Juno (mythology)

Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. A daughter of Saturn, she is the wife of Jupiter and the mother of Mars, Vulcan and Juventas, she is the Roman equivalent of queen of the gods in Greek mythology. Her Etruscan counterpart was Uni, she was said to watch over the women of Rome; as the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire, Juno was called Regina and was a member of the Capitoline Triad, centered on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Juno's own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire, she is shown armed and wearing a goatskin cloak. The traditional depiction of this warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, who bore a goatskin, or a goatskin shield, called the'aegis'; the name Juno was once thought to be connected to Iove as Diuno and Diove from *Diovona. At the beginning of the 20th century, a derivation was proposed from iuven-, through a syncopated form iūn-; this etymology became accepted after it was endorsed by Georg Wissowa.

Iuuen- is related to Latin aevum and Greek aion through a common Indo-European root referring to a concept of vital energy or "fertile time". The iuvenis is he. In some inscriptions Jupiter himself is called Iuuntus, one of the epithets of Jupiter is Ioviste, a superlative form of iuuen- meaning "the youngest". Iuventas, "Youth", was one of two deities who "refused" to leave the Capitol when the building of the new Temple of Capitoline Jove required the exauguration of deities who occupied the site. Juno is the equivalent to the Greek goddess for love and marriage. Juno is the Roman goddess of marriage. Ancient etymologies associated Juno's name with iuvare, "to aid, benefit", iuvenescere, "rejuvenate", sometimes connecting it to the renewal of the new and waxing moon implying the idea of a moon goddess. Juno's theology is one of the most complex and disputed issues in Roman religion. More than other major Roman deities, Juno held a large number of significant and diverse epithets and titles representing various aspects and roles of the goddess.

In accordance with her central role as a goddess of marriage, these included Cinxia. However, other epithets of Juno are less thematically linked. While her connection with the idea of vital force, fullness of vital energy, eternal youthfulness is now acknowledged, the multiplicity and complexity of her personality have given rise to various and sometimes irreconcilable interpretations among modern scholars. Juno is the divine protectress of the community, who shows both a sovereign and a fertility character associated with a military one, she was present in many towns of ancient Italy: at Lanuvium as Sespeis Mater Regina, Tibur, Veii as Regina, at Tibur and Falerii as Regina and Curitis and Norba as Lucina. She is attested at Praeneste, Ardea, Gabii. In five Latin towns a month was named after Juno. Outside Latium in Campania at Teanum she was Populona, in Umbria at Pisaurum Lucina, at Terventum in Samnium Regina, at Pisarum Regina Matrona, at Aesernia in Samnium Regina Populona. In Rome she was since the most ancient times named Lucina and Regina.

It is debated whether she was known as Curitis before the evocatio of the Juno of Falerii: this though seems probable. Other epithets of hers that were in use at Rome include Moneta and Caprotina, Fluonia or Fluviona, the last ones associated with the rites of purification and fertility of February, her various epithets thus show a complex of mutually interrelated functions that in the view of Georges Dumézil and Vsevolod Basanoff can be traced back to the Indoeuropean trifunctional ideology: as Regina and Moneta she is a sovereign deity, as Sespeis and Moneta she is an armed protectress, as Mater and Curitis she is a goddess of the fertility and wealth of the community in her association with the curiae. The epithet Lucina is revealing since it reflects two interrelated aspects of the function of Juno: cyclical renewal of time in the waning and waxing of the moon and protection of delivery and birth; the ancient called her Covella in her function of helper in the labours of the new moon. The view that she was a Moon goddess though is no longer accepted by scholars, as such a role belongs to Diana Lucifera: through her association with the moon she governed the feminine physiological functions, menstrual cycle and pregnancy: as a rule all lunar deities are deities of childbirth.

These aspects of Juno mark the worldly sides of her function. She is thus associated to all beginnings and hers are the kalendae of every month: at Laurentum she was known as Kalendaris Iuno. At Rome on the Kalends of every month the pontifex minor invoked her, under the epithet Covella, when from the curia Calabra he announced the date of the nonae. On the same day the regina sacrorum sacrificed to Juno a white lamb in the Regia, she is associated with Janus, the god of passages and beginnings who after her is named Iunonius. Some scholars view this concentration of multiple f

Maggie McIntosh

Margaret L. "Maggie" McIntosh is an American politician from the state of Maryland. The Chairman of the Appropriation Committee of the Maryland House of Delegates, she has been a member of the House of Delegates since November 1992, she is a former Baltimore City Public School teacher who now chairs one of the six standing committees of the Maryland House of Delegates. A Democrat, she represents the state's 43rd district in Baltimore City. McIntosh received her Bachelor's Degree in arts education from Wichita State University in 1970 and her Master of Science degree from the Johns Hopkins University in 1987. An educator, she taught art in the Baltimore City Public Schools from 1972–78, before becoming an adjunct instructor of continuing education at Catonsville Community College, she would spend nine years working for the City of Baltimore at the Commission on Aging and Retirement Education, serving from 1985 to 1988 as the Director of Pre-Retirement Education. During that time, she was involved in Democratic campaigns, including those of Michael Dukakis and Barbara Mikulski.

She was elected as a delegate to both the 1980 and 2008 Democratic National Conventions, the latter as a delegate pledged to Hillary Clinton. Maggie McIntosh was appointed to fill a vacancy in the House of Delegates in November 1992, when Delegate Anne Perkins accepted a teaching position in China. Two years she was elected to a full term representing the 42nd District of Baltimore City and parts of Baltimore County, she has been re-elected in 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010, but had to run in a different district after the post-2000 round of redistricting. In 2002, she placed first in a Democratic primary election in her new district which included five serving or former delegates vying for three seats. Since she has been re-elected each term, most in the 2018 election to serve another four years. In the House of Delegates, McIntosh first served on the Appropriations Committee, she chaired the Subcommittee on Personnel and was a member of the Education and Economic Development and Capitol Subcommittees.

In 1998, McIntosh assumed the position of Vice Chairman of the Commerce and Government Matters Committee. In 2001, she was named House Majority Leader after a previous stint as Deputy Majority Whip, became the first woman in Maryland history to serve as majority leader. In January 2003, McIntosh was named chairman of the House Environmental Matters Committee, which handles legislation regarding not just the environment, natural resources, agriculture, but transportation and local government. In January 2015, McIntosh was appointed to chair the House Appropriations Committee, the first woman in the history of Maryland to do so, overseeing the state operating and capital budgets, supplementary appropriations bills and county bond authorizations, higher education institutions and local agency procedures and programs, collective bargaining, social services, state personnel and pension matters. Voted 2nd in The Maryland Gazette of Politics and Business's list of most influential Maryland state delegates for 2010 Inducted into Daily Record's Circle of Excellence after being named to Top 100 Women in Maryland list in 1998, 2000, 2010 Elected Vice-Chair of The Chesapeake Bay Commission Sponsor of 2012 Bottle Deposit bill Co-Sponsor of Death Penalty Repeal legislation Co-sponsor of Marriage Equality legislation Lead Sponsor, Chesapeake Conservation Corp Program Lead Sponsor, Ground Rent Registration and Reform Co-sponsored HB 860.

Signed by the Governor on May 16, 2013, the new law approved 1.1 billion dollars to construct new schools in Baltimore City. 2014 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – 43rd DistrictVoters to choose three:2010 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – 43rd DistrictVoters to choose three:2006 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – 43rd DistrictVoters to choose three:2002 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – 43rd DistrictVoters to choose three:1998 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – District 42Voters to choose three: Delegate McIntosh is the first woman to chair the powerful Appropriations Committee in Maryland's House of Delegates, after being the first woman to be appointed majority leader in the House of Delegates and the first gay elected member of the Maryland General Assembly. McIntosh is the first woman to serve as the chairman of the Environmental Matters Committee where she has steered several major legislative initiatives to passage; the Chesapeake Bay Restoration Act, which funded upgrades at wastewater treatment plants around the state, is among McIntosh's accomplishments, as well as an annexation measure passed in 2006 in which she brought counties and municipalities together.

Official House of Delegates biography


Cochlicella is a genus of small, narrow-shelled, air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Geomitridae placed in the Helicidae, Cochlicellidae or Hygromiidae. This genus has not yet become established in the USA, but it is considered to represent a serious threat as a pest, an invasive species which could negatively affect agriculture, natural ecosystems, human health or commerce; therefore it has been suggested that this species be given top national quarantine significance in the USA. Species within the genus Cochlicella include: Cochlicella acuta Cochlicella barbara Cochlicella conoidea