerks, but were rejected.
They would turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. Ub Iwerks got inspiration from an old drawing. In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney. On a train ride back from a failed business meeting, Walt Disney came up with the original sketch for the character that would be called Mickey Mouse. Afterwards, Disney took the sketch to Iwerks. In turn, he drew a more clean cut and refined version of Mickey, but one that still followed the original sketch; the first few Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies cartoons were animated entirely by Iwerks, including Steamboat Willie and The Skeleton Dance. However, as Iwerks began to draw more and more cartoons on a daily basis, he soon found himself unable to cope under Disney's harsh command. Iwerks and Disney had a falling-out; the Iwerks Studio opened in 1930. Financial backers led by Pat Powers suspected that Iwerks was responsible for much of Disney's early success. However, while animation for a time suffered at Disney from Iwerks' departure, it soon rebounded as Disney brought in talented new young animators.
Despite a contract with MGM to distribute his cartoons, the introduction of a new character named “Flip the Frog”, “Willie Whopper”, the Iwerks Studio was never a major commercial success and failed to rival either Disney or Fleischer Studios. Newly-hired animator Fred Kopietz recommended that Iwerks employ a friend from Chouinard Art School, Chuck Jones, hired and put to work as a cel washer; the Flip and Willie cartoons were distributed on the home-movie market by Official Films in the 1940s. From 1933 to 1936, he produced a series of shorts in Cinecolor, named ComiColor Cartoons; the ComiColor series focused on fairy tales with no continuing character or star. In the 1940s, this series would receive home-movie distribution by Castle Films. Cinecolor produced the 16 mm prints for Castle Films with red emulsion on one side and blue emulsion on the other. In the 1970s Blackhawk Films released these for home use, but this time using conventional Eastmancolor film stock, they are now in the public domain and are available on VHS and DVD.
He experimented with stop-motion animation in combination with the multiplane camera, made a short called The Toy Parade, never released in public. In 1936, backers withdrew financial support from the Iwerks Studio, it folded soon after. In 1937, Leon Schlesinger Productions contracted Iwerks to produce four Looney Tunes shorts starring Porky Pig and Gabby Goat. Iwerks directed the first two shorts, while former Schlesinger animator Robert Clampett was promoted to director and helmed the other two shorts before he and his unit returned to the main Schlesinger lot. Iwerks did contract work for Screen
The Karnival Kid
The Karnival Kid known as Carnival Days, is a 1929 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was produced in black and white by The Walt Disney Studio and released to theaters by Celebrity Productions, it is the ninth film in the Mickey Mouse film series, the first in which Mickey speaks. Mickey's first spoken words were, "Hot dogs! Hot dogs!", the voice being provided by someone else other than Disney. Besides Mickey, three other recurring characters of the series appear; the first is Clarabelle Cow in a cameo. The second is Kat Nipp, making his last appearance; the third is Minnie Mouse. The Karnival Kid is broken into two distinct segments; the first segment features Mickey selling hot dogs at a carnival. The second segment is set that night and features Mickey, accompanied by two cats, in a moonlight serenade; the short opens to the scene of a bustling carnival. After a few initial sight gags, the action focuses on Kat Nipp, a barker at the carnival, enticing a crowd to see Minnie, "the Shimmy Dancer."
Mickey stands nearby, heckling Nipp. Nipp gets into a dispute with Mickey over a dancing doll scam. However, Minnie calls him over to order a hot dog, she takes a coin out of her stocking to pay, but Mickey, attracted to her, refuses to accept the coin and gives it to her for free. When she bites into the hot dog, it runs away. Mickey spanks it, concluding the first segment. Much of the humor in this segment comes from the interaction between Mickey and his hot dogs, with the latter tending to act like actual dogs in relation to their owner/trainer. In the second segment, Mickey attempts to draw Minnie's attention by playing guitar outside her window, he is joined by two alley cats. The sound delights Minnie but awakens an irate Kat Nipp, resting in a nearby trailer. Nipp starts throwing things at the three annoyances in an attempt to silence them; the short ends as Mickey is knocked dizzy. Stalling's score for The Karnival Kid features two notable themes. During the "Shimmy Dance" sequence, a monkey, performing as a one-man band, plays the Snake Charmer song, the common name for The Streets of Cairo.
During the moonlight serenade segment and the cats perform a rendition of the barbershop standard Sweet Adeline. Mickey's first words may have inspired the "Hot Dog" song from Mickey Mouse Clubhouse; the scene where Mickey tips his ears to Minnie inspired storyman Roy Williams to invent the Mickey Mouse ears hat. Ub Iwerks reused elements of the plot and many of the visual gags from The Karnival Kid in his 1932 cartoon, Circus; the part of the hot dog vendor is played by Flip the Frog. New York Weenie, an episode from the 2013 Mickey Mouse shorts series, shares similar themes and gags with The Karnival Kid; the episode was directed by Aaron Springer, most notable for his work on SpongeBob SquarePants. Artist Bruce Conner included the final shot in his film "3 Screen Ray" An LCD Game & Watch-styled mini-game based on the short appears in Kingdom Hearts III
Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company. He was created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at the Walt Disney Studios in 1928. An anthropomorphic mouse who wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, white gloves, Mickey is one of the world's most recognizable characters. Created as a replacement for a prior Disney character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Mickey first appeared in the short Plane Crazy, debuting publicly in the short film Steamboat Willie, one of the first sound cartoons, he went on to appear in over 130 films, including The Band Concert, Brave Little Tailor, Fantasia. Mickey appeared in short films, but occasionally in feature-length films. Ten of Mickey's cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which, Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Beginning in 1930, Mickey has been featured extensively as a comic strip character.
His self-titled newspaper strip, drawn by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has appeared in comic books such as Disney Italy's Topolino, MM - Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, Wizards of Mickey, in television series such as The Mickey Mouse Club and others, he appears in other media such as video games as well as merchandising and is a meetable character at the Disney parks. Mickey appears alongside his girlfriend Minnie Mouse, his pet dog Pluto, his friends Donald Duck and Goofy, his nemesis Pete, among others. Though characterized as a cheeky lovable rogue, Mickey was rebranded over time as a nice guy seen as an honest and bodacious hero. In 2009, Disney began to rebrand the character again by putting less emphasis on his friendly, well-meaning persona and reintroducing the more menacing and stubborn sides of his personality, beginning with the video game Epic Mickey. "I only hope that we never lose sight of one thing – that it was all started by a mouse." Mickey Mouse was created as a replacement for Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, an earlier cartoon character created by the Disney studio for Charles Mintz, a film producer who distributed product through Universal Studios.
In the spring of 1928, with the series going strong, Disney asked Mintz for an increase in the budget. But Mintz instead demanded that Walt take a 20 percent budget cut, as leverage, he reminded Disney that Universal owned the character, revealed that he had signed most of Disney's current employees to his new contract. Angrily, Disney refused the deal and returned to produce the final Oswald cartoons he contractually owed Mintz. Disney was determined to restart from scratch; the new Disney Studio consisted of animator Ub Iwerks and a loyal apprentice artist, Les Clark, who together with Wilfred Jackson were among the few who remained loyal to Walt. One lesson Disney learned from the experience was to thereafter always make sure that he owned all rights to the characters produced by his company. In the spring of 1928, Disney asked Ub Iwerks to start drawing up new character ideas. Iwerks tried sketches of various animals, such as dogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were rejected.
They would turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. A male frog was rejected, it would show up in Iwerks' own Flip the Frog series. Walt Disney got the inspiration for Mickey Mouse from a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney; these inspired Ub Iwerks to create a new mouse character for Disney. "Mortimer Mouse" had been Disney's original name for the character before his wife, convinced him to change it, Mickey Mouse came to be. The actor Mickey Rooney claimed that, during his Mickey McGuire days, he met cartoonist Walt Disney at the Warner Brothers studio, that Disney was inspired to name Mickey Mouse after him; this claim, has been debunked by Disney historian Jim Korkis, since at the time of Mickey Mouse's development, Disney Studios had been located on Hyperion Avenue for several years, Walt Disney never kept an office or other working space at Warner Brothers, having no professional relationship with Warner Brothers, as the Alice Comedies and Oswald cartoons were distributed by Universal.
Disney had Ub Iwerks secretly begin animating a new cartoon while still under contract with Universal. The cartoon was co-directed by Ub Iwerks. Iwerks was the main animator for the short and spent six weeks working on it. In fact, Iwerks was the main animator for every Disney short released in 1928 and 1929. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising assisted Disney during those years, they had signed their contracts with Charles Mintz, but he was still in the process of forming his new studio and so for the time being they were still employed by Disney. This short would be the last. Mickey was first seen in a test screening of the cartoon short Plane Crazy, on May 15, 1928, but it failed to impress the audience and, to add insult to injury, Walt could not find a distributor. Though understandably disappointed, Walt went on to produce a second Mickey short, The Gallopin' Gaucho, not released for lack of a distributor. Steamboat Willie was first released on November 1928, in New York, it was co-directed by Ub Iwerks.
Iwerks again served as the head animator, assisted by Johnny Cannon, Les Clark, Wilfred Jackson and Dick Lundy. This short was intended as a parody of Buster Keaton'
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae in the order Proboscidea. Three species are recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, the Asian elephant. Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia. Elephantidae is the only surviving family of the order Proboscidea. All elephants have several distinctive features, the most notable of, a long trunk, used for many purposes breathing, lifting water, grasping objects, their incisors grow into tusks, which can serve as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging. Elephants' large ear flaps help to control their body temperature, their pillar-like legs can carry their great weight. African elephants have larger ears and concave backs while Asian elephants have smaller ears and convex or level backs. Elephants are herbivorous and can be found in different habitats including savannahs, forests and marshes, they prefer to stay near water. They are considered to be a keystone species due to their impact on their environments.
Other animals tend to keep their distance from elephants while predators, such as lions, tigers and any wild dogs target only young elephants. Elephants have a fission -- fusion society. Females tend to live in family groups, which can consist of one female with her calves or several related females with offspring; the groups are led by an individual known as the matriarch the oldest cow. Males leave their family groups when they may live alone or with other males. Adult bulls interact with family groups when looking for a mate and enter a state of increased testosterone and aggression known as musth, which helps them gain dominance and reproductive success. Calves are the centre of attention in their family groups and rely on their mothers for as long as three years. Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild, they communicate by touch, sight and sound. Elephant intelligence has been compared with that of cetaceans, they appear to show empathy for dying or dead individuals of their kind. African elephants are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature while the Asian elephant is classed as endangered.
One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, as the animals are poached for their ivory tusks. Other threats to wild elephants include habitat destruction and conflicts with local people. Elephants are used as working animals in Asia. In the past, they were used in war. Elephants are recognisable and have been featured in art, religion and popular culture; the word "elephant" is based on the Latin elephas, the Latinised form of the Greek ἐλέφας from a non-Indo-European language Phoenician. It is attested in Mycenaean Greek as e-re-pa in Linear B syllabic script; as in Mycenaean Greek, Homer used the Greek word to mean ivory, but after the time of Herodotus, it referred to the animal. The word "elephant" was borrowed from Old French oliphant. Loxodonta, the generic name for the African elephants, is Greek for "oblique-sided tooth". Elephants belong to the family Elephantidae, the sole remaining family within the order Proboscidea which belongs to the superorder Afrotheria.
Their closest extant relatives are the sirenians and the hyraxes, with which they share the clade Paenungulata within the superorder Afrotheria. Elephants and sirenians are further grouped in the clade Tethytheria. Three species of elephants are recognised. African elephants have larger ears, a concave back, more wrinkled skin, a sloping abdomen, two finger-like extensions at the tip of the trunk. Asian elephants have smaller ears, a convex or level back, smoother skin, a horizontal abdomen that sags in the middle and one extension at the tip of the trunk; the looped ridges on the molars are narrower in the Asian elephant while those of the African are more diamond-shaped. The Asian elephant has dorsal bumps on its head and some patches of depigmentation on its skin. Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus first described the genus Elephas and an elephant from Sri Lanka under the binomial Elephas maximus in 1758. In 1798, Georges Cuvier classified the Indian elephant under the binomial Elephas indicus.
Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck described the Sumatran elephant in 1847 under the binomial Elephas sumatranus. English zoologist Frederick Nutter Chasen classified all three as subspecies of the Asian elephant in 1940. Asian elephants vary geographically in their amount of depigmentation; the Sri Lankan elephant inhabits Sri Lanka, the Indian elephant is native to mainland Asia, the Sumatran elephant is found in Sumatra. O
Building a Building
Building a Building is a 1933 American animated short film produced by Walt Disney Production and released by United Artists. A remake of the 1928 Oswald the Lucky Rabbit film Sky Scrappers, the cartoon depicts Mickey Mouse working at a construction site under the supervision of Peg-Leg Pete while Minnie Mouse is selling box lunches to the workers, it was directed by David Hand, his first directorial assignment at Disney, features the voices of Walt Disney as Mickey, Marcellite Garner as Minnie, Billy Bletcher as Pete. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film at the 6th Academy Awards, but lost to Disney's own Three Little Pigs; this was the second Mickey Mouse cartoon nominated for an Oscar. The steam shovel Mickey pilots in this short reappeared in Epic Mickey during the Mickeyjunk Mountain level, while the short itself appears as a 2D level in Epic Mickey 2: The Power of Two. Building a Building is an area in the Timeless River world in Kingdom Hearts II. Other shorts that are featured as areas of that world are Steamboat Willie, Gulliver Mickey, The Fire Fighters and Mickey's Orphans.
Mickey is operating a steam shovel at a construction site. Minnie appears on a cart pulled by Pluto. After he uses the steam shovel to retrieve Minnie's hat, Mickey accidentally throws dirt from the steam shovel onto Peg-Leg Pete, the foreman, making him angry and shout, "HEY!!! Don't put dirt on the blueprint! What do you think you're doing?!". Mickey hurriedly brings up a load of bricks in a wheelbarrow. Meanwhile, Pete sees flirts with her, though she is not interested. Mickey, distracted by Minnie, accidentally drops the bricks on Pete, who shouts out, "Hey, you blankety blank baboon!" Mickey himself falls through Pete's blueprint. Pete has had enough and starts to strangle Mickey, but just it is noon and an anthropomorphic steam whistle sounds for lunch. Mickey settles down to eat a fish sandwich. Minnie offers to give him a box lunch for free; as Mickey is eating the lunch, Pete abducts Minnie from above with a crane. Mickey chases after Pete, wrestles with him high up on the building. Minnie drops them down Pete's pants.
This gives the mice enough time to run away. In the process of chasing Mickey and Minnie, Pete has an anvil fall on his head and fires rivets at them with a handheld pneumatic hammer; this turns on him when the hammer gets attached to his peg leg. The mice escape down a chute riding a wheelbarrow, while Pete falls into a cement mixer and accidentally dismantles a large portion of the building. Once he hits the ground, Pete declares to Mickey he's fired, who goes into business with Minnie selling box lunches. Piotr Borowiec said that this cartoon has better animation, stronger story lines, better gags than the previous ones. Studio art instructor Don Graham taught a class where students studied live-action films and compared Disney cartoons. In the class, the students compared this cartoon; the students said. Michael Barrier disagreed about their decision, but he said that the students did have a point
The lion is a species in the family Felidae. The lion is sexually dimorphic. Male lions have a prominent mane, the most recognisable feature of the species. A lion pride consists of related females and cubs. Groups of female lions hunt together, preying on large ungulates; the species is an keystone predator, although they scavenge when opportunities occur. Some lions have been known to hunt humans, although the species does not; the lion inhabits grasslands and savannas but is absent in dense forests. It is more diurnal than other big cats, but when persecuted it adapts to being active at night and at twilight. In the Pleistocene, the lion ranged throughout Eurasia and North America but today it has been reduced to fragmented populations in Sub-Saharan Africa and one critically endangered population in western India, it has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996 because populations in African countries have declined by about 43% since the early 1990s. Lion populations are untenable outside designated protected areas.
Although the cause of the decline is not understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are the greatest causes for concern. One of the most recognised animal symbols in human culture, the lion has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, in contemporary films and literature. Lions have been kept in menageries since the time of the Roman Empire and have been a key species sought for exhibition in zoological gardens across the world since the late 18th century. Cultural depictions of lions were prominent in the Upper Paleolithic period; the lion's name, similar in many Romance languages, is derived from Latin: leo and Ancient Greek: λέων. The word lavi may be related. Felis leo was the scientific name used by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, who described the lion in his work Systema Naturae; the genus name Panthera was coined by German naturalist Lorenz Oken in 1816. Between the mid-18th and mid-20th centuries, 26 lion specimens were described and proposed as subspecies, of which 11 were recognised as valid in 2005.
They were distinguished on the basis of appearance and colour of mane. Because these characteristics show much variation between individuals, most of these forms were not true subspecies because they were based upon museum material with "striking, but abnormal" morphological characteristics. Based on the morphology of 58 lion skulls in three European museums, the subspecies krugeri, nubica and senegalensis were assessed distinct but bleyenberghi overlapped with senegalensis and krugeri; the Asiatic lion persica was the most distinctive and the Cape lion had characteristics allying it more with persica than the other sub-Saharan lions. The lion's closest relatives are the other species of the genus Panthera. Results of phylogenetic studies published in 2006 and 2009 indicate that the jaguar and the lion belong to one sister group that diverged about 2.06 million years ago. Results of studies published in 2010 and 2011 indicate that the leopard and the lion belong to the same sister group, which diverged between 1.95 and 3.10 million years ago.
Hybridisation between lion and snow leopard ancestors, may have continued until about 2.1 million years ago. In the 19th and 20th centuries, several lion type specimens were described and proposed as subspecies, with about a dozen recognised as valid taxa until 2017. Between 2008 and 2016, IUCN Red List assessors used only two subspecific names: P. l. leo for African lion populations and P. l. persica for the Asiatic lion population. In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group revised lion taxonomy, recognises two subspecies based on results of several phylogeographic studies on lion evolution, namely: P. l. leo − the nominate lion subspecies includes the Asiatic lion, the regionally extinct Barbary lion, lion populations in West and northern parts of Central Africa. Synonyms include P. l. persica, P. l. senegalensis, P. l. kamptzi, P. l. azandica. Some authors referred to it as'Northern lion' and'northern subspecies'. P. l. melanochaita − includes the extinct Cape lion and lion populations in East and Southern African regions.
Synonyms include P. l. somaliensis, P. l. massaica, P. l. sabakiensis, P. l. bleyenberghi, P. l. roosevelti, P. l. nyanzae, P. l. hollisteri, P. l. krugeri, P. l. vernayi, P. l. webbiensis. It has been referred to as'southern subspecies'. Early phylogenetic research was focused on East and Southern African lions, showed they can be divided in two main clades. Lions in eastern Kenya are genetically much closer to lions in Southern Africa than to lions in Aberdare National Park in western Kenya. In a subsequent study and bone samples of 32 lion specimens in museums were used. Results indicated lions form