A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed; the translation of "nut" in certain languages requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous. Most seeds come from fruits that free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary; the general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, many nuts, such as almonds, pistachios and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut. Nuts are an nutrient-rich food source. A nut in botany is a simple dry fruit in which the ovary wall becomes hard as it matures, where the seed remains unattached or free within the ovary wall. Most nuts come from the pistils with inferior ovaries and all are indehiscent. True nuts are produced, by some plant families of the order Fagales.
Order Fagales Family Fagaceae Beech Chestnut Oak Stone-oak Tanoak Family Betulaceae Hazel, Filbert Hornbeam A small nut may be called a "nutlet". In botany, this term refers to a pyrena or pyrene, a seed covered by a stony layer, such as the kernel of a drupe. Walnuts and hickories have fruits, they are considered to be nuts under some definitions, but are referred to as drupaceous nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for hickory fruits. In common use, a "tree nut" is, as the name implies; this most comes up regarding allergies, where some people are allergic to peanuts, others to a wider range of nuts that grow in trees. A nut in cuisine is a much less restrictive and older meaning of the word than the narrow meaning of nut in botany. Any large, oily kernels found within a shell and used in food are called nuts. Nuts are an important source of nutrients for wildlife; because nuts have a high oil content, they are a prized food and energy source. A large number of seeds are edible by humans and used in cooking, eaten raw, sprouted, or roasted as a snack food, or pressed for oil, used in cookery and cosmetics.
Nuts used for food, are among the most common food allergens. Some fruits and seeds that do not meet the botanical definition but are nuts in the culinary sense are: Almonds are the edible seeds of drupe fruits – the leathery "flesh" is removed at harvest. Brazil nut is the seed from a capsule. Candlenut is a seed. Cashew is the seed of a drupe fruit with an accessory fruit. Chilean hazelnut or Gevuina. Macadamia is a creamy white kernel of a follicle type fruit. Malabar chestnut. Mongongo nut. Peanut is a seed and from a legume type fruit. Pecan is the seed of a drupe fruit. Pili nut is the seed of the tropical tree Canarium ovatum which grows in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Pine nut is the seed of several species of pine. Pistachio is the dehiscent seed of a thin-shelled drupe. Walnut is the seed of a drupe fruit. Yeheb nut is the seed of a desert bush, Cordeauxia edulis. Nuts are the source of energy and nutrients for the new plant, they contain a large quantity of calories, essential unsaturated and monounsaturated fats including linoleic acid and linolenic acid and essential amino acids.
Many nuts are good sources of vitamin E, vitamin B2, folate and the essential minerals magnesium, potassium and selenium. Nuts are most healthy in their raw unroasted form because roasting can damage and destroy fats during the process; this table lists the percentage of various nutrients in four unroasted seeds. Nuts are under preliminary research to assess whether their consumption may lower risk for some diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nuts have a low glycemic index due to their high unsaturated fat and protein content and low carbohydrate content; the nut of the horse-chestnut tree, is called a conker in the British Isles. Conkers are inedible to many animals because they contain toxic glucoside aesculin, they are used in a popular children's game, known as conkers, where the nuts are threaded onto a strong cord and each contestant attempts to break their opponent's conker by hitting it with their own. Horse chestnuts are popular slingshot ammunition. List of culinary nuts List of edible seeds List of foods Nutmeg Achene Albala, Ken 2014.
Nuts A Global History. The Edible Series. ISBN 978-1-78023-282-9
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant; the embryo is developed from the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates; the term "seed" has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Many structures referred to as "seeds" are dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate. Sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to and surrounding the actual seed. Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms. Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth; some fruits have layers of both fleshy material. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, which begin their development "naked" on the bracts of cones. However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales.
Seed production in natural plant populations varies from year to year in response to weather variables and diseases, internal cycles within the plants themselves. Over a 20-year period, for example, forests composed of loblolly pine and shortleaf pine produced from 0 to nearly 5 million sound pine seeds per hectare. Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, nine good seed crops, when evaluated for production of adequate seedlings for natural forest reproduction. Angiosperm seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: the embryo formed from the zygote, the endosperm, triploid, the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization, which involves the fusion of two male gametes with the egg cell and the central cell to form the primary endosperm and the zygote. Right after fertilization, the zygote is inactive, but the primary endosperm divides to form the endosperm tissue.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination. After fertilization the ovules develop into the seeds; the ovule consists of a number of components: The funicle or seed stalk which attaches the ovule to the placenta and hence ovary or fruit wall, at the pericarp. The nucellus, the remnant of the megasporangium and main region of the ovule where the megagametophyte develops; the micropyle, a small pore or opening in the apex of the integument of the ovule where the pollen tube enters during the process of fertilization. The chalaza, the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, where integument and nucellus are joined together; the shape of the ovules as they develop affects the final shape of the seeds. Plants produce ovules of four shapes: the most common shape is called anatropous, with a curved shape. Orthotropous ovules are straight with all the parts of the ovule lined up in a long row producing an uncurved seed. Campylotropous ovules have a curved megagametophyte giving the seed a tight "C" shape.
The last ovule shape is called amphitropous, where the ovule is inverted and turned back 90 degrees on its stalk. In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, this establishes the polarity of the embryo; the upper or chalazal pole becomes the main area of growth of the embryo, while the lower or micropylar pole produces the stalk-like suspensor that attaches to the micropyle. The suspensor absorbs and manufactures nutrients from the endosperm that are used during the embryo's growth; the main components of the embryo are: The cotyledons, the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis. There may be two; the cotyledons are the source of nutrients in the non-endospermic dicotyledons, in which case they replace the endosperm, are thick and leathery. In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are papery. Dicotyledons have the point of attachment opposite one another on the axis; the epicotyl, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.
The plumule, the tip of the epicotyl, has a feathery appearance due to the presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, will become the shoot upon germination. The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root transition zone; the radicle, the basal tip of the hy
A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance; the cones from a handful of species Juniperus communis, are used as a spice in European cuisine, give gin its distinctive flavour. Juniper berries may be the only spice derived from conifers. All juniper species grow berries. In addition to J. communis, other edible species include Juniperus drupacea, Juniperus phoenicea, Juniperus deppeana, Juniperus californica. But the berries of some species, such as Juniperus sabina, are toxic and consumption of them is inadvisable. Juniperus communis. Unlike the separated and woody scales of a typical pine cone, those in a juniper berry remain fleshy and merge into a unified covering surrounding the seeds; the berries are green when young, mature to a purple-black colour over about 18 months in most species, including J. communis. The mature, dark berries are but not used in cuisine, while gin is flavoured with grown but immature green berries.
The flavor profile of young, green berries is dominated by pinene. The outer scales of the berries are flavourless, so the berries are always at least crushed before being used as a spice, they are used both fresh and dried, but their flavour and odour are at their strongest after harvest and decline during drying and storage. Juniper berries are used in northern European and Scandinavian cuisine to "impart a sharp, clear flavor" to meat dishes wild birds and game meats, they season pork and sauerkraut dishes. Traditional recipes for choucroute garnie, an Alsatian dish of sauerkraut and meats, universally include juniper berries. Besides Norwegian and Swedish dishes, juniper berries are sometimes used in German, Czech and Hungarian cuisine with roasts. Northern Italian cuisine that of the South Tyrol incorporates juniper berries. Juniper Juniperus communis, is used to flavor gin, a liquor developed in the 17th century in the Netherlands; the name gin itself is derived from either the French genièvre or the Dutch jenever, which both mean "juniper".
Other juniper-flavoured beverages include the Finnish rye-and-juniper beer known as sahti, flavored with both juniper berries and branches. Another drink made from the berries is a Julmust, a soft drink made in Sweden sold during Christmas; the brand Dry Soda produces a juniper-berry soda as part of its lineup. Some American distilleries have begun using'New World' varieties of juniper such as Juniperus occidentalis. A few North American juniper species produce a seed cone with a sweeter, less resinous flavor than those used as a spice. For example, one field guide describes the flesh of the berries of Juniperus californica as "dry and fibrous but sweet and without resin cells"; such species have been used not just as a seasoning but as a nutritive food by some Native Americans. In addition to medical and culinary purposes, Native Americans have used the seeds inside juniper berries as beads for jewellery and decoration. An essential oil extracted from juniper berries is used in perfumery. While classified as recognized as safe in the United States, juniper berries may have various side effects that have not been tested extensively in clinical trials.
Due to an increased risk of miscarriage in small doses, consuming juniper berries may affect pregnant or breastfeeding women and people with diabetes, bleeding disorders or after surgery. In traditional medicine, juniper berries were used for female birth control. In an in vitro study, juniper essential oil was studied for its possible antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Juniper berries, including Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs at multiple sites. J. oxycedrus is not known to grow in Egypt, neither is Juniperus excelsa, found along with J. oxycedrus in the tomb of Tutankhamun. The berries imported into Egypt may have come from Greece; the Greeks used the berries in many of their Olympics events because of their belief that the berries increased physical stamina in athletes. The Romans used juniper berries as a cheap domestically produced substitute for the expensive black pepper and long pepper imported from India, it was used as an adulterant, as reported in Pliny the Elder's Natural History: "Pepper is adulterated with juniper berries, which have the property, to a marvellous degree, of assuming the pungency of pepper."
Pliny incorrectly asserted that black pepper grew on trees that were "very similar in appearance to our junipers". Medicinal uses of Juniper in Armenia
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
The order Pinales in the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, comprises all the extant conifers. This order used to be known as the Coniferales; the distinguishing characteristic is the reproductive structure known as a cone produced by all Pinales. All of the extant conifers, such as cedar, celery-pine, fir, larch, redwood and yew, are included here; some fossil conifers, belong to other distinct orders within the division Pinophyta. The yews had been separated into a distinct order of their own, but genetic evidence indicates yews are monophyletic with other conifers and they are now included in the Pinales; the families included are the Araucariaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae and Taxaceae
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, in the mountains of Central America; the highest-known juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 ft in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low-spreading shrubs with long, trailing branches, they are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either dioecious; the female seed cones are distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with one to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species, these "berries" are red-brown or orange; the seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination.
The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with six to 20 scales. In zones 7 through 10, junipers can release pollen several times each year. A few species of junipers bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring. Many junipers have two types of leaves; when juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing'whip' shoots are intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is with no scale leaves. In some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed; the needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Bucculatrix inusitata and juniper carpet, is eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, pine beauty.
Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have no flowers or fruits. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 -- 3 years; the impermeable coat of the seed keeps water from getting in and protects the embryo when being dispersed. It can result in a long dormancy, broken by physically damaging the seed coat. Dispersal can occur from being swallowed whole by mammals; the resistance of the seed coat allows it to be passed down through the digestive system and out without being destroyed along the way. These seeds last a long time, as they can be dispersed long distances over the course of a few years; the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going; the section Juniperus is an obvious monophyletic group though. Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers.
The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, jointed at the base. Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus communis – Common juniper Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina – Alpine juniper Juniperus conferta – Shore juniper Juniperus rigida – Temple juniper or needle juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus brevifolia – Azores juniper Juniperus cedrus – Canary Islands juniper Juniperus deltoides – Eastern prickly juniper Juniperus formosana – Chinese prickly juniper Juniperus lutchuensis – Ryukyu juniper Juniperus navicularis – Portuguese prickly juniper Juniperus oxycedrus – Western prickly juniper or cade juniper Juniperus macrocarpa – Large-berry juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together. Juniperus drupacea – Syrian juniperJuniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers; the adult leaves are scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base.
Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here. Old World species Juniperus chinensis – Chinese juniper Juniperus convallium – Mekong juniper Juniperus excelsa – Greek juniper Juniperus excelsa polycarpos – Persian juniper Juniperus foetidissima – Stinking juniper Juniperus indica – Black juniper Juniperus komarovii – Komarov's juniper Juniperus phoenicea – Phoenicean juniper Juniperus pingii – Ping juniper Juniperus procera – East African juniper Juniperus procumbens – Ibuki juniper Juniperu
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
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