Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Valley Forge Military Academy and College
Valley Forge Military Academy and College is an American independent college preparatory boarding school and, as of Fall 2006, coeducational independent military junior college located in Wayne, Pennsylvania that follows in the traditional military school format with Army tradition. Though military in tradition and form, the high school portion of VFMAC, Valley Forge Military Academy, is a college preparatory boarding institution specializing on student leadership. VFMAC's administration is composed entirely of current or retired military; the Board of Trustees are entirely alumni. Some graduates pursue careers in the armed services, VFMAC has one Rhodes Scholarship recipient; the school has established a tradition with the British Monarchy and follows an American military academy model and practices the American Army tradition. VFMAC has a British Army Garrison Sergeant Major with William'Billy' Mott, OBE MVO, Welsh Guards as the first Garrison Sergeant Major appointed as VFMAC staff; the Valley Forge Corps of Cadets, student run, is the only American military organization that maintained British rank, drill and ceremonies.
All cadets must earn a "Capshield" to be a member of the Corps of Cadets. It is the only Corps of Cadets in the United States to still have a traditional mounted battalion of one cavalry troop and one artillery battery. College cadet uniforms are styled after the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. VFMAC Regimental Sergeant Major, Drum Major and Field Music Drum Major wears the British Army Foot Guard uniform. Cadet Senior NCOs carry a British Military pace stick. Valley Forge Military College, "The Military College of Pennsylvania", is the only private military junior college in the United States where the entire college student body consists of military cadets from the United States and international cadets. All students are members of the Corps of Cadets; the Academy and College was once residential, but in recent years the academy offers a day student program. VFMC is the only junior military college that caters to all branches of the United States military through the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the "Prepster" program for all five United States service academies.
Valley Forge Military Academy was founded in 1928 by Lieutenant General Milton G. Baker, Pennsylvania Guard. For the first five months of its existence, the school was located in Devon, Pennsylvania, on the south side of Berkley Road, between Dorset and Waterloo roads, several miles away from the campus's current location. After a fire during the night of January 17–18, 1929 destroyed the original single-building campus, the former Devon Park Hotel, the Academy was moved to its present site in Wayne, the former Saint Luke's School; the highest decoration in the institution, the Order of Anthony Wayne, was made in tribute to the heroism of the first Corps of Cadets on the night that the first campus burned down. General Baker devised an American Revolutionary War motif for the school; the school colors are the colors of the uniforms of the Continental Army. The buildings in the Wayne campus were named for Revolutionary War leaders, while the uniforms, Alma Mater, rank structure were patterned from those of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
During the 1935–1936 school year Baker expanded the academy to include a two-year college program, with the first college cadets joining the corps that year. Subsequently, the school was known as Valley Forge Military Junior College. Today, it is known as "Valley Forge Military Academy and College". In the late 1940s to 1950s, Baker, an Anglophile, began changing the concept and modeled many of the school's drills and ceremonies after a British motif; the Full Dress Uniforms are modeled from those of the British Army, while others are ostensibly West Point and British hybrids. The corps expanded to include artillery in the late 1930s; the school was granted military junior college status by the Department of Defense sometime between the 1940s and the 1960s. Baker retired as superintendent in 1971, died at his home on July 31, 1976, at the age of 80; the 1981 film Taps was filmed at the school. Superintendents:Lieutenant General Milton G. Baker, Pennsylvania Guard, 1928–1971 Lieutenant General Milton H. Medenbach, Pennsylvania Guard, 1971 Major General Robert W. Strong, Jr. United States Air Force, 1971–1973 Lieutenant General Willard Pearson, United States Army, 1973–1985 Lieutenant General Alexander M. Weyand, United States Army 1985–1989 Colonel Harold J. Fraley, United States Army, 1989–1990 Vice Admiral N. Ronald Thunman, United States Navy, 1990–1993Title changed to President in 1992Rear Admiral Virgil L. Hill, Jr. United States Navy 1993–2000 Rear Admiral Peter A.
C. Long, United States Navy 2000–2004 Charles A. McGeorge 2004–2009 William R. Floyd, Jr. 2009–2010 Colonel David R. Gray, United States Army 2010–2012 Col. James J. Doyle, USMC, Interim President, 2012–2013 Stacey R. Sauchuk, 2013–2016 Col. John C. Church, Jr. USMC 2016–2018 Major General Walter T. Lord U. S. Army Class of 1984 2018-2019 The school has, as of 2011 about 500 students, representing 38 states and 25 nations; the college had the largest enrollment at the start of the 2009–2010 academic year: 334 cadets. By 2014, the school had grown to more than 650 cadets; the Army ROTC Early Commissionin
Marion is a city in, the county seat of, Perry County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city is 3,686, up 4.8% over 2000. First known as Muckle Ridge, the city was renamed after a hero of the American Revolution, Francis Marion. Marion is the 152nd most populous city of 573 cities; the territory of the Creek Indians, it was founded shortly after 1819 as Muckle Ridge. The city was renamed in honor of Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox," hero of the American Revolutionary War, in 1822, it incorporated as a town the same year and became the second county seat after the hamlet of Perry Ridge was unsuitable. In 1829, it upgraded from a town to a city. From the early days, Marion created considerable history for a small town on the western frontier of Alabama; the old City Hall is but one of many antebellum public buildings and homes in the city today. General Sam Houston, while between terms as 1st and 3rd President of the Republic of Texas, married Margaret Lea of Marion in the city in 1840.
At the 1844 meeting of the Alabama Baptist State Convention in Marion, the "Alabama Resolutions" were passed. This was one of the factors that led to the 1845 formation of the Southern Baptist Convention in Augusta, Georgia. Judson College was founded in 1838 and Marion Military Institute after Howard College moved in 1887. Howard College the location of the current Marion Military Institute, was founded in Marion in 1841, moved to Birmingham in 1887 becoming Samford University. A groundbreaking school for African Americans, the Lincoln Normal School, was founded here in 1867; the associated Lincoln Normal University for Teachers moved to Montgomery and became Alabama State University. In 1889, Marion Military Institute was chartered by the State of Alabama and today is the oldest military junior college in the nation. In December 1857, Andrew Barry Moore of Marion was elected the sixteenth Governor of Alabama. After serving one term where he presided over Alabama's secession from the Union, he assisted in the war effort, was imprisoned a short time after the war and in ill health returned to Marion where he died eight years later.
George Doherty Johnson served as mayor of Marion in 1856, state legislator from 1857-58 and rose to the rank of brigadier general in the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Leading up to the Civil War Nicola Marschall, a German-American artist, is credited with designing both the first official Confederate flag and the grey Confederate army uniform while a teacher at the old Marion Female Seminary. With the coming Civil War in 1861, Nicola Marschall was approached in February by Mary Clay Lockett, wife of prominent attorney Napoleon Lockett of Marion, her daughter, Fannie Lockett Moore, daughter-in-law of Alabama Governor Andrew B. Moore of Marion, to design a flag for the new Confederacy. Marschall offered three designs, one of which became the "Stars and Bars," the first official flag of the Confederate States of America, and, first raised in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 4, 1861. At the turn of the century in 1900, Perry County peaked in population at 31,783 or three times the population of the county in 2010 census.
In 1909, Marion became the county seat. Hal Kemp, a jazz alto saxophonist, bandleader and arranger. was born in Marion in 1904 and died in Madera, following an auto accident in 1940. His major recordings were "There's a Small Hotel", "Where or When", "This Year's Kisses", "When I'm With You", "Got a Date With an Angel" and "Three Little Fishies", his band was popular from 1934 until 1939. In 1936, he was number one for two weeks with "There's a Small Hotel" and two weeks with "When I'm With You". In 1937, his number one hits were "This Year's Kisses", number one for four weeks, "Where or When", number one for one week. In 1992, Hal Kemp was inducted into the Big Jazz Hall of Fame. Coretta Scott King, wife of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in Marion in 1927 and spent her childhood there. She graduated from Lincoln Normal School as valedictorian in 1945; the couple got married on the front lawn of her mother's home north of Marion in 1953. A number of significant events occurred in Marion relating to the Civil Rights Movement.
In 1958 Jimmy Wilson, a black man, was sentenced to death by a jury in Marion for stealing $1.95 from Estelle Barker. Wilson's case became an international cause célèbre, covered in newspapers worldwide and inspiring over 1000 letters per day to the office of governor Jim Folsom. After the Alabama Supreme Court upheld Wilson's conviction, at the urging of the Congress of Racial Equality, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles wrote to Folsom explaining the damage that the case was doing to the international reputation of the United States and Folsom granted Wilson clemency. In 1964, Marion was a center of civil rights protests in Alabama. During a Southern Christian Leadership Conference march on the evening of February 18, 1965, during the height of the Selma Voting Rights Movement, Marion resident Jimmie Lee Jackson was shot and killed by Alabama State Trooper James Bonard Fowler; these events were depicted in the movie Selma, released in 2014.. Jackson died on February 26 of an infection stemming from the wounds at nearby Good Samaritan Hospital in Selma.
Martin Luther King preached a sermon at Jackson's funeral on March 3, Jackson's death is recognized as the catalyst for SCLC Director of Direct Action, James Bevel, to call and organize the first Selma to Montgomery March on March 7. It was not until 2007. In 2010, Fowler plea
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home; the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the principality of Lippe, Germany.
In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work, his system was successful in producing obedient children with basic numeracy. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, went on to establish hundreds more, he published many works on the subject, his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education, he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published based on the school, he began working for the Infant School Society the next year. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age. Countess Theresa Brunszvik, who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children.
In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Friedrich Fröbel opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school, he renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden". Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens around the world; the first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz. Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860; the first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who established the Poppenhusen Institute.
The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in cities. In 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario at the Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens. Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are run by the government. Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan.
The number of preschools grew during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country; these facilities were an urban phenomenon in Kabul, were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare; the vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control.
In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government c
Roswell, New Mexico
Roswell is a city and the seat of Chaves County in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 48,411, it is a center for irrigated farming, ranching, manufacturing and petroleum production. It is the home of New Mexico Military Institute, founded in 1891. Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located a few miles northeast of the city on the Pecos River. Bottomless Lakes State Park is located 12 miles east of Roswell on US 380; the Roswell UFO incident was named after the town, though the crash site of the alleged UFO was some 75 miles from Roswell and closer to Corona. The investigation and debris recovery was handled by the local Roswell Army Air Field. Roswell's tourist industry is based on alien-themed stores and other businesses; the first non-indigenous settlers of the area around Roswell were a group of pioneers from Missouri, who attempted to start a settlement 15 miles southwest of what is now Roswell in 1865, but were forced to abandon the site because of a lack of water.
It was called Missouri Plaza. It had many Hispanic people from Lincoln, New Mexico. John Chisum had his famous Jingle Bob Ranch about 5 miles from the center of Roswell, at South Spring Acres. At the time, it was the largest ranch in the United States. Van C. Smith, a businessman from Omaha and his partner, Aaron Wilburn, constructed two adobe buildings in 1869 that began what is now Roswell; the two buildings became the settlement's general store, post office, sleeping quarters for paying guests. In 1871, Smith filed a claim with the federal government for the land around the buildings, on August 20, 1873, he became the town's first postmaster. Smith was the son of Roswell Smith, a prominent lawyer in Lafayette and Annie Ellsworth, daughter of U. S. Patent Commissioner Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, he called the town Roswell, after his father's first name. In 1877, Captain Joseph Calloway Lea and his family bought out Smith and Wilburn's claim and became the owners of most of the land of Roswell and the area surrounding it.
The town was quiet during the Lincoln County War. A major aquifer was discovered when merchant Nathan Jaffa had a well drilled in his back yard on Richardson Avenue in 1890, resulting in the area's first major growth and development spurt; the growth continued when a railroad was built through town in 1893. During World War II, a prisoner-of-war camp was located in nearby Orchard Park; the German prisoners of war were used to do major infrastructure work in Roswell, such as paving the banks of the North Spring River. Some POWs used rocks of different sizes to create the outline of an iron cross among the stones covering the north bank; the iron cross was covered with a thin layer of concrete. In the 1980s, a crew cleaning the river bed cleared off the concrete and revealed the outline once more; the small park just south of the cross was known as Iron Cross Park. On November 11, 1996, the park was renamed POW/MIA Park; the park displays a piece of the Berlin Wall, presented to the city of Roswell by the German Air Force.
In the 1930s, Roswell was a site for much of Robert H. Goddard's early rocketry work. Roswell was a location of military importance from 1941 to 1967. In 1967, the Walker Air Force Base was decommissioned. After the closure of the base, Roswell capitalized on its pleasant climate and reinvented itself as a retirement community. Roswell has benefited from interest in the alleged UFO incident of 1947, it was the report of an object that crashed in the general vicinity in June or July 1947 an extraterrestrial spacecraft and its alien occupants. Since the late 1970s, the incident has been the subject of intense controversy and of a conspiracy theory regarding a classified program named "Mogul". Many UFO proponents maintain that an alien craft was found and its occupants were captured, that the military engaged in a cover-up. In recent times, the business community has deliberately sought out tourists interested in UFOs, science fiction, aliens. In 1978–79 and 2002, Roswell was named one of the All-American cities.
Roswell hosted the record-breaking skydive by Felix Baumgartner on October 14, 2012. Roswell is located in southeastern New Mexico about 7 mi west of the Pecos River and some 40 mi east of highlands that rise to the Sierra Blanca range. U. S. Routes 70, 285, 380 intersect in the city. US 70 leads 117 mi west to Alamogordo. According to the United States Census Bureau, Roswell has a total area of 29.9 square miles, of which 29.8 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.19%, is covered by water. Roswell is located in the High Plains and has four distinct seasons, giving it a BSk or BSh semiarid climate according to the Köppen climate classification. Winters are cold, but sunny, snowfall is a common occurrence. Spring is mild and warm, but can still be cold on occasion. Summers are hot and, quite the temperature rises above 100 °F, which can be unpleasant; the North American monsoon occurs during the summer, can bring torrential downpours, severe thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes. The rain can provide a cooling relief from the scorching great plains heat.
Fall is mild