Milk is a nutrient-rich, white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases, it contains many other nutrients including lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals; as an agricultural product, milk called dairy milk, is extracted from farm animals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer of milk, is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products; the increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products.
China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households; the term "milk" comes from "Old English meoluc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk"". Milk consumption occurs in two distinct overall types: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product obtained from other mammals for consumption by humans of all ages. In all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later; the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors; the makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species. For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for up to two years of age or more.
In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, the period may be longer. Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, a host of allergic reactions. In many cultures in the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other mammals as a food product; the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. People therefore converted milk to curd and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood; this mutation allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, yogurt, ice cream, cheese.
Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, condensed milk, powdered milk, many other food-additives and industrial products. Whole milk and cream have high levels of saturated fat; the sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly; those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but sheep, yaks, water buffalo, horses and camels. India is buffalo milk in the world. In food use, from 1961, the term milk has been defined under Codex Alimentarius standards as: "the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it, intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing." The term dairy relates to animal milk production.
A substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute. The definition above precludes non-animal products which resemble dairy milk in color and texture, such as almond milk, coconut milk, rice milk, soy milk. In English, the word "milk" has been used to refer to "milk-like plant juices" since 1200 AD. In the USA, milk alternatives now command 13% of the "milk" market, leading the US dairy industry to attempt, multiple times, to sue producers of dairy milk alternatives, to have the name "milk" limited to animal milk, so far without success; the mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. It has been suggested. Much of the argument is based on monotremes; the original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition or immunological protection. This secretion became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time. Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on
Chè is any traditional Vietnamese sweet beverage, dessert soup or pudding. Varieties of Chè are made with mung beans, black-eyed peas, kidney beans, jelly and coconut cream. Other types are made with ingredients such as salt, aloe vera, lotus seed, sesame seed, sugar palm seeds, taro and pandan leaf extract; some varieties, such as chè trôi nước, may include dumplings. Chè are prepared with one of a number of varieties of beans, and/or glutinous rice, cooked in water and sweetened with sugar. In southern Vietnam, chè are garnished with coconut creme; the preparations are named with the addition of qualifying adjectives referring to a wide variety of distinct soups or puddings which may be served either hot or cold. Each variety of chè is designated by a descriptive word or phrase that follows the word chè, such as chè đậu đỏ. Chè may be made at home, but are commonly sold in plastic cups at Vietnamese grocery stores. In northern Vietnam, chè is the word for the tea plant. Tea is known as nước chè in the North or more trà in both regions.
The Chinese category of sweet soups called tong sui are similar to chè. There is a nearly endless variety of named dishes with the prefix chè, thus it is impossible to produce a complete list. What follows is a list of the most typical traditional varieties of chè. Chè ba màu - including green mung beans, white black-eyed peas, red azuki beans, although people can cook with any ingredients making any three colours they like. Chè đậu đen - made from black beans. Chè đậu huyết - made from red beans. Chè đậu ngự - made from Phaseolus lunatus - specialty in Huế, an imperial dish Chè đậu phụng - made from peanuts Chè đậu trắng - made from black-eyed peas. Oftentimes, this dessert is just referred to as chè đậu as it is one of the most common bean dessert for southern Vietnamese. Chè đậu ván Huế - made from Dolichos lablab. Chè bắp or chè ngô - made from corn and tapioca rice pudding Chè bột sắn - made from cassava flour Chè sắn lắt - made from sliced cassava Chè cốm - made from young rice. Chè lam - made from ground glutinous rice Chè củ mài - made from Dioscorea persimilis Chè củ súng - made from water lily bulbs Chè củ từ - made from Dioscorea esculenta Chè hột lựu - in this dish, rice paste are cut into pomegranate seed-shaped pieces.
Chè hột éo - basil seed drink Chè khoai lang - made from sweet potato Chè khoai môn - made from taro Chè môn sáp vàng - made from a variety of taro grown in Huế Chè kê - made from millet Chè khoai tây - made from potato Chè mè đen - made from black sesame seeds Chè sen - made from thin vermicelli and jasmine flavoured syrup Chè hạt sen - made from lotus seeds Chè sen trần Chè sen dừa - made from lotus seeds and coconut water Chè củ sen - made from lotus tubers Chè mã thầy - made from water chestnuts Cơm rượu - mildly alcoholic chè. Chè thạch or chè rau câu - made from agar agar Chè thạch lựu - made from seaweed and other pomegranate seed-shaped tapioca pearls. Chè thạch sen - made from seaweed and lotus seeds Sương sâm - jelly with Tiliacora triandra extract Sương sáo - Grass jelly Chè thạch sen - thin, vermicelli-like jellies. Chè bột lọc from small cassava and rice flour dumplings Chè con ong - made from glutinous rice, ginger root and molasses– this is a northern dish cooked to offer to the ancestors at Tết.
Chè bánh xếp - green bean wrapped in a tapioca skin dumpling eaten in a coconut milk base with smaller pieces of tapioca. Translated to English, the dish is "folded cake dessert". Chè trôi nước - balls made from mung bean paste in a shell made of glutinous rice flour. Chè hoa quả or chè trái cây - mixture of different fruits including pineapple, apple, mango, dried banana and dried coconut with milk and syrup Chè nhãn - made from longanChè xoài - made from mango Chè trái vải - lychee and jelly Chè bưởi - made from pomelo oil and slivered rind Chè chuối - made from bananas and tapioca Chè sầu riêng - made from durian Chè thốt nốt - made from sugar palm seeds Chè mít - made from jackfruit Chè lô hội - made from Aloe vera Hột é - made from Sterculia lychnophora extract and basil seeds Chè đậu đỏ bánh lọt - red beans and bánh lọt. Chè thập cẩm meaning ten-ingredient sweet soup or mixed sweet soup is a mixture of various kinds of ingredients such as black-eyed peas, azuki beans, lotus seeds, mung beans, coconut, s
Annin tofu or almond tofu is a soft, jellied dessert made of apricot kernel milk and sugar. It is a traditional dessert of Beijing cuisine, Cantonese cuisine, Hong Kong cuisine, Japanese cuisine, it is similar to blancmange. The name "tofu" here refers to "tofu-like solid"; this naming convention is seen in other east Asian dishes, e.g. Chinese yudoufu, Japanese tamagodofu. In the traditional recipe, the primary ingredient are almonds and ground with water; the almond milk is extracted and heated with a gelling agent. When chilled, the almond milk mixture solidifies to the consistency of a soft gelatin dessert. Although the agar-based recipe is vegan, there are numerous nontraditional recipes. Most are based on a small amount of flavored extract. Gelatin is a common substitute for agar. Almond jelly can be made from using instant mix. There is an instant soy-based powder with a coagulating agent, which dissolves in hot water and solidifies upon cooling. One popular brand of mix is DoFu Delight. Almond milk Blancmange Crème caramel List of Chinese desserts List of desserts Annin tofu recipe
Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme; this helps young mammals digest their mothers' milk. Rennet can be used to separate milk into solid curds for cheesemaking and liquid whey. In addition to chymosin, rennet contains other important enzymes such as a lipase. Rennet is used in the production of most cheeses; the mammal's digestive system must be accessed to obtain its rennet. Non-animal alternatives for rennet are available. One of the main actions of rennet is its protease chymosin cleaving the kappa casein chain. Casein is the main protein of milk. Cleavage causes casein to form a network, it can cluster better in the presence of calcium and phosphate, why it is added in cheese making from calcium phosphate-poor goat milk. The solid truncated casein protein network traps other components of milk like fats and minerals to create cheese. In digestion it is followed by other proteases cutting casein further to release and absorb the component amino acids and minerals.
In a nutshell, curdling is chymosin cleaving casein, a process, part of natural digestion and cheese making. Calf rennet is extracted from the inner mucosa of the fourth stomach chamber of young, unweaned calves as part of livestock butchering; these stomachs are a byproduct of veal production. If rennet is extracted from older calves, the rennet contains less or no chymosin, but a high level of pepsin and can only be used for special types of milk and cheeses; as each ruminant produces a special kind of rennet to digest the milk of its own species, milk-specific rennets are available, such as kid goat rennet for goat's milk and lamb rennet for sheep's milk. Dried and cleaned stomachs of young calves are sliced into small pieces and put into salt water or whey, together with some vinegar or wine to lower the pH of the solution. After some time, the solution is filtered; the crude rennet that remains in the filtered solution can be used to coagulate milk. About 1 g of this solution can coagulate 2 to 4 L of milk.
Deep-frozen stomachs are put into an enzyme-extracting solution. The crude rennet extract is activated by adding acid; the acid is neutralized and the rennet extract is filtered in several stages and concentrated until reaching a typical potency of about 1:15,000. One kg of rennet extract has about 0.7 g of active enzymes – the rest is water and salt and sometimes sodium benzoate, 0.5% - 1.0% for preservation. 1 kg of cheese contains about 0.0003 g of rennet enzymes. Because of the limited availability of mammalian stomachs for rennet production, cheese makers have sought other ways to coagulate milk since at least Roman times; the many sources of enzymes that can be a substitute for animal rennet range from plants and fungi to microbial sources. Cheeses produced from any of these varieties of rennet are suitable for lactovegetarians. Fermentation-produced chymosin is used more in industrial cheesemaking in North America and Europe today because it is less expensive than animal rennet. Many plants have coagulating properties.
Homer suggests in the Iliad. Other examples include several species of Galium, dried caper leaves, thistles and ground ivy. Enzymes from thistle or Cynara are used in some traditional cheese production in the Mediterranean. Phytic acid, derived from unfermented soybeans, or fermentation-produced chymosin may be used. Vegetable rennet might be used in the production of kosher and halal cheeses, but nearly all kosher cheeses are produced with either microbial rennet or FPC. Commercial so-called vegetable rennets contain an extract from the mold Rhizomucor miehei; some molds such as Rhizomucor miehei are able to produce proteolytic enzymes. These molds are produced in a fermenter and specially concentrated and purified to avoid contamination with unpleasant byproducts of the mold growth; the traditional view is that these coagulants result in bitterness and low yield in cheese when aged for a long time. Over the years, microbial coagulants have improved a lot due to the characterization and purification of secondary enzymes responsible for bitter peptide formation/non-specific proteolytic breakdown in cheese aged for long periods.
It has become possible to produce several high-quality cheeses with microbial rennet. Cheeses produced this way are suitable for vegetarians, provided no animal-based alimentation was used during the production; because of the above imperfections of microbial and animal rennets, many producers sought other replacements of rennet. With genetic engineering it became possible to isolate rennet genes from animals and introduce them into certain bacteria, fungi, or yeasts to make them produce chymosin during fermentation; the genetically modified microorganism is killed after fermentation and chymosin isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the fermentation-produced chymosin used by cheese producers does not contain a GMO or any GMO DNA. FPC is produced in a more efficient way. FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and, because the quantity needed per unit of milk can be standardized, are commercially viable alternatives to crude animal or plant rennets, as well as preferred to them.
Created by biotechnology company Pfizer, F
Bread and butter pudding
Bread and butter pudding is a traditional type of bread pudding popular in British cuisine. It is made by layering slices of buttered bread scattered with raisins in an oven dish, over which an egg custard mixture, made with milk or cream and seasoned with nutmeg, vanilla or other spices, is poured, it is baked in an oven and served. Some people may serve it with custard or cream, but the pudding under the crust is moist enough to be eaten without sauce, it is traditional to use stale bread. Sometimes raspberry, blackberry or mixed fruit jam, marmalade, or other sweet preserves will be spread upon the bread, along with the butter. Other modern variations include scattering fresh grapes between the layers of bread, melting apples into the egg-milk mixture, using unusual types of breads — such as brioche — to make it. Lemon or orange peel will add a characteristic flavour; the earliest bread and butter puddings were used either bone marrow or butter. Whitepots could be made using rice instead of bread, giving rise to the rice pudding in British cuisine.
One of the earliest published recipes for a bread and butter pudding so named is found in Eliza Smith's The Compleat Housewife of 1728. She instructs "Take a two penny loaf, a pound of fresh butter. In 1845, Eliza Acton suggests giving "a good flavour of lemon-rind and bitter almonds, or of cinnamon, if preferred, to a pint of new milk" adding cream and sugar, thickened with beaten eggs, her recipe calls for a glass of brandy to be added to the mixture. In American cuisine it may be called "Cold Bread Pudding". A similar dish, popular in Egypt, made with either bread or pastry, including pistachio nuts, without eggs, is called Om Ali. List of bread dishes List of butter dishes
Asida is a dish made up of a cooked wheat flour lump of dough, sometimes with added butter or honey. Similar to gruel or porridge, it is eaten in many North Middle Eastern countries. Considered one of the most popular desserts and traditional dish in many Arab countries, it is popular in Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Somalia, Tunisia. It is eaten by hand, without the use of utensils. Served during religious holidays such as Mawlid and Eid, it is served during traditional ceremonies accompanying the birth of child, such as the ‘aqīqah, the cutting of the hair of a newborn seven days after birth. A simple yet rich dish eaten without other complementary dishes, it is traditionally served at breakfast and is fed to women in labor; the word asida is an Arabic word, derived from the root عصد, meaning'twist it'. One of the earliest documented recipes for asida is found in a tenth century Arabic cookbook by Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq called Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ, it was described as a thick pudding of dates cooked with clarified butter.
A recipe for asida was mentioned in an anonymously authored Hispano-Muslim cookbook dating to the 13th century. In the 13th and 14th centuries, in the mountainous region of the Rif along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco, a flour made from grilled barley was used in place of wheat flour. A recipe for asida that adds argan seed oil was documented by Leo Africanus, the Arab explorer known as Hasan al-Wazan in the Arab world. According to the French scholar Maxime Rodinson, asida were typical foods among the Bedouin of pre-Islamic and later times; the Libyan variation of asida is served with a sweet syrup date or carob syrup, but with honey. A Sudanese version of this dish is served with a tomato-based sauce. Okra in the sauce gives it a somewhat slimy consistency, the asida is eaten not only on special occasions; the Tunisian version of this dish is served with either a mixture of honey and butter, or tomato-based hot sauce. The latter is more common in the day and the former earlier. Assida is commonly consumed with date syrup in southern parts of Tunisia.
Aseedah or aseed is one of the staple dishes in Yemen and is served for lunch, dinner or both. Its ingredients include wholemeal wheat, boiling salt as needed. On a high heat a pot is placed and boiling water is added. Handfuls of wholemeal wheat are added and are mixed with a large wooden spoon so that clumps do not form; the process is repeated until the mixture is thick. Traditionally the cook lowers the pot to the floor where they wrap their flip-flops around the hot pot and start vigorously mixing the dough. Using bare oiled hands the hot, steaming dough is shaped by the cook and placed in a wide, wooden bowl. Sometimes a depression is made in the middle of the shaped Aseedah so that a hot chili tomato paste is added or Helba, a fenugreek mixture made with parsley and garlic. Lamb or chicken stock is poured around the Aseedah, it is served hot. Aseedah can be made using white, bleached wheat. Furthermore honey can be used instead of chili/Helba, it is a meal, using only boiled water and some salt.
It is smothered in beef soup or chicken or lamb. It is served boiling hot and eaten with hands or spoons. Aseed is eaten at lunchtime and during Ramadan. Arab cuisine Berber cuisine List of puddings Genfo Yemen Times Barnard, Eastern desert ware: traces of the inhabitants of the eastern desert in Egypt and Sudan during the 4th-6th centuries CE, Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, hdl:1887/12929 Flickr image
Banana pudding is a dessert consisting of layers of sweet vanilla flavored custard and sliced fresh bananas placed in a dish and served, topped with whipped cream or meringue. It is associated with Southern U. S. cuisine, however, it can be found around the country. Furthermore, it resembles an English Trifle in that it is assembled in layers and includes custard, sponge cake, whipped cream. Banana pudding can be prepared using a baked or refrigerated method, with the latter being the more popular among home cooks. Moreover, many recipes have been adapted using banana pudding instead of a true custard. Other recipes omit the wafers. An early Banana pudding recipe was published in "The Kentucky Receipt Book," by Mary Harris Frazer, in 1903; however this recipe does not include wafers. A typical method for making Banana pudding is to layer the bananas and wafers into a dish and top with whipped cream or meringue. Over time, the wafers will absorb the custard and the layers will press together causing the flavors to intermingle.
The National Banana Pudding Festival began October 2010. It is held at the Centerville River Park and Jerry Dixon Walking Trail located a short distance north from the Centerville Public Square in Centerville, Tennessee, it is a 2-day event held the first weekend of October. The National Banana Pudding Festival is the brain child of twelve local community volunteers seeking a way to earn money to cover the costs of helping victims of disasters, fires and floods. In September 2009, they incorporated the National Banana Pudding Festival as a nonprofit corporation and set about bringing their dream to reality, they realized they could do more than just help their cause. They could provide a way for many nonprofit organizations to "earn" much needed funds for their causes and missions too; the heart of the National Banana Pudding Festival is the Puddin' Path. The Puddin' Path was awarded the "2014 Best Event Within an Event" by the Southeastern Festivals & Events Association, it exemplifies the festival's purpose, to support nonprofit organizations in the area, engage people in our community, provide a unique entertainment experience for the festival's guests.
Guests can take a stroll down the Puddin' Path and collect 10 samples of banana pudding made by nonprofit organizations. In addition to the Puddin' Path, the festival allows guests to watch the finalist in the banana pudding cook-off make their creations for the judges. In 2015, the festival started a new event: the Nation's Best Banana Pudding Professional Cook-Off. Restaurant Chefs / Professionals of this competition will compete for bragging rights of making the "Nation's Best Banana Pudding." All cook-off competitions are open to anyone it the United States. The Georgia State Banana Pudding began in May 2015, it is held on the 2.5 acre property of the Blue Goose on Main in the small town of Irwinton, Georgia. The owner of the Blue Goose approached the City of Irwinton and asked for their support of the event after a visit to the National Banana Pudding Festival in 2014. Organizers for the state festival followed the lead of the National Festival and structured the festival so that proceeds would go back into their community.
The one day event is held the last Saturday of April. Festival goers have the opportunity to walk through the Pudding Path and sample different Banana Puddings from seven local non-profits. Complete the Pudding Path and you have eaten a pound of Banana Pudding. One of the favorite events at the festival is the Individual Pudding Contest. Contestants present their award winning pudding to the public; the winner of the Georgia State Banana Pudding goes on to the National Banana Pudding Festival in Centerville, TN, to compete for the National title. In 2016, Kelly Crumbley from Forsyth, GA, was the Georgia winner and went on to compete and win at the National Banana Pudding Festival. North Carolina rock band Southern Culture on the Skids throws banana pudding during live shows and have a song, "Banana Pudding", on their Plastic Seat Sweat album, dedicated to the dessert itself. Banana Pudding