Hughes River (West Virginia)
The Hughes River is a tributary of the Little Kanawha River in western West Virginia in the United States. Via the Little Kanawha and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River; as measured from the confluence of its north and south forks, the Hughes is 18 mi long, drains a rural area of the unglaciated portion of the Allegheny Plateau. The river is believed to have been discovered and named by the 18th-century settler Jesse Hughes, but it may have been named for others of the same surname residing in the area during the same time period. According to the Geographic Names Information System, it has been known as the Junius River; the Hughes flows for most of its length through Ritchie County as two streams: The North Fork Hughes River, 57 mi long, rises in northern Ritchie County near the community of Mountain, flows southwestwardly, passing through North Bend State Park, where in 2003 it was dammed to form North Bend Lake, through the town of Cairo. It is crossed six times by the North Bend Rail Trail, a former line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad built between 1853 and 1857.
The South Fork Hughes River, 54 mi long, rises in western Doddridge County, flows westwardly through southern Ritchie County, past the communities of Berea and Macfarlan. West Virginia Route 47 parallels the south fork's lower course; the Hughes' north and south forks join near the community of Cisco and the Hughes River flows for 18 mi through northern Wirt County and meets the Little Kanawha River near the community of Newark, 12 mi southeast of Parkersburg. Varieties of fish in the Hughes River include muskellunge. List of West Virginia rivers North Bend State Park website
Franciscus Junius (the younger)
Franciscus Junius known as François du Jon, was a pioneer of Germanic philology. As a collector of ancient manuscripts, he published the first modern editions of a number of important texts. In addition, he wrote the first comprehensive overview of ancient writings on the visual arts, which became a cornerstone of classical art theories throughout Europe. Junius was born in Heidelberg, he was brought up at Leiden, Netherlands as his father called Franciscus Junius, was appointed professor of Hebrew at Leiden University in 1592. In 1602 his parents died, Junius went to live with his future brother-in-law, the humanist scholar Gerhard Johann Vossius in Dordrecht, he studied theology at Middelburg. In 1617, he became a pastor near Rotterdam, he resigned this position the following year, after he refused to take sides in a theological conflict in the Dutch Reformed Church, centering on faith out of free will as advocated by Jacobus Arminius or faith out of predestination, as defended by Junius' uncle Franciscus Gomarus.
After his resignation, Junius elected to travel instead: he visited first France, moved to England, where in 1620 he was employed by Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel, as a tutor to his son, as librarian. It was for Arundel, an avid collector of Greek and Roman art objects, that Junius wrote his De pictura veterum, a theoretical discussion of classical art and one of the cornerstones of the Neoclassical movement. Published in 1637 in Latin, it was followed by his own translations into Dutch. Junius remained resident in England for more than twenty years, but upon the revolt against Charles I in 1642, he joined the Earl and his wife to the Low Countries. Soon after his return in Holland, Junius became interested in the history of the Dutch language, an interest that spread to the oldest phases of other Germanic languages; as a result, he published a commentary on an Old High German paraphrase of the Song of Songs, the first edition of a collection of Old English poems, the first edition, together with an extensive dictionary, of the Gothic Gospels.
Upon his death a number of lexicographical works remained unpublished, of which an English etymological dictionary was published posthumously. Samuel Johnson's Dictionary used two main sources for its Teutonic etymologies: Junius's Etymologicum Anglicanum and Stephen Skinner's Etymologicon Linguæ Anglicanæ. Junius was the owner of an important piece of Christian literature called the MS Junius 11 codex known as the "Cædmon manuscript", or "Junius" codex. Junius was a close acquaintance of John Milton, it has been suggested that similarities between Milton's Paradise Lost and parts of the "Genesis" material in MS Junius 11, are the result of Milton having consulted MS Junius 11 via Junius, though this hypothesis cannot be proven. The first mention of the Heliand in modern times occurred when Junius found a fragment in 1587. Junius was the first person to study the Codex Argenteus, he first showed an interest in Gothic in 1654, engaged in a study of the Codex Argenteus in 1654. Isaac Vossius entrusted the codex to Junius.
Vossius had secured the codex from Queen Christina as part of a debt settlement. MS Junius 55 is a transcript Junius made of the full text of the original manuscript. Junius engaged Jan van Vliet in his study of Gothic; the earliest extant reference to the first foliation of the Nowell Codex, which contains the poem Beowulf, was made sometime between 1628 and 1650 by Junius. In 1675, Junius returned to Oxford and died in November 1677 at the house of his nephew Isaac Vossius in Windsor, Berkshire. In his life he had amassed a large collection of ancient manuscripts, in his will he bequeathed these to the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford. Amongst the works included in this bequest were a major manuscript of Anglo-Saxon poetry known as the Junius manuscript after him, the unique manuscript of the Ormulum. In his life, Junius devoted himself to the study of the Old Germanic languages, his work, while intrinsically valuable, is important as having aroused interest in a subject that at the time was neglected.
Major works include: 1637, De pictura veterum translated as On the Painting of the Ancients in 1638, as De Schilder-konst der Oude begrepen in drie boecken in 1641, reprinted 1659. A second edition of De pictura and improved by himself and augmented with an index, was published posthumously by J. G. Graevius in 1694, with a life of Junius included as a preface.1655, Observationes in Willerami Abbatis Francicam paraphrasin Cantici Canticorum"Notes on Abbot Williram's Frankish paraphrase of the Song of Songs"1655, Annotationes in harmoniam Latino-Francicam quatuor evangelistarum, latine a Tatiano confectam"Annotations on the Latin-Frankish harmony of the four Gospels, with the Latin of Tatian" 1655, Cædmonis monachi paraphrasis poetica Genesios ac praecipuarum sacrae paginae historiarum, abhinc annos M. LXX. Anglo-Saxonice conscripta, et nunc primum edita"The poetical paraphrase by the monk Cædmon of Genesis and the other principal pages of sacred history, composed in Anglo-Saxon 1070 years ago, now edited for the first time".
The first edition of the important poetical codex now designated Bodleian Library MS Junius 11. While it is no longer believed that Cædmon wrote the poems it contains, it is still known as the Cædmon manuscript.1664, Gothicum Glossarium, quo Argentii Codicis Vocabula explicantur"A glossary of words of the Gothic language as fou
Junius Kaʻae was a Native Hawaiian politician of the Kingdom of Hawaii. In 1887, he was implicated in the infamous bribery scandal involving King Kalākaua over the sale of an opium license to Tong Kee. Kaʻae served many positions during the Hawaiian monarchy, he worked as a notary public and agent of labor contract for the island of Kauai, receiving his first appointment in December 13, 1877 and a reappointment on January 13, 1879. On April 29, 1882, he was appointed by King Kalākaua as a member of the House of Nobles, the upper house of the Legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii, he served from 1882 to 1886 until the 1887 Bayonet Constitution removed all appointed nobles and made both legislative chambers elective. Around this time, he served as Registrar of Conveyances from October 30, 1886 to July 13, 1887 and a member of the Hawaiian Board of Health on February 16, 1887; the latter was a brief governmental organization in charged of licensing kahuna or practitioners of traditional Hawaiian medicine.
In the capacity of Registrar of Conveyance, Kaʻae was implicated in a corruption charge leveled on the king by his opponents. It was reported that Kaʻae had convinced a Chinese rice planter named Tong Kee, alias Aki, to make a bribe of $75,000 to the king, in order to secure the grant of an opium sales license, it was rumored that the large sum of cash was smuggled into the palace in baskets and handed to Kaʻae. When the license was awarded to Chun Lung, another Chinese immigrant, Aki demanded the money back and when the money was not returned he outed the king and Kaʻae in twelve affidavits detailing the controversy; the opium bribery scandal was satirized in the political satirical pamphlet, the Gynberg Ballads published by Alatau T. Atkinson, editor of the Hawaiian Gazette, coauthored by Edward William Purvis, a former member of the king's military staff. Shipments of the ballads arrived from San Francisco on May 13, 1887 and was distributed despite attempts by the government to seize the printed pamphlets.
One of the parts titled "The Opium Racket" summarized the scandal although changing the names of the participants. Aki became "You Lie", the king was transformed into the "Gynberg Duke" and Kaʻae became "Kiyi"; this became one of the corruption charges which led to the coup of the king by the Reform Party and the signing of the 1887 Bayonet Constitution which restricted his executive power. Kaʻae was forced to resign, he was appointed to the Privy Council of State, the advisory council for the monarch, on December 14, 1886 by King Kalākaua, continued in this role after the opium license controversy. The king was succeeded by his sister Liliʻuokalani. After her accession to the throne, the new queen reappointed Kaʻae to her Privy Council on March 7, 1891. Records of the Privy Council indicate that he only served one year before ceasing to sit in this body in 1892, he married three times. With his first wife Kukakina, he had a son named William F. Kaʻae, who became a county official for the Territory of Hawaii.
His second wife was Kamehaokalani, a relative of Queen Kapiʻolani, they had three children. His third wife Jessie Kapaihi Lane survived him. In life, Kaʻae attempted to claim, on behalf of his deceased second wife, the lands of Kealiʻiahonui, the son of the last independent king of Kauai Kaumualiʻi, his suit stating that the last will of Kealiʻiahonui was forged was rejected by the courts. In 1893 immediately following the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the Kaae petition was accepted and the probate of Kealiʻiahonui was reversed by the provisional government as the first case heard by Dole after the overthrow. Kaʻae died of blood poisoning at Queen's Hospital in Honolulu, his funeral was held at the Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace and he was buried at the Kawaiahaʻo Church cemetery
Robert Junius recorded as Robertus Junius was a Dutch Reformed Church missionary to Taiwan from 1629 to 1643. Along with Antonius Hambroek and Joannes Cruyf, he was among the longest-serving missionaries of the Dutch colonial era in Formosa. On arriving in Formosa, Junius took up residence in the village of Sakam, in the vicinity of Fort Provintia in present-day Tainan City. Described as more energetic than his contemporary, George Candidius, Junius was involved in the pacification of Taiwanese aborigines following the slaughter of sixty Dutch people by the natives of Mattau; this took the form of a short punitive war against the offending villages by Dutch forces, resulting in the killing of "a few dozen" aborigines and a Pax Hollandica which followed after the recalcitrant tribes had been cowed. Following this campaign, Junius continually urged the authorities in Batavia to send more clergymen to Formosa to assist in the instruction and conversion of the now amenable natives, something in which he was supported by the governor of the time, Hans Putmans.
However, he was disappointed by the response from the colonial administrative centre. In 1636, Junius established the first school in Formosa, teaching a class of 70 boys to write their mother tongue in roman letters. In 1641, he was called to Batavia to report to the Consistory, asked whether he would like to continue his service in Formosa, he agreed to return for two years, provided that "arrangements were made to have his salary increased, on condition that his brethren would write to Governor Traudenius about him, as that gentleman had given him some trouble."These requests were agreed upon, Junius returned to Formosa until late 1643. The numbers of baptisms under Junius' authority were impressive with Junius' work confined to the few villages around the Dutch strongholds of Fort Zeelandia and Fort Provintia. One commentator remarks that "At the end of thirteen years he could report that one thousand and seventy people had been baptized at a single station, Soulang,'and a proportionate number at the other villages,' of which he names five".
On December 14, 1643, Junius again went to Batavia at the end of his commission. The Consistory again requested him to return to Formosa to continue his ministry, but this time Junius declined and decided instead to go back to his homeland, Holland, he married in 1645 in Delft, lived on Koornmarkt until 1653. He died of the plague in Amsterdam in 1655. Junius was related to a painter of Delftware; the American Antiquarian Society holds the following volume: Of the conversion of five thousand and nine hundred East-Indians, in the Isle Formosa, neere China, to the profession of the true God, in Jesus Christ. Sibellius, Pastor in Deventer there, in a Latine letter. A portrait of Junius after Anthonie Palamedesz Media related to Robert Junius at Wikimedia Commons
On the ancient Roman calendar, mensis Iunius or Iunius Junius, was the fourth month, following Maius. In the oldest calendar attributed by the Romans to Romulus, Iunius was the fourth month in a ten-month year that began with March; the month following June was thus called the "fifth" month. Iunius had 29 days until a day was added during the Julian reform of the calendar in the mid-40s BC; the month that followed. In his poem on the Roman calendar, Ovid has three goddesses present three different derivations of the name Iunius. Juno asserts. Juventas pairs Iunius with Maius: the former, she says, comes from junior, "a younger person", in contrast to maiores or the "elders" for whom May was named. Juno's own name may derive from the same root meaning "young", these two possibilities may be reconcilable. Ovid has Concordia claim that Iunius comes from iungo, iunctus, "join", in honor of her uniting the Romans and the Sabines. Elsewhere, an less derivation relates the month name to Marcus Iunius Brutus, a member of the gens Iunia who made the first sacrifice to Dea Carna on the Kalends.
Month illustrations that draw on the Calendar of Filocalus show a nude male holding a torch that may be an allegory of the summer solstice. Solstitium is noted on June 24 of the calendar; the torch may be a reference to dies lampadarum, "day of torches", variously interpreted as the sun's rays or as the torch of Ceres, the grain goddess who carried a torch while searching for her abducted daughter Proserpina. The solstice marked the beginning of the harvest, represented by the basket of fruit and a sickle; the plant may be a bean, since June 1 was the "Bean Kalends". The Romans did not number days of a month sequentially from the 1st through the last day. Instead, they counted back from the three fixed points of the month: the Nones, the Ides, the Kalends of the following month; the Nones of June was the 5th, the Ides the 13th. Roman counting was inclusive. V Id. Iun.. The last day of June was the pridie Kalendas Quinctilis, "day before the Kalends of July"; the modern equivalent of this date was June 29 on the pre-Julian calendar, but June 30 on the Julian, because June was one of the months to which a day was added in realigning with astronomical time.
June 23 was thus VIII Kal. Quinct. "the 8th day before the Kalends of Quinctilis", during the Republican era, but IX Kal. Iul. "the 9th day before the Kalends of July", in the Imperial era. On the calendar of the Republic and early Principate, each day was marked with a letter to denote its religiously lawful status. In June, these were: F for dies fasti, days when it was legal to initiate action in the courts of civil law. By the late 2nd century AD, extant calendars no longer show days marked with these letters in part as a result of calendar reforms undertaken by Marcus Aurelius; the unique Q. ST. D. F. of June 15 stands for Quando stercum delatum fas, when it was a religious obligation to remove dirt from the Temple of Vesta. Varro specifies the act of sweeping. Days were marked with nundinal letters in cycles of A B C D E F G H, to mark the "market week". Festivals marked in large letters on extant fasti, represented by festival names in all capital letters on the table, are thought to have been the most ancient holidays, becoming part of the calendar before 509 BC.
A dies natalis was an anniversary such as a temple founding or rededication, sometimes thought of as the "birthday" of a deity. Unless otherwise noted, the dating and observances on the following table are from H. H. Scullard and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic. Scullard places the Taurian Games on June 25–26 on a five-year cycle, but other scholars believe these ludi had no regular date and were held as a crisis ritual when needed. After the Ides, dual dates are given to represent both the earlier calendar, when June had 29 days and July was called Quinctilis, the 30-day month of the Julian calendar
The gens Junia was one of the most celebrated families in Rome. The gens may have been patrician; the family was prominent in the last days of the Roman monarchy. Lucius Junius Brutus was the nephew of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last King of Rome, on the expulsion of Tarquin in 509 BC, he became one of the first consuls of the Roman Republic. Junius, the nomen of the gens, may be etymologically connected with the goddess Juno, after whom the month of Junius was named. Scholars have long been divided on the question of whether the Junii were patrician; the family was prominent throughout the whole of Roman history, all of the members who are known, from the early times of the Republic and on into the Empire, were plebeians. However, it seems inconceivable that Lucius Junius Brutus, the nephew of Tarquin the Proud, was a plebeian. So jealous of their prerogatives were the patricians of the early Republic, that in 450 BC, the second year of the Decemvirate, a law forbidding the intermarriage of patricians and plebeians was made a part of the Twelve Tables, the fundamental principles of early Roman law.
It was not until the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia in 367 BC that plebeians were permitted to stand for the consulship. Still, it has been suggested that the divisions between the orders were not established during the first decades of the Republic, that as many as a third of the consuls elected before 450 may in fact have been plebeians. If this were not the case, the consuls chosen at the birth of the Roman Republic may have been exceptions. On balance, it seems more that the Junii were at first numbered amongst the patricians, that they afterward passed over to the plebeians. At the end of the Republic, the Junii Silani were raised to patrician status by Augustus, one of them held the office of Flamen Martialis. Several of them bore the name of a great family of the Manlia gens; the praenomina favored by the early Junii were Marcus and Decimus. Except for the Bruti Bubulci, who favored the praenomen Gaius and may have been a cadet branch of the family, the Junii Bruti relied on these three names.
Many of the other families of the Junii used these names, although some added Gaius and others Quintus. The Junii Silani used the praenomen Appius; the Junii were by far the most prominent family to make regular use of Decimus. The names Titus and Tiberius were avoided by the Junii throughout most of their history. According to tradition, these were the names of the sons of Lucius Junius Brutus, the first consul, who joined in a conspiracy by their uncles, the Vitellii, to restore the Tarquins to power, they were condemned and executed by order of their own father, this disgrace led to the abandonment of their names by future generations. The only noteworthy exception appears to be the orator Titus Junius, who lived in the final century of the Republic; the family names and surnames of the Junii which occur in the time of the Republic are, Bubulcus, Paciaecus, Pera and Silanus. Norbanus was supposed to be a surname of the Junia gens, but in fact it seems to have been a gentile name. A few Junii are mentioned without any cognomen.
Many Junii appear under the Empire with other surnames, but most of them cannot be regarded as part of the gens. Brutus was the name of a plebeian family of the Junia gens, which claimed descent from Lucius Junius Brutus; this possibility was denied by some ancient authorities, on the grounds that the first consul was a patrician, because his two sons preceded him in death. However, one tradition states that there was a third son, from whom the Bruti were descended, it is not impossible that the elder sons had children of their own. Brutus is known to have had a brother, put to death by his uncle the king, there may have been other relatives. Moreover, Niebuhr raised the possibility, but if he had been a patrician, as the weight of tradition holds, his descendants may still have gone over to the plebeians. The name of Brutus is said to have been given to Lucius because he feigned idiocy after the execution of his brother, in hope of avoiding the same fate. However, his father is referred to as Brutus by the ancient authorities, while this may have come about for narrative convenience, it is possible that the surname had been borne by the family for some time.
According to Festus, the older meaning of the adjective brutus was "serious" or "grave", in which case the surname is much the same as Severus. A less probable explanation suggests a common origin with the name with that of the Bruttii, a people of southern Italy who broke away from the Samnites in the fourth century BC, whose name is said to have meant, "runaway slaves"; the surname Bubulcus refers to one. The only persons known to have borne this cognomen bore that of Brutus, therefore may have belonged to that family, rather than a distinct stirps of the Junia gens. If so, the Bubulci were the only members of the family to use the praenomen Gaius, they appear in history during the Second Samnite War, at the same time as the other Junii Bruti emerge from two centuries of obscurity, with the agnomen Scaeva. This suggests; the origin of the cognomen Pera, which appears in the middle of the thi
Junius Brutus Booth Jr.
Junius Brutus Booth Jr. was an American actor and theatre manager. As a member of the illustrious Booth family of actors, Junius Brutus Booth Jr. was overshadowed by his father Junius Sr. and brothers Edwin and John Wilkes and by his wife Agnes, a successful actress. Booth was married three times: first to Clementina De Bar, sister of comedian and theatrical manager Ben De Bar. Junius and Agnes had four children together: Junius Brutus III, Algernon and Barton. Only two survived to adulthood, of those two, Junius Brutus III committed suicide in 1912. Booth managed the Boston Theatre, Walnut Street Theatre, Winter Garden Theatre, Booth's Theatre, where his brother Edwin was the star attraction. Though a undistinguished actor, Junius Jr. was regarded for his performances as King John and as Cassius in Julius Caesar. In 1864 he performed Julius Caesar alongside his brothers John Wilkes. Junius Brutus Booth Jr. himself was imprisoned in Washington, DC, after his brother assassinated Abraham Lincoln.
At the time of the assassination, he was fulfilling an acting engagement at Pike's Opera House in Cincinnati before Edward, Prince of Wales. So, he was arrested and hurried by train to the Old Capitol Prison, where he was interrogated and released. Booth retired in 1881 to Masconomo House in Manchester-by-the-Sea, where he died on September 17, 1883, he was buried in Manchester's Rosedale Cemetery. Although Agnes Booth remarried in 1885, she continued performing under the Booth name, was buried next to him when she died in 1910. Junius Brutus Booth Jr. at the Internet Broadway Database