The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation; this combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia. Bordered on the south by the state of Victoria and on the east by the Great Dividing Range, the Riverina covers those areas of New South Wales in the Murray and Murrumbidgee drainage zones to their confluence in the west. Home to Aboriginal groups for over 40,000 years, the Riverina was colonised by Europeans in the mid-19th century as a pastoral region providing beef and wool to markets in Australia and beyond. In the 20th century, the development of major irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice and wine grapes; the Riverina has strong cultural ties to Victoria, the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies.
Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga and Griffith. Wagga Wagga is home to a campus of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments; the delineation of the Riverina region by government agencies and other bodies varies, but in common usage it comprises the agricultural and pastoral areas of New South Wales, west of the Great Dividing Range and in the drainage basin of the snow-fed Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers. The northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria. West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region. In general, the Riverina is an alluvial plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago.
The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level. The western Riverina consists of featureless saltbush plain; the geology of the Riverina comprises sedimentary basins. The western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. There is potential for the Riverina to host several mineral deposit types including coal, coal seam methane, orogenic gold, Cobar style polymetallic systems, heavy mineral sands and diamonds in these fold belt rocks and basins. Riverina soils are sandy along the river channels, with more saline grey and brown clays found on flooded areas on the perimeter of the floodplain; as the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline. The Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina flow east to west.
As well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray. Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted. In 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of, used for irrigation.https://drive.google.com/open?id=16zHR6KKmMf-Tqz7cc67nvksEs_HZBL1S The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone. Places in this zone can be hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are low with the median annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe. Rain falls in the winter in the southern Riverina and around Hay while in the north rainfall patterns are consistent throughout the year.
Corowa, in the south eastern Riverina has an average rainfall of 539.4 millimetres per year while mean annual rainfall at Hay is 367.2 millimetres. Drought in 2006 has seen the lowest recorded rainfall in towns such as Lockhart and Narrandera. One method of classification of boundaries for the Riverina is the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia that defines the bioregion as an area comprising 9,704,469 hectares, with biogeographic subregions covering each of the Lachlan, Murray Fans, Victorian Riverina, Robinvale Plains, Murray Scroll Belt; the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service has divided New South Wales into 17 distinct bioregions. Bioregions are quite large areas of land that capture a geophysical pattern, linked to fauna and flora ecosystems; the Riverina bioregion is an area of land that comprises part of the larger Riverina area but extends into Victoria. It has been defined by the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service as extending from Ivanhoe in the Murray Darling Depression Bioregion south to Bendigo, from Narrandera in the east to Balranald in the west.
74.03 % of the bioregion is in the remainder in Victoria. In another mapping the World Wildlife Fund has made this area part of the larger Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion that covers the western plains of New South Wales. River channels in the region support River Red Gum (Eucalyp
Barrington Tops National Park
The Barrington Tops National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter Valley 200 kilometres north of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1969, the 76,512-hectare park is situated between Scone, Dungog and East Gresford; the park is part of the Barrington Tops group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. It is part of the Barrington Tops and Gloucester Tops Important Bird Area. Barrington Tops is part of a spur of the Great Dividing Range. Barrington Tops is a plateau between two of the large peaks in the range, The park is believed to be an extinct volcano and the mountain ranges are made up of a mixture of sedimentary rocks with a granite top. Erosion has weathered the granite and rounded granite boulders can be seen in some areas of the park. Estimates put the age of the rock at 300 to 400 million years, well before Australia separated from Gondwana; the climate varies from temperate on the lower altitudes to subalpine at highest elevations.
A record low of −17 °C has been registered at 1,500 m above mean sea level. Rainfalls fluctuate between 750 millimetres in the northwest to more than 2,000 mm in the southeast; the ecology of the national park varies from subtropical rainforests in the gullies to subalpine and alpine regions on the mountain peaks. Snow falls on the mountain peaks every year and snows enough to close roads. Rainfall can exceed 1,500 mm per annum. A large variety of plants and animals reside in the park and the steepness of the terrain ensures that they are not disturbed by humans. Plant life includes a large variety of eucalypt trees including Snow Gums and temperate rainforest trees like Antarctic beech, tree ferns, a large variety of mosses and ferns and a wide range of edible plants such as the native raspberry, the native cherry and the lilli pilli; the remoteness and inaccessibility of a large part of the park has allowed some of the more sensitive animals to remain undisturbed. A large number of fauna have been catalogued in the park including some that were thought to be extinct.
Some of the more common animals include: barking and sooty owls, eastern grey kangaroos, pademelons, rosellas, kookaburras and echidnas. It supports a globally important population of rufous scrub-birds, as well as flame robins, pale-yellow robins, paradise riflebirds, green catbirds, regent bowerbirds and Australian logrunners. Animals such as quolls, native rats and platypus may be seen. Not all of the animals in the park are desirable; the traditional owners of the area are the indigenous people of Australia, known as Australian Aborigines, include the Gringai clan, the Wonnarua people, the Worimi people and Birpai. In 1969 the area between Mount Barrington, Mount Royal and the Gloucester Tops was declared the Barrington Tops National Park. In 1986 it was listed as a World Heritage Area and subsequently a Wilderness Area; some of the rivers flowing through the Barrington range have been classed as wild rivers meaning they are exceptionally pure and unpolluted. The highest peak is Brumlow Top.
A number of aircraft have crashed in and around the Barrington Tops, Aeroplane Hill being named after one of the crashes. The altitude, frequent fog & cloud and cold weather make this area hazardous to aircraft. One article refers to the "Devil's Triangle". 16 April 1945 - De Havilland Mosquito A52-70. Wreckage found January 1946 in the national park; the propellor and machine gun were on display at the Barrington Tops Guest House. 2 September 1948 - Australian National Airlines Douglas DC-3 VH-ANK. 13 killed. 14 September 1969 - Lockheed Hudson VH-SML crashed in the foothills. 3 killed. 25 September 1969 - RAAF Mirage III-O. Crew ejected safely. 9 August 1981 - Cessna 210 VH-MDX. 5 killed, multiple searches have not found wreckage or bodies. 3 August 1987 - Aermacchi MB-326H A7-079. Crew ejected. Wreckage located by bushwalkers 28 April 1995. Photo of crew being rescued from a tree; the Barrington Guest House was built from 1925 on the upper Williams River near Barrington Tops by Norman T. McLeod, licensee of the Royal Hotel in Dungog, using timber cut and milled from the property.
It stood on land consisting of 10.5 hectares of forest surrounded by National and State Parks and was opened in 1930 by Dr Sir Earle Page MHR Leader of the Country Party and former Treasurer of Australia and Prime Minister of Australia. The guest house was a popular venue for people to stay in the park, until it burned down in a fire at 11pm on 24 September 2006 due to an electrical fault, it was undergoing modernisation under new ownership at the time of the fire. There are plans to rebuild. Barrington Tops is a popular weekend destination from Newcastle. Numerous walking trails and camping grounds are scattered throughout the park; the park contains well marked and well-maintained gravel roads as well as specific 4WD tracks into less travelled areas. General sightseeing can be accomplished in a non-offroad vehicle; as well as camping facilities, the nearby towns of Gloucester and Dungog have many places to stay. The park is maintained by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and rangers patrol the park daily.
Barrington Tops State Conservation Area Careys Peak List of mountains in New South Wales Mount Royal Range Protected areas of New South Wales "Manning River catc
Dooragan National Park
The Dooragan National Park is a national park on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia. The national park is situated near Laurieton, is 365 kilometres northeast of Sydney; the local aboriginal people tell a dreamtime story of three brothers of the Birpai tribe who were killed by a witch called Widjirriejuggi and were buried where the mountains stand. The youngest of the three was Dooragan. By amazing coincidence, when Captain James Cook passed the area on 12 May 1770 he named the mountains Three Brothers, since "these Hills bore some resemblance to each other". Cook had earlier written of the Three Brothers hills west of Cape St Diego, so he was inspired by them too. North Brother Mountain supports a wide range of vegetation communities – including some of the best examples of old growth blackbutt forest in the area and pockets of sub-tropical rainforest – that provide habitat for gliders and koalas; the park has a weed problem with the spreading of lantana. The mountain was made a timber reserve in 1892 and called the Camden Haven State Forest.
Portions of the mountain were logged but large sections were untouched due to the terrain. It was opened to the public in 1970; the steep windy road has now been sealed. Viewing platforms, which have wheelchair access, offer good views down the coast. Picnic and toilet facilities are available. There are walks of difficulty. Protected areas of New South Wales Dooragan National Park page at the National Parks and Wildlife Service website
Dorrigo National Park
Dorrigo National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 580 kilometres north of Sydney on Dome Road off the Waterfall Way, 5 kilometres east of the town of Dorrigo. The park is part of the New England Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007; the area protected by the park is recognised for its exceptional natural beauty with significant habitats of outstanding value to science and conservation. The Rainforest Centre is a major CERRA interpretation centre; the interactive display, The Rainforest Revealed, explains how the rainforest evolved and gives insights into the animal and plant species that live there. Several tracks in the park allow hikers to view the park's waterfalls and vistas to the coastal plain. A notable feature of the park is the Skywalk, an elevated walkway through and above the treetops, providing birdwatchers with an excellent view of local bird life. Protected areas of New South Wales Official website
Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
Coolah Tops National Park
Coolah Tops is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 258 kilometres northwest of Sydney, established on 5 July 1996. It is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, its World Conservation Union category is II. It is situated 30 kilometres east of Coolah on the Coolah Creek Road; the park features waterfalls. Giant grass trees and open forest with stands of snow gums shelter gliders, wallabies and owls. Camping and walking are the main recreational activities performed here. Views from the tops are possible over the Liverpool Plains; the sources of the Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River lie in the park. Protected areas of New South Wales
Mount Kaputar National Park
The Mount Kaputar National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, surrounding the proximities of Mount Kaputar, a volcano active between 17 and 21 million years ago. It is located 50 km east of 570 km northwest of Sydney. Millions of years of erosion have since carved the volcanic region into the lava terraces, volcanic plugs, dykes of Nandewar Range; the central feature of the region is Mount Kaputar, the park's namesake, which rises to an altitude of 1,510 m. The 360 degree view from the summit of the mountain encompasses one-tenth of New South Wales' area or 80,000 square kilometres; the park protects a wide range of biomes, including semi-arid woodland, subalpine heath, eucalypt forests, provides a habitat for a range of animals, including bats, wallabies and the unique red triangle slug, known to appear after rainfall. Before it was a national park, the area was used as grazing land for domestic animals; the conditions in the park are harsh, but several pioneering families lived there, remnants of their occupation remain.
Sheep and cattle continued to graze on the plateau until around the 1950s. It was an isolated place, the stockmen in charge of the cattle would not see another human for months at a time. In 1925 some 775 ha of land around Mount Kaputar were declared a "Reserve for Public Recreation". Two years a trust, known as the Mount Kaputar Trust, was formed to give guidance on managing the park; the area was expanded to 14,244 ha and proclaimed a full national park in 1959. Eight years in 1967, the Fund relinquished the duties of controlling the park to the newly established National Parks and Wildlife Service, the park is still administered by a regional advisory board. In 1965, two cabins were constructed at Dawsons Spring, providing accommodations including a permanent water supply for showers and toilets, a picnic facility. Today there are 3 cabins, including the one facilitated from Bark Hut; the park is popular with rockclimbers, there are 11 walks in the park, as well as a camping ground. However, the most popular site in the park is Scutts Hut, located upward of Kurrawonga Falls.
The hut is the former home of a pioneer family living in the vicinity of the park. It is accessible via a fire trail from the Bark Hut camping grounds; the hut has been restored with an earthen floor and an open fireplace. The hut is built on the banks of Horsearm Creek. Protected areas of New South Wales