The expression junk science is used to describe scientific data, research, or analysis considered by the person using the phrase to be spurious or fraudulent. The concept is invoked in political and legal contexts where facts and scientific results have a great amount of weight in making a determination, it conveys a pejorative connotation that the research has been untowardly driven by political, financial, or otherwise unscientific motives. The concept was popularized in the 1990s in relation to expert testimony in civil litigation. More invoking the concept has been a tactic to criticize research on the harmful environmental or public health effects of corporate activities, in response to such criticism; the term has been used by proponents of both sides of such political debates. Author Dan Agin in his book Junk Science harshly criticized those who deny the basic premise of global warming, while former Fox News commentator Steven Milloy has extensively denounced research linking the fossil fuel industry to climate change, on his website junkscience.com.
In some contexts, junk science is counterposed to the "sound science" or "solid science" that favors one's own point of view. This dichotomy has been promoted by Steven Milloy and the Advancement of Sound Science Center, is somewhat different from pseudoscience and fringe science; the phrase junk science appears to have been in use prior to 1985. A 1985 United States Department of Justice report by the Tort Policy Working Group noted: The use of such invalid scientific evidence has resulted in findings of causation which cannot be justified or understood from the standpoint of the current state of credible scientific or medical knowledge. In 1989, the climate scientist Jerry Mahlman characterized the theory that global warming was due to solar variation as "noisy junk science."Peter W. Huber popularized the term with respect to litigation in his 1991 book Galileo's Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom; the book has been cited in over references. By 1997, the term had entered the legal lexicon as seen in an opinion by Supreme Court of the United States Justice John Paul Stevens: An example of'junk science' that should be excluded under the Daubert standard as too unreliable would be the testimony of a phrenologist who would purport to prove a defendant's future dangerousness based on the contours of the defendant's skull.
Lower courts have subsequently set guidelines for identifying junk science, such as the 2005 opinion of United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit Judge Easterbrook: Positive reports about magnetic water treatment are not replicable. As the subtitle of Huber's book, Junk Science in the Courtroom, his emphasis was on the use or misuse of expert testimony in civil litigation. One prominent example cited in the book was litigation over casual contact in the spread of AIDS. A California school district sought to prevent a young boy with AIDS, Ryan Thomas, from attending kindergarten; the school district produced an expert witness, Steven Armentrout, who testified that a possibility existed that AIDS could be transmitted to schoolmates through yet undiscovered "vectors." However, five experts testified on behalf of Thomas that AIDS is not transmitted through casual contact, the court affirmed the "solid science" and rejected Armentrout's argument. In 1999, Paul Ehrlich and others advocated public policies to improve the dissemination of valid environmental scientific knowledge and discourage junk science: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports offer an antidote to junk science by articulating the current consensus on the prospects for climate change, by outlining the extent of the uncertainties, by describing the potential benefits and costs of policies to address climate change.
In a 2003 study about changes in environmental activism regarding the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, Pedynowski noted that junk science can undermine the credibility of science over a much broader scale because misrepresentation by special interests casts doubt on more defensible claims and undermines the credibility of all research. In his 2006 book Junk Science, Dan Agin emphasized two main causes of junk science: fraud, ignorance. In the first case, Agin discussed falsified results in the development of organic transistors: As far as understanding junk science is concerned, the important aspect is that both Bell Laboratories and the international physics community were fooled until someone noticed that noise records published by Jan Hendrik Schön in several papers were identical—which means physically impossible. In the second case, he cites an example that demonstrates ignorance of statistical principles in the lay press: Since no such proof is possible, the article in The New York Times was what is called a "bad rap" against the U.
S. Department of Agriculture—a bad rap based on a junk-science belief that it's possible to prove a null hypothesis. Agin asks the reader to step back from the rhetoric, as "how things are labeled does not make a science junk science." In its place, he offers that junk science is motivated by the desire to hide undesirable truths from the public. John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton of PR Watch say the concept of junk science has come to be invoked in attempts to dismiss scientific findings that stand in the way of short-term corporat
Animation-Comic-Game Hong Kong is a material-entertainment fair and book fair focusing on animations and games based in Hong Kong. It is held annually at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre around August and selling comic books and comic-related / animation-related / game-related products; the categories of products and services in ACGHK have expanded over the years. The fair was called Hong Kong Comics Festival. In 2004 the convention was sponsored by Animax Hong Kong, was called the 2004 Animax Summer FUNtasy. Since 2006, Hong Kong Comics Festival had been renamed as Ani-Com Hong Kong and was held with Hong Kong Game Fair together. Animation-Comic-Game Hong Kong is merging of Ani-Com Hong Kong and Hong Kong Game Fair since 2008. ACGHK is a material-entertainment fair and book fair focusing on animations and games in Hong Kong, it is held annually at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre around August. Other than comics, the convention sells products related to comics and video games.
The convention features shows and dance/gaming competitions. The annual Hong Kong Game Fair is held in conjunction with the comics festival. Companies such as Microsoft's Xbox have large displays in the show. In the Samsung Game Girl competition, 11 girls compete for the "Game Girl" title; because the exhibition is crowded, large corporations purchase accident insurance and hire extra security for their top models. In 2010 the convention took place on July 30–August 3 at the HKCEC; the convention will take place in Guangzhou, from October 2–6, during China's weeklong National Day of the People's Republic of China holiday. Https://web.archive.org/web/20100820204138/http://www.ani-com.hk/pdf2010/exhibitors.pdf 2009 – Shoko Nakagawa, Arisa Noto 2010 – Mr. 謝安琪, 關楚耀, 謝慧玲舞蹈學院. MC Jin, 官恩娜, 高海寧, Khole Chu, Puffy, Fundanjuku, Haze, SCANDAL Comic World Manhua stage programme autograph Ani-Com Hong Kong official homepage Photos from 2006 Ani-Com + Game Fair, courtesy of Vince K. Chan Photos from 2004 Animax Summer Funtasy, courtesy of Vince K. Chan Report on the french site Kochipan
Sangkuriang is a legend among Sundanese people in Indonesia. The legend tells about the creation of Lake Bandung, Mount Tangkuban Parahu, Mount Burangrang and Mount Bukit Tunggul; the legend of Sangkuriang tells the story of a young man who falls in love with his own mother, somewhat comparable to the Greek tragedy Oedipus. From the legend, we can determine. Supported by geological facts, it is predicted that the Sundanese have been living on Java Island since a thousand years BC; the legend of Sangkuriang was certainly a story of oral tradition before being written down. The first written reference to Sangkuriang legend appeared in the Bujangga Manik manuscript written on palm leaves at the end of the 15th century or the early 16th century AD. Prince Jaya Pakuan, alias Prince Bujangga Manik or prince Ameng Layaran, visited all of the sacred Hindu sites in Java island and Bali island at the end of the 15th century AD. Using palm leaves, he described his travels in archaic Sundanese, his palm manuscript was taken to England by an Englishmen and put at the Bodleian library, Oxford, in 1627.
After a long journey, Bujangga Manik arrived in the current Bandung city area. He is the first eyewitness to report on the area. Below is a transcription of his report: Leumpang aing ka baratkeun datang ka Bukit Paténggéng Sakakala Sang Kuriang Masa dék nyitu Ci tarum Burung tembey kasiangan According to the legend, once upon a time in svargaloka a pair of deities, a god and a goddess committed a terrible sin; as punishment, Batari Sunan Ambu banished them from svargaloka and incarnated them on earth as animals—the god become a dog named Tumang, while the goddess become a boar named Celeng Wayungyang. One day a Sundanese king went to a jungle to hunt but got lost and separated from his guard; the king urinated upon the bushes and his urine accidentally collected in a dried coconut shell. The Celeng Wayungyang, which happened to be in the vicinity, drank the king's urine to quench her thirst. Unbeknownst to her, the urine she had drunk contained a bit of his sperm and that subsequently impregnated Celeng Wayungyang.
Being an animal demigod, she became pregnant and bore a child just hours later. The king, still in the jungle, heard the baby crying and found her lying among the bushes, he took her back to his kingdom and raised her as his own daughter, never realising that she was his real daughter. The baby girl grew up to be a beautiful girl named Dayang Sumbi and many nobles and princes tried to court her but none caught her interest, her favourite thing to do was weaving and she spent most of her time creating numerous beautiful cloths and textiles. She did her weaving in a section of the palace with an elevated pavilion in the garden. One day the terompong fell out and into grounds outside the palace; as she was of nobility, she was forbidden to leave the palace on foot and was always carried around but without anyone near to help her, she grew anxious to retrieve her'"teropong". In her anxiety, she made a promise out loud "Whomever picks the terompong for me will be rewarded, if she is a female, I will treat her as close as my own sister, if he is a male I shall marry him."
Tumang, the dog god came out of nowhere and retrieved the terompong for her. Princess Dayang Sumbi felt obliged to fulfill her promise and married him anyway despite Tumang being a dog; the union caused an uproar and ensuing scandal in the palace. The king was utterly ashamed and embarrassed by the actions of his daughter and banished the princess into the woods. Feeling sorry for their princess, the king's subjects built her a modest cottage in the forest and left her alone with Tumang, she soon discovered that Tumang is a supernatural being and during the full moon, was able to transform back into his original form. Dayang Sumbi lived in a daze for a while, thinking that it was a strange dream that once a month, a handsome man appeared to her and they make passionate love, they made love and fell passionately in love, after which Dayang Sumbi subsequently was impregnated and bore Si Tumang's child. That child was named Sangkuriang. Sangkuriang grew up to be an strong boy. Around the time he was 10 years old, his mother came to him with her craving for deer liver and asked him to get one for her.
Sangkuriang went for a hunt, accompanied with his dog, which Sangkuriang still didn't know, was his father. Curiously, there was neither game animal nor deer in the woods when Sangkuriang spotted a wild boar, he gave a chase and tried to shoot her with his arrow but was stopped by Tumang, who had realised that the boar was Sangkuriang's own grandmother. Wayungyang managed to escape and this angered Sangkuriang who took it out on Tumang and accidentally hurt Tumang. Tumang died from his injuries and this further devastated Sangkuriang, who now had to come home empty handed to his mother. So, he took his liver out to bring it back home to his mother. Upon his death, Tumang's soul returned to the svargaloka as the deity he was since he had lived out his punishment as a dog on earth. Sangkuriang returned home to his mother with the promised meat and she unsuspectingly cooked it. After the meal, Dayang Sumbi asked Sangkuriang to summon Tumang to give him his share of the cooked liver. Feeling immense shame and guilt at th
Phan Van Tri High School, is one of the public high schools in Phong Dien district. It is located in Phong Dien district, Can Tho City, Vietnam. Phan Van Tri High School was named after poet - a patriotic intellectual person in the late nineteenth century. In 1868, he was living in Nhon Ai village, Phong Dien district today and contributed to the education and herbal medicine in this area, it is the pride of students who have taught and studied here. The school was founded in 1968, named Phong Dien Secondary School, with 2 classrooms of 6th grade with 90 pupils. In 1974, it was renamed Phan Van Tri Secondary School. Since 1976, the school has been renamed Nhon Ai 2 Secondary School. There are only primary and secondary students, students at high school moved to Rach Goi High school to study and it did not have the name of Phan Van Tri any more. In 1982, the school was renamed Phan Van Tri Secondary School, now it is Phan Van Tri High School. There are staff at this school, it consists of 1,230 students, including grades 10, 11 and 12.
The principals at Phan Van Tri High School from the year of establishment until now. From 1968 to 1969 Mr. Trần Lộc Trọng From 1969 to 1975 Mr. Lê Văn Tập From 1982 to 1986 Mr. Phan Quang Ánh From 1987 to 1996 Mr. Nguyễn Học Sĩ From 1997 to 2007 Mr. Võ Thành Khiêm From 2008 to 2016 Mr. Nguyễn Văn Sang From 2016 until now Mr. Nguyen Hoang Minh Mr. Nguyen Hoang Minh is the current Principal, appointed since 2016. There are 94 staff including 1 Principal, 2 Vice Principals, 8 office staff and 83 teachers with 9 groups as follows: Maths - Informatics, Physics - Industrial Engineering, Biology, Literature, History-Civic Education and Physical Education-National Defense. There are 73 teachers with bachelor's degrees; the school has enough rooms for teaching about 32 to 35 classes. To 2020, the school will develop to 40 classes for 1,500 to 1,600 students. Besides that, the school has been equipped with facilities and modern equipment by Department of Education and Training of Can Tho city so that students can practise.
Phan Van Tri High School offers each grade 10th, 11th, 12th special education to help students perform well with their own talents. Students must wear uniforms; the uniforms for boys and girls consists of white shirts. The girls wears Vietnamese traditional dress every Monday; the school opens from 7.00 A. M. to 5 P. M. During the recess time, students go to the playground or go to library to read books. Students who want to be admitted to high schools must take a written examination consisting of three tests: Mathematics and English. About Phan Van Tri High School Facebook pageCategory:http://cantho.edu.vn/ Education in Can Tho
"Before the Law" is the second episode of the second season of the FX anthology series Fargo, the twelfth episode of the series overall. It was directed by series creator and showrunner Noah Hawley; the episode first aired on October 19, 2015, was seen by 0.96 million viewers. It received critical acclaim from critics, who praised its writing and pace. Joe Bulo, Mike Milligan and two Kitchen brothers of the Kansas City syndicate arrive at the Gerhardt residence. Bulo would allow them to run it. Afterwards, Floyd tells her sons about the meeting. Dodd bristles at his mother running the business, but acquiesces when she expresses her intent of him taking over once the current situation settles, she demands Rye be found. Milligan and the Kitchens begin searching for Rye. In Luverne, Peggy resumes work at the beauty salon while Ed stays home to clean up the garage and bundle up Rye's corpse to take to the butcher shop. While driving his family into town, Lou stops by the crime scene where Betsy finds Rye's gun in some weeds.
That night, Lou sees a light on inside the closed butcher shop and finds Ed there. Lou asks to buy some bacon, while Ed does his best to distract Lou from seeing Rye's remains in a meat grinder. Lou leaves unaware of what was happening, Ed finishes grinding Rye's body while strange flashing lights illuminate the exterior of the butcher shop; the music for the episode was provided by series composer Jeff Russo. The episode first aired in the United States on FX on October 19, 2015 and obtained 0.94 million viewers. "Before the Law" received critical acclaim. It holds a perfect 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes: the critical consensus is ""Before the Law" juxtaposes Fargo's sweeping cinematography with intimate character studies that build tension between the various storylines."In a positive review, Terri Schwartz of IGN gave the episode a 9.2 rating out of 10, concluding that "Fargo delivered another excellent episode with "Before the Law," which focused more on increasing the tension than world-building.
This isn't a show to waste screentime, so the pause to assess the damage after the events of the premiere pays off in episode 3." "Before the Law" on IMDb
FACTS was a weekly news magazine from Switzerland owned by Tamedia. The weekly published between 1995 and 2007. FACTS was established by Tamedia AG in 1995; the magazine oriented itself after the German magazine Focus until it obtained its own profile. It was among the leading news magazines in Switzerland; the magazine was part of Tamedia. In Spring 2002, the magazine was banned from the planes of the Swiss International Air Lines following the publication of an article criticizing the company; the main competitor of FACTS was the weekly Weltwoche. In 1997 FACTS had a circulation of 103,424 copies. In 2005, the magazine had a circulation of about 73,000 copies, with a reader reachout of about 440,000 readers. In 2007 FACTS ceased publication. In September 2007, Tamedia reactivated the website of the discontinued weekly magazine by launching FACTS 2.0. FACTS 2.0 aggregates presents it in the form of teasers. List of magazines in Switzerland Facts Random Facts FACTS 2.0