United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, earlier known as the United Provinces of South America, a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818. It comprised most of the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata dependencies and had Buenos Aires as its capital, it is best known in Spanish-language literature as Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata, this being the most common name in use for the country until the enactment of the 1826 Constitution. The Argentine National Anthem refers to the state as "the United Provinces of the South"; the Constitution of Argentina recognises Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata as one of the official names of the country, referred to as "Argentine Nation" in modern legislation. The United Provinces of South America were bordered on the south by the sparsely populated territories of the Pampas and Patagonia, home to the Mapuche and Puelche peoples.
To the north, the Gran Chaco was populated by the Guaycuru nations. To the northwest, across the Upper Peru, lay the Spanish Viceroyalty of Perú. Across the Andes, to the west, was the Spanish-controlled Captaincy General of Chile. To the northeast was Colonial Brazil, a part of the Portuguese Empire the Empire of Brazil in 1821; the change from the Viceroyalty into the United Provinces was not a change of governors, but a revolutionary process that would replace the absolutist monarchy with a republic. The main influences in this were the Enlightenment in Spain, promoting new ideas, the Peninsular War that left Spain without a legitimate king after the Abdications of Bayonne; the concept of separation of powers became a tool to prevent despotism. The new political situation generated great political conflict between the cities for two reasons. First, the vacatio regis removed the sovereignty from the King of Spain, but there was no clear view about who and how would be able to claim such sovereignty.
Some people thought that it passed to other offices of the Spanish monarchy, while others held the notion of the retroversion of the sovereignty to the people: sovereignty returned to the people, who had now the right to self-governance. The vertical organization of the absolutist monarchy was compromised as well. Patriots thought that all cities, both in Spain and in the Americas, had the right to self-government, whereas Royalists assigned that right only to cities in European Spain, holding that the Americas should stay subject to the new government that Spain would provide; the other source of conflict was the nature of the new governments, which declared themselves to be provisional during the King's absence but were making strong changes in the political organization. Unlike the First Republic of Venezuela, which declared independence early on, the United Provinces were faced with the inconsistency of acting like an independent state without having declared such independence; the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata were established through a lengthy process that started in May 1810, when the citizens and militias of Buenos Aires, the capital city of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, ousted the Spanish Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros in the May Revolution.
Although there was not a formal declaration of independence at the time, the government that emerged from the revolution declared loyalty to the deposed king Ferdinand VII, in fact it attempted to reorganise the social and economic structures of the Viceroyalty. As it faced immediate resistance in some quarters, the revolution soon turned to be a War of Independence. In the midst of the war of independence, during the entire 1810-1831 period there were serious conflicts among ever-changing factions regarding the organization of the state and the political aims of the revolutionary governments; these conflicts involved coups d'état, politically motivated trials and imprisonments and developed into an outright civil war. Since the revolution, there were serious conflicts among diverging views regarding the political organization of the provinces. While some advocated a strong and executive central government with little accountability to the regional interests, a position at first favored by the "enlightened" revolutionary and independentist elements, others sought to integrate representatives from the provinces in a larger deliberative assembly.
As the latter position gained the upper hand, the Primera Junta grew to incorporate delegates from the provinces in 1811. However, as it became evident that such an arrangement was not effective enough to lead the war efforts, a triumvirate assumed executive powers while the assembly retained some controlling functions; the Liga Federal, or Liga de los Pueblos Libres, was an alliance of provinces in what is now Argentina and Uruguay, organised under democratic federalist ideals advocated by its leader, José Gervasio Artigas. The government of the United Provinces of South America felt threatened by the growing appeal of the Liga Federal, so they did nothing to repel the incoming Portuguese invasion of Misiones Orientales and the Banda Oriental, the stronghold of Artigas. Brazilian General Carlos Frederico Lecor, thanks to their numerical and material superiority, defea
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Battle of San Lorenzo
The Battle of San Lorenzo was fought on February 3, 1813 in San Lorenzo, Argentina part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. A Spanish royalist force under the command of Antonio Zabala was defeated by the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, under the command of José de San Martín; this battle was the baptism of fire for this military unit, for San Martín in the Spanish American wars of independence. Montevideo, a royalist stronghold during the Argentine War of Independence, was under siege by José Gervasio Artigas; those in the city raided population centres along the nearby rivers for supplies. San Martín, who shortly before had arrived in Buenos Aires and formed the regiment, followed the royalist ships to San Lorenzo; the area around San Lorenzo formed a large empty plain, so the regiment hid inside the San Carlos convent during the night and San Martín studied the battlefield and the enemy ships from the tower. The battle started at dawn, when the grenadiers made a surprise pincer movement to trap the enemy forces.
One column was led by San Martín, the other by Justo Germán Bermúdez. San Martín fell from his horse, was nearly killed, but Juan Bautista Cabral and Juan Bautista Baigorria intervened and saved him; the royalists continued to raid villages for some more time afterwards. This battle was the only one; the city of San Lorenzo keeps historic memorials of the battle and it is referenced in the San Lorenzo march. Although Buenos Aires had suffered a difficult period in its war for independence, its prospects were improving by 1812. Though the defeats of Manuel Belgrano during the Paraguay campaign and Juan José Castelli in the first Upper Peru campaign had generated a political crisis, Belgrano's victory at Tucuman had given new hope to the revolution, which would be strengthened shortly afterwards with the victory at the Battle of Salta. Montevideo, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata since the May Revolution, was under siege by both an army from Buenos Aires led by José Rondeau and a Uruguayan one led by José Gervasio Artigas.
The city, maintained its naval supremacy over Buenos Aires and their ships raided the coasts of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers to gather supplies, despite the siege. Montevideo organized a navy to destroy the gun batteries at Rosario and Diamante, two population centres along the Parana, but were prevented from doing so as Buenos Aires dismantled them knowing that they could not be defended; the royalist expeditionary navy that would raid San Lorenzo comprised eleven ships of varying sizes, two hundred and fifty soldiers and fifty sailors. They moved into the Paraná through the Paraná Guazú River, slowed down by headwinds; the Second Triumvirate promoted José de San Martín to colonel and instructed him to follow them with the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers and stop the raids. San Martín was influenced by Napoleonic warfare and trained the regiment with the most recent military techniques used in the Napoleonic Wars. San Martín moved the regiment from Retiro to Rosario, nearing the river at San Pedro and San Nicolás.
He was following the Spanish ships and moved at night to avoid detection. San Martín had one hundred and twenty men for this action, reinforced at Rosario by a militia of seventy men under the command of Celedonio Escalada; those reinforcements included twenty-two rifleman, thirty cavalry, a small cannon and men armed with knives. Escalada had made other actions against the royalists before this battle. San Martín discovered that the royalists intended to pillage the San Carlos Convent and pressed the march to arrive there first. One-hundred royalists landed on San Lorenzo, but the only food available to them was some chickens and watermelons. Aware of the risk of pillage, the population had removed the cattle from the area before the royalists arrived. Escalada arrived in San Lorenzo before the bulk of the patriot army, but the dust trail from the path to Rosario revealed their presence. Escalada attacked them but their ship had a longer range than his cannon, keeping him at bay, he was forced to retire.
The Paraguayan disclosed the size of the royalist army and their plan of attacking the convent with a larger force, suspecting that the local money was kept in it. They did not attack the convent right away. Escalada relayed the news; the march from Retiro to the convent took only five days, thanks to the cadet Ángel Pacheco. Pacheco moved ahead of the prepared horses in advance at the relay positions; the whole army hid inside the convent. They were not allowed to light fires or speak during the night. San Martín studied the battlefield from the convent's tower, using a monocular; the battle was fought at the location of the modern city of San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, next to the Paraná River, at the point of its widest flow. The west bank of the river was tall and steep, forming a natural obstacle, ships could only land troops and materials on that side of the river using man-made paths cut into the side; the battlefield was near one of these paths, shaped like a ladder, after which the terrain was a big plain with scattered bushes.
The San Carlos Convent, the main nearby building, was a short distance away from the river. The location was not an easy place to defend without artillery, as the plains made surprise attacks difficult. Except for the convent itself, the terrain did not offer any natural barriers that the patriots could exploit; the flat terrain was ideal for cavalry manoeuvres, the distance between the churc
Army of the North
The Army of the North, contemporaneously called Army of Peru, was one of the armies deployed by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in the Spanish American wars of independence. Its objective was freeing the Argentine Northwest and the Upper Peru from the royalist troops of the Spanish Empire, it was headed by Hipólito Vieytes, Juan José Castelli, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, Manuel Belgrano, José de San Martín, José Rondeau, Manuel Belgrano and Francisco Fernández de la Cruz. The offensive operations started in 1810 and ended in 1817, with the defeat of the forces commanded by Gregorio Aráoz de La Madrid at the battle of Sopachuy, the last attempt to advance into Upper Peru. Since only defensive operations on the Northern frontier were carried on, as the offensive had been transferred to the Army of the Andes, commanded by José de San Martín, who devised the strategy of reaching the main royalist stronghold, through Chile and the Pacific Ocean. In 1820 the Army of the North was summoned to intervene in the internal strife between the central government in Buenos Aires and the Federal League provincial caudillo leaders.
Shortly after, the Arequito Revolt led by the independentist veterans who refused to fight a civil war instead of an independence war ended the existence of the Army of the North. During the War of the Confederation, between Chile and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, a new military corps received the name of Army of the North under the command of Alejandro Heredia; the Army would disband itself without conducting any major operations after the uprising known as North Coalition and the 1838 assassination of Heredia. The war ended in 1839 with a decisive Chilean victory at the Yungay, so the Peruvian-Bolivian army retreated from Argentine territory; the lack of trained military was one of the most pressing difficulties of the revolutionary government in Buenos Aires. Besides the Patricios Regiment and other corps formed during the British invasions, the only troops with some experience were the Blandengues, lancers militia recruited to patrol the borders of the territories still controlled by indigenous people.
Until 1812, with the arrival of veterans from the Napoleonic Wars, that would join as officers, the army was a militia. Most of the commanders were civilians or junior officers, put in charge more for their political leanings, status in society or charisma than for their military capacity. What would become the Army of the North started with troops drafted by Juan José Castelli by order of the Primera Junta on 14 June 1810, to fight viceroy Santiago de Liniers, who headed a counter-revolutionary movement at Córdoba Province; the Junta's order followed its creation documents from 25 May of the same year, which required them to send an expeditionary force to the provinces. It was in response to the Junta decree that created the Argentine Army on 29 May, five days after its formation; the Junta started a collection in Buenos Aires to equip the expeditionary force and created a small army of 1,150 men, which left from Monte de Castro on 6 July 1810 under the command of colonel Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo, lieutenant colonel Antonio González Balcarce.
After receiving their orders they took the road to Córdoba to confront Liniers. Similar to the armies in the French Revolution, they were accompanied by the Junta's representative, Hipólito Vieytes as commissioner and for the army's comptroller Feliciano Chiclana, who reached the army on 28 July at Fraile Muerto and continued to Salta with a small guard, where he was named governor of Salta and Tucumán; the military command was subject to the political representative and he to the Junta through the Secretary of War Mariano Moreno. Vieytes carried instructions to arrange in each province for elections so the people could designate their representative to the new Junta; the force was composed of about 1,000 men in two companies with the 1st and 2nd Patricios Regiments, 3rd Arribeños, 4th Montañeses, 5th Andaluces, plus the Pardos and Morenos regiments and 50 soldiers of the Buenos Aires regiment, all infantry. The artillery was formed by a group of 60 men with 40 veteran artillery men, they were accompanied by two chaplains.
The cavalry was divided into 50 hussars and 100 blandengues. On 14 July the force arrived in Luján, continuing through Salto, Pergamino. On 8 August they arrived in Córdoba. On 31 July the royalist commanders in Córdoba had fled to Upper Peru after the dissolution of their regiments, to join the royalist army there. Liniers was captured on 6 August in the Córdoba highlands along with others officers from his command, who were sent to Buenos Aires against the execution orders, but on 26 August they were met in Cabeza de Tigre by the new political command of the Army of the North sent by Moreno. Castelli ordered and immediate execution by firing squad for Liniers and the Córdoba governor, Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha, lieutenant-governor Victorio Rodríguez, Santiago Alejo de Allende and Joaquín Moreno, but pardoned bishop Rodrigo de Orellana, sent as a prisoner to Luján. Domingo French, gave the coup de grâce to the French officer. By order of the Junta, González Balcarce replaced Ortiz de Ocampo as troop commander, with Juan José Viamonte as his second in command replacing Vieytes.
Juan José Castelli occupied the post of political representative and Bernardo de Monteagudo the comptroller. French and Rodríguez Peña became part of the new political committee. With Córdoba occupied on 8 August, they replaced their cabildo and Juan Martín de Pueyrredón was named governor, assuming the post that s
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros y de la Torre was a Spanish naval officer born in Cartagena. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent and the Battle of Trafalgar, in the Spanish resistance against Napoleon's invasion in 1808, he was appointed Viceroy of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, replacing Santiago de Liniers. He disestablished the government Junta of Javier de Elío and quelled the Chuquisaca Revolution and the La Paz revolution. An open cabildo deposed him as viceroy during the May Revolution, but he attempted to be the president of the new government junta, thus retaining power; the popular unrest in Buenos Aires did not allow that, so he resigned. He was banished back to Spain shortly after that, died in 1829. Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros was born on January 6, 1756, the religious feast of Epiphany day, Hence he was named Baltasar after one of the Biblical Magi. Son of Francisco Hidalgo de Cisneros y Seijas, lieutenant of the Spanish Royal Navy, Manuela de la Torre y Galindo de Espinosa.
He commenced his naval career in 1770 and went to the coasts of Africa and Peru and took part in the military campaign at Algiers. He was involved in the capture of an enemy ship in the English Channel, was promoted to ship's lieutenant. In 1795 he was promoted to commander of the San Pablo, part of the Spanish fleet under José de Córdoba y Ramos. Spain at that time was engaged in the Anglo-Spanish War; the fleet was defeated in the Battle of Cape St Vincent. In 1803 he was in charge of the arsenal of his city of birth. In 1805 he was the captain of the largest Spanish ship Nuestra Señora de la Santísima Trinidad during the battle of Trafalgar, a major British victory over the combined Spanish and French fleets; the ship, whilst engaged in battle, lost a mast. This caused concussion, which left him deaf for the rest of his life. After the incident, Hidalgo de Cisneros was nicknamed "El sordo", his ship, regarded as one of the most powerful of its time, was captured by HMS Neptune but sank the following day.
Cisneros received medical care. Whilst under capture he was awarded battle honours and on returning to Spain he was promoted to lieutenant general. After recovering from his wounds, Hidalgo de Cisneros received further promotion and served as vice-president of the governing council of Cartagena; the superior Junta of Seville resolved to end the insurrection in the Río de la Plata, sending Cisneros to replace the viceroy Santiago de Liniers. The Junta regarded Liniers as a rebel with Bonapartist sympathies known in Spanish as an afrancesado; the mutiny of Álzaga, a failed coup by conservative peninsulars against Liniers, supported by the emerging local bourgeois, was regarded as rebellion by Liniers, influenced by French ideas but, not a Napoleonic agent. The Junta gave Hidalgo de Cisneros orders to land in Montevideo, raise armies against Liniers, prosecute him with court-martial and return him under guard to Spain and to dissolve the local criollo militia. Cisneros had orders to seek and punish Napoleonic sympathisers.
The Junta created a political office to conduct direct foreign relations with colonial Brazil, to reign in the autonomy being exercised by the viceroy, seen as insubordinate and secessionist. He arrived in Montevideo in June 1809. Manuel Belgrano proposed Liniers to resist his removal and to reject the appointment of Cisneros, on the grounds that Liniers had been confirmed as Viceroy by the authority of a Spanish king, while Cisneros would lack such legitimacy. Liniers accepted to give up his government to Cisneros without resistance. Noticing that Liniers was not the rebel governor that the Junta thought, he authorized him to stay in the Viceroyalty. Javier de Elío accepted as well the authority of the new Viceroy and dissolved the Junta of Montevideo, becoming once again the Governor of the city. Cisneros tried to take a conciliating policy with the many conflicting political groups, he kept the criollo militias, granted their commanders to achieve veteran status, which so far was only allowed to peninsular military.
He rearmed back the Spanish militias. He pardoned the responsibles. However, the attempts to please the criollos found resistance from the Junta, which did not approve the request to promote Cornelio Saavedra to colonel rank, he tried to stay in good relations with the British and the landowners by removing the laws that forbid free trade, but retailers forced Cisneros to restore such laws. Mariano Moreno, a criollo lawyer, wrote a document to request Cisneros the reopening of free trade, entitled "The Representation of the Landowners", it is considered the most comprehensive economic report of the time. Cisneros decided to grant an extension of free trade, which would end on May 19, 1810. On May 25, 1809, a revolution in Chuquisaca deposed the governor and president of the Royal Audiencia of Charcas, Ramón García de León y Pizarro, accused him of supporting a Portuguese protectorate under the authority of Charlotte Joaquina. Military command fell to Colonel Juan Antonio Alvarez de Arenales who, due to uncertainty as to who should be in charge of the civilian affairs exercised some civil powers.
On July 16, in the city of La Paz, a second revolutionary movement led by Colonel Pedro Domingo Murillo forced the governor to resign and replaced him with a Junta, the "Junta Tuitiva de los Derechos del Pueblo", headed by Murillo. A quick reaction from the Spanish officials soon defeated these rebellions. An army
Causes of the May Revolution
The May Revolution was a series of revolutionary political and social events that took place during the early nineteenth century in the city of Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of the Spanish Crown which at the time contained the present-day nations of Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. The consequence of the revolution was that the head of the Viceroyalty, Viceroy Cisneros, was ousted from office, role of government was assumed by the Primera Junta. There are many reasons, both international, that promoted such developments; the United States had emancipated themselves from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, which provided a tangible example that led Criollos to believe that revolution and independence from Spain could be realistic aims. In the time between 1775 and 1783 the Thirteen Colonies started the American Revolution, first rejecting the governance of the Parliament of Great Britain, the British monarchy itself, waged the American Revolutionary War against their former rulers.
The changes were not only political, but intellectual and social, combining both a strong government with personal liberties. The text of the Declaration of Independence stated that all men are created equal, had unalienable rights to life and the pursuit of happiness, they had chosen a republican form of government, instead of keeping a monarchic one. More, the fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the argument that ending allegiance to the mother country could be considered a crime; the ideals of the French Revolution of 1789 were spreading as well. During the Revolution, centuries of monarchy were ended with the overthrow and execution of the King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, the removal of the privileges of the nobility; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was popular among the young Criollos. The French Revolution boosted liberal ideals in political and economic fields; some of the most notable political liberal authors, who opposed monarchies and absolutism, were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, while the most notorious economic liberal was Adam Smith.
Liberal ideas reached the church, the concept of the divine right of kings started to be questioned. Francisco Suárez claimed that political power did not pass directly from God to the governor, but to the population and through it to the governor. According to Suarez, such power belongs to the people and is delegated to the governor, but if such governors did not serve the public good as they should, they would become tyrants and the people would have the right to fight them and choose new governors; the falling consensus about the divine right being legitimate gave room to monarchies being replaced by republics in France and the United States, but to constitutional monarchies, such as in Great Britain. However, the spread of such idea was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as well as the traffic in related books or their unauthorized possession; such blockades started when Spain declared war on France after the execution of Louis XVI, but remained after the peace treaty of 1796. The events of 1789 and the statements of the French Revolution spread around Spain despite the efforts to keep them at bay.
More, the National Convention declared that France would give shelter and aid to all populations aiming to become free, made many plans to disrupt the power of Spain over their overseas colonies. Many enlightened Criollos came into contact with those authors and their works during university studies; such as Manuel Belgrano in Spain or Mariano Moreno, Juan José Castelli or Bernardo Monteagudo at the American university in Chuquisaca. Books from the US found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, due to the closeness of Venezuela to the United States and West Indies; the Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with manual labour and horse-drawn vehicles being replaced by machine-based manufacturing and transportation aided by railways and steam power. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain, the need of new markets to sell the surplus of coal and clothes; the Napoleonic Wars, where Britain was at war with France, made this a difficult task, after Napoleon countered the British naval blockade with the Continental System, not allowing Britain to trade with any other European country.
Thus, England needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because they were restricted to trade only with their own metropoli. For this end they tried to conquer key cities during the British invasions, after it to promote their emancipation; the Industrial Revolution gave room to authors who proposed a liberal economy, like Adam Smith. François Quesnay compared the worldwide economy with a living organism, stating that economics worked beyond political power and should not be affected by it; the Napoleonic wars were taking place in Europe, involving France, Great Britain and most European countries. Portugal broke the blockade imposed on British trade and, as a result, was invaded by France. However, the Royal Family and the bulk of the kingdom's administration fled to colonial Brazil, in a move to preserve Portuguese sovereignty. Under the pretext of reinforcing the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, French Imperial troops began filing into Spain. Shortly before the Spanish King Charles IV abdicated due to the mutiny of Aranjuez and gave the throne to his son, Ferdinand VII.
Feeling that he was forced to abdicate, Charles IV requested. Napoleon helped remove Ferdinand VII from po
Cornelio Judas Tadeo de Saavedra y Rodríguez was a military officer and statesman from the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was instrumental in the May Revolution, the first step of Argentina's independence from Spain, was appointed president of the Primera Junta. Saavedra was the first commanding officer of the Regiment of Patricians created after the ill-fated British invasions of the Río de la Plata; the increased militarization of the city and the relaxation of the system of castas allowed him, as other criollo peoples, to become a prominent figure in local politics. His intervention was decisive to thwart the Mutiny of Álzaga and allow Viceroy Santiago de Liniers to stay in power. Although he supported the establishment of a government Junta, as others created in Spain during the contemporary Peninsular War, he desired that criollos had an important role in it, he advised against rushed actions as well, as his Regiment was crucial in any action against the viceroy, he denied his help until it was a good strategic moment to do so.
The opportunity came in May, 1810, the May Revolution ousted the viceroy. Saavedra was appointed president of the Primera Junta; the local politics were soon divided between the secretary Mariano Moreno. Saavedra wanted gradual changes. Saavedra encouraged the expansion of the Junta with deputies from the other provinces. A rebellion made in behalf of Saavedra forced the remaining supporters of Moreno to resign as well, he left the presidency after the defeat of the first Upper Peru campaign, headed to lead the Army of the North. His absence was exploited by political opponents, who established the First Triumvirate and issued an arrest warrant against Saavedra. Saavedra stayed in exile until 1815. Saavedra was born at the hacienda "La Fombera", located in the town of Otuyo, near the former Imperial City of Potosí; the city was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru by that time, but would be annexed into the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata some years later. His father was Santiago Felipe de Saavedra y Palma, a native of Buenos Aires, whose ancestry reached to Hernando Arias de Saavedra.
His mother was a native of the Villa Imperial de Potosi. Santiago had left Buenos Aires and married María, they were a wealthy family, with many sons. The family moved to Buenos Aires in 1767. There, during his adolescence, Cornelio attended the Real Colegio de San Carlos; the school was only for the elite, to attend it was required to be allowed by the viceroy, know reading and writing, be at least ten years old, be a legitimate son and have certified limpieza de sangre. He studied philosophy and Latin Grammar between 1773 and 1776. However, he could not graduate due to overwhelming duties in the management of the family ranch. Unlike other rich youths of the time, he did not attend to university. In 1788, he married his cousin. Francisca was rich, it is that it was an arranged marriage, they had three sons, Diego and Manuel. Francisca died in 1798. Saavedra began his political career in 1797, working at the Buenos Aires Cabildo, assuming various administrative roles. By the city had become the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata.
His first political appointment was as fourth alderman, third alderman the following year. In 1801, he was appointed Mayor of First Vote; that same year he married Doña Saturnina Otárola del Rivero. In 1805, he was appointed to the position of Grain manager, within a local governmental body that dealt with the provision of wheat and other cereals in the city, it is considered that Saavedra supported the proposals of Manuel Belgrano at the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires, which promoted agriculture and industrialization, but there is no definitive evidence of it. Buenos Aires faced the British invasions of the Río de la Plata in 1806, when British forces led by William Carr Beresford invaded the city. Saavedra was still a civilian by then. Santiago de Liniers organized an army in Montevideo to liberate Buenos Aires, Saavedra was among the civilians that joined Liniers, despite the lack of military instruction, his role in this battle was a minor one. Liniers liberated Buenos Aires, organized the resistance against a British counter-attack.
All the male population of the city aged from 16 to 50 was drafted into the army, divided in battalions by casta or origin. The largest one was the Regiment of Patricians, made up of volunteer infantrymen born in Buenos Aires; the Regiment was composed of three infantry battalions, commanded by Esteban Romero, Domingo Urien and Manuel Belgrano, who would pass that command to Juan José Viamonte. Each battalion could elect their own leaders, including their commander, the Regiment of Patricians elected Saavedra; the British returned in 1807. Cornelio Saavedra marched to Montevideo, but was informed at Colonia del Sacramento of the capture of the city; the British planned to use it as a lodgement for the invasion of Buenos Aires. To give difficulty to the British operations, Saavedra ordered the withdrawal of all military hardware from Colonia, considered indefensible at that point, mobilized those troops and equipment to Buenos Aires to fortify the city; the renewed attack to Buenos Aires took place shortly afterwards, the invading army had 8,000 soldiers and 18 cannons—significantly more than the 1,565 men, 6 cannons and 2 howitzers