Kumagaya is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 198,440, a population density of 1240 persons per km², its total area is 159.82 square kilometres. Kumagaya is one of the largest cities in northern Saitama Prefecture. Eight national highways and three railway lines serve the city. While many people commute towards south Tokyo, its daytime population is larger than the night population thanks to commuters from surrounding towns; the city is located on the east edge of Arakawa River alluvial fan 60 km from central Tokyo and 45 km from Saitama City. The Tone River flows through city. Saitama Prefecture Gyōda Kōnosu Higashimatsuyama Fukaya Namegawa Ranzan Yoshimi Gunma Prefecture Ōta Oizumi Chiyoda Kumagaya has a humid subtropical climate and is known for being one of the hottest areas in summer in Japan; this is caused by hot winds from Tokyo and the Chichibu basin in the west of the prefecture. In central Tokyo, the summer monsoon enhanced by sea breeze is heated by the urban heat island.
From the Chichibu Mountains, the Fohn blows. The two winds converge above the city at about 2 p.m. On August 16, 2007, the city recorded air temperature of 40.9 °C, breaking the 74-year record for the highest temperature recorded in Japan. "Very Hot! Kumagaya" is a catchphrase of the city. On July 23, 2018, the national record was broken again with a temperature of 41.1 °C, surpassing the previous record of 41.0 °C recorded in Kōchi Prefecture in August 2013. There was a large hailstorm on June 1917 at about 5 p.m.. The hailstones weighed 3.4 kilograms. The Japan Meteorological Agency maintains a local meteorological observatory in Kumagaya. Kumagai-shuku developed as a post town on the Nakasendō highway during the Edo period. 1889: The modern town of Kumagaya was created with the establishment of the municipalities system. 1923: The village of Koizka was annexed. 1927: The village of Narita was annexed. 1932: The village of Oohata was annexed. 1933: Kumagaya was elevated to city status. 1941: The village of Sayada was annexed.
1945: Bombing of Kumagaya in World War II 1954: The villages of Chujo, Beppu and Mishiri were annexed. 1955: The villages of Yoshioka and Hoshimiya were annexed. 1967: 22nd National Sports Festival was held. 1973: New City Hall was opened. 1986: Central Park was opened. 1988: Saitama Exhibition was held. 1988: Sports Park was opened. 1994: Beppu-marsh Park was opened. 2004: 59th National Sports Festival was held. 2005: The city of Kumagaya annexed the towns of Ōsato and Menuma 2007: The town of Kōnan was annexed. The city has three branch offices. Kumagaya City Hall Menuma Branch Office Ōsato Branch Office Kōnan Branch Office Ryosaku Arai: April 1933 to May 1939—1st, 2nd Moya Saitou: June 1936 to April 1942—3rd Takeo Yajima: April 1932 to November 1945—4th Tadashi Negishi: January 1946 to March 1947—5th Souichi Kamode: April 1947 to April 1958—6th to 8th Seiichi Kurihara: May 1958 to May 1962—9th Uminosuke Kuroda: May 1962 to May 1982—10th to 14th Toshio Masuda: May 1982 to June 1986—15th, 16th Kazuo Kobayashi: August 1986 to August 2002—17th to 20th Kiyoshi Tomioka: August 3, 2003 to September 30, 2005—21st Fumio Yoshihara: October 1, 2005 to November 5, 2005—Interim mayor Kiyoshi Tomioka: November 6, 2005 to present Rissho University—Kumagaya campus Kumagaya Boys' Senior High School Nishi-Kumagaya Senior High School Kumagaya Girls' Senior High School Menuma Senior High School Kumagaya Industrial Senior High School Kumagaya Agricultural Senior High School Kumagaya Business Senior High School Kita-Saitama Nurses' Training School Kumagaya Apparel School JR East - Joetsu Shinkansen Kumagaya JR East - Takasaki Line Kumagaya - Kagohara Chichibu Railway - Chichibu Main Line Kumagaya - Kami-Kumagaya - Ishiwara - Hirose-Yachō-no-Mori - Ōasō Jōban Expressway Japan National Route 17 Japan National Route 125 Japan National Route 140 Japan National Route 407 Kumagaya is twinned with: Invercargill, New Zealand Kensei Hasegawa, Politician Official Website
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Environmental art is a range of artistic practices encompassing both historical approaches to nature in art and more recent ecological and politically motivated types of works. Environmental art has evolved away from formal concerns, worked out with earth as a sculptural material, towards a deeper relationship to systems and phenomena in relationship to social concerns. Integrated social and ecological approaches developed as an ethical, restorative stance emerged in the 1990s. Over the past ten years environmental art has become a focal point of exhibitions around the world as the social and cultural aspects of climate change come to the forefront; the term "environmental art" encompasses "ecological" concerns but is not specific to them. It celebrates an artist's connection with nature using natural materials; the concept is best understood in relationship to historic earth/Land art and the evolving field of ecological art. The field is interdisciplinary in the fact that environmental artists embrace ideas from science and philosophy.
The practice encompasses new media and critical social forms of production. The work embraces a full range of landscape/environmental conditions from the rural, to the suburban and urban as well as urban/rural industrial, it can be argued. While no landscapes have been found, the cave paintings represented other aspects of nature important to early humans such as animals and human figures. "They are prehistoric observations of nature. In one-way or another, nature for centuries remained the preferential theme of creative art." More modern examples of environmental art stem from landscape representation. When artists painted onsite they developed a deep connection with the surrounding environment and its weather and brought these close observations into their canvases. John Constable's sky paintings "most represent the sky in nature". Monet's London Series exemplifies the artist's connection with the environment. "For me, a landscape does not exist since its appearance changes at every moment. Contemporary painters, such as Diane Burko represent natural phenomena—and its change over time—to convey ecological issues, drawing attention to climate change.
Alexis Rockman's landscapes depict a sardonic view of climate change and humankind's interventions with other species by way of genetic engineering. The growth of environmental art as a "movement" began in early 1970s." In its early phases it was most associated with sculpture—especially Site-specific art, Land art and Arte povera—having arisen out of mounting criticism of traditional sculptural forms and practices that were seen as outmoded and out of harmony with the natural environment. In October 1968, Robert Smithson organized an exhibition at Dwan Gallery in New York titled “Earthworks.” The works in the show posed an explicit challenge to conventional notions of exhibition and sales, in that they were either too large or too unwieldy to be collected. For these artists escaping the confines of the gallery and modernist theory was achieved by leaving the cities and going out into the desert, they were not depiciting the landscape. This shift in the late 1960s and 1970s represents an avant garde notion of sculpture, the landscape and our relationship with it.
The work challenged the conventional means to create sculpture, but defied more elite modes of art dissemination and exhibition, such as the Dawn Gallery show mentioned earlier. This shift opened up a new space and in doing so expanded the ways in which work was documented and conceptualized. In Europe, artists such as Nils Udo, Jean-Max Albert, Piotr Kowalski, among others, had been creating environmental art such as Sculptures Bachelard since the 1960s. Just as the earthworks in the deserts of the west grew out of notions of landscape painting, the growth of public art stimulated artists to engage the urban landscape as another environment and as a platform to engage ideas and concepts about the environment to a larger audience. "Many environmental artists now desire not an audience for their work but a public, with whom they can correspond about the meaning and purpose of their art." While this earlier work was created in the deserts of the American west, the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s saw works moving into the public landscape.
Artists like Robert Morris began engaging county departments and public arts commissions to create works in public spaces such as an abandoned gravel pit. Herbert Bayer used a similar approach and was selected to create his Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks in 1982; the project served functions such as erosion control, a place to serve as a reservoir during high rain periods, a 2.5 acre park during dry seasons. Lucy Lippard's groundbreaking book, on the parallel between contemporary land art and prehistoric sites, examined the ways in which these prehistoric cultures and images have "overlaid" onto the work of contemporary artists working with the land and natural systems. Alan Sonfist introduced a key environmentalist idea of bringing nature back into the urban environment with his first historical Time Landscape sculpture, proposed to New York City in 1965, visible to this day at the corner of Houston and LaGuardia in New York City’s Greenwich Village. Today Sonfist is joining forces with t
Hase-dera is the main temple of the Buzan sect of Shingon Buddhism. The temple is located in Nara Prefecture, Japan; the Main Hall is a National Treasure of Japan. According to the description on the bronze plaque known as the Hokke Sessō-zu, enshrined at Hase-dera, the temple was first built in 686 and dedicated to Emperor Tenmu, suffering from a disease. In the year 727, the temple was expanded by order of Emperor Shōmu and a statue of the eleven-faced Kannon was placed near the original temple that enshrined the bronze plaque; the temple has been rebuilt as many as ten times since the 10th century. During the Heian period the temple was favored by members of the nobility such as the authors of the Kagerō Nikki and the Sarashina Nikki. Hase-dera was popular with visitors, helped by the fact it was situated on what was the route to the Ise Shrine. Still, Hase-dera flourished as one of the centers of the reformed Shingon Buddhism after the arrival of priest Sen'yo from Negoro-ji in 1588; the current Main Hall is a reconstruction of 1650 built using donations from Tokugawa Iemitsu.
A covered wooden staircase, 200 metres long, leads to the Hall from the Niō Gate. Visitors are numerous in the spring, when the 700 Chinese peonies that line the staircase are in bloom, in the fall, when the leaves of the many maple trees in the temple grounds have turned red; the designated Important Cultural Properties at Hase-dera include: The Main Hall: The Main Hall at Hase-dera is one of the largest halls in the Nara prefecture, the statue of the Eleven Faced Kannon is located in this hall. The bronze plaque of the Hokke Sessō-zu: This plaque measures 75 cmx 84 cm and features at its center a hexagonal three story pagoda, surrounded by a series of panels showing two Buddhas sitting on lotus seats, as well as various deities and monks; the lower panel features 27 lines of inscription, boarded by two guardian gods. The Hokke Sutra The Niōmon: The Niō are present at the gates of many Japanese Buddhist temples, one for each side of the entrance; these statues are protectors of the temple, can be thought of in English as two benevolent kings.
These statues lend their name to the gate of the temple. The Nio have a threatening appearance in order to discourage thieves; the Shōrō: In 1984 the original bell was replaced, the original was placed in the treasure hall The Staircase: The staircase is made up of 399 small stone steps, is around 200 meters long. Pilgrims who visit the temple believe that when walking the staircase it help to get rid of the 108 illusions that they believe lead to all human suffering; the Eleven-faced Kannon: The Statue of the Eleven Faced Kannon is 9.3 meters or 31 ft tall and it is said that it was carved by a priest known as Tokodo. This is said to be the largest wooden statue in Japan; this statue depicts one of the most popular Deities in Japan, has 11 faces. These faces are made up of one primary face and 10 secondary and are said to allow Kannon to see all around, in case anyone is in need of her assistance. List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan For an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture, see the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism.
Ed. Nara Chamber of Commerce. Nara Mahoroba Somurie Kentei Official Textbook. Yama to Keikoku sha. p. 129. ISBN 4-635-60050-5. Pamphlet distributed by Hase-dera on site. Hasedera Photos of Hasedera Temple Hase Tourist Association
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica