Walter Horatio Pater was an English essayist and art critic, fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists. His works on Renaissance subjects were popular but controversial, reflecting his lost belief in Christianity. Born in Stepney in London's East End, Walter Pater was the second son of Richard Glode Pater, a physician who had moved to London in the early 19th century to practice medicine among the poor. Dr Pater died while Walter was the family moved to Enfield, London. Walter was individually tutored by the headmaster. In 1853, he was sent to The King's School, where the beauty of the cathedral made an impression that would remain with him all his life, he was fourteen when his mother, Maria Pater, died in 1854. As a schoolboy Pater read John Ruskin's Modern Painters, which helped inspire his lifelong attraction to the study of art and gave him a taste for well-crafted prose, he gained a school exhibition, with which he proceeded in 1858 to Oxford. As an undergraduate, Pater was a "reading man", with literary and philosophical interests beyond the prescribed texts.
Flaubert, Gautier and Swinburne were among his early favourites. Visiting his aunt and sisters in Germany during the vacations, he learned German and began to read Hegel and the German philosophers; the scholar Benjamin Jowett was offered to give him private lessons. In Jowett's classes, Pater was a disappointment; as a boy Pater had cherished the idea of entering the Anglican clergy, but at Oxford his faith in Christianity had been shaken. In spite of his inclination towards the ritual and aesthetic elements of the church, he had little interest in Christian doctrine and did not pursue ordination. After graduating, Pater taught Classics and Philosophy to private students, his sister Clara Pater, a pioneer of women's education, taught ancient Greek and Latin at Somerville College, of which he was one of the co-founders. His years of study and reading now paid dividends: he was offered a classical fellowship in 1864 at Brasenose on the strength of his ability to teach modern German philosophy, he settled down to a university career.
The opportunities for wider study and teaching at Oxford, combined with formative visits to the Continent – in 1865 he visited Florence and Ravenna – meant that Pater's preoccupations now multiplied. He became acutely interested in art and literature, started to write articles and criticism. First to be printed was an essay on the metaphysics of Coleridge, "Coleridge's Writings" contributed anonymously in 1866 to the Westminster Review. A few months his essay on Winckelmann, an early expression of his intellectual and artistic idealism, appeared in the same review, followed by "The Poems of William Morris", expressing his admiration for romanticism. In the following years the Fortnightly Review printed his essays on Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Michelangelo; the last three, with other similar pieces, were collected in his Studies in the History of the Renaissance, renamed in the second and editions The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry. The Leonardo essay contains Pater's celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa.
An essay on "The School of Giorgione", added to the third edition, contains Pater's much-quoted maxim "All art aspires towards the condition of music". The final paragraphs of the 1868 William Morris essay were reworked as the book's "Conclusion'; this brief "Conclusion" was to be Pater's most influential – and controversial – publication. It asserts that our physical lives are made up of scientific processes and elemental forces in perpetual motion, "renewed from moment to moment but parting sooner or on their ways". In the mind "the whirlpool is still more rapid": a drift of perceptions, feelings and memories, reduced to impressions "unstable, inconstant", "ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality"; because all is in flux, to get the most from life, we must learn to discriminate through "sharp and eager observation": for Through such discrimination we may "get as many pulsations as possible into the given time": "To burn always with this hard, gem-like flame, to maintain this ecstasy, is success in life."
Forming habits means failure on our part. "While all melts under our feet," Pater wrote, "we may well catch at any exquisite passion, or any contribution to knowledge that seems by a lifted horizon to set the spirit free for a moment, or any stirring of the senses, or work of the artist's hands. Not to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us in the brilliancy of their gifts is, on this short day of frost and sun, to sleep before evening." The resulting "quickened, multiplied consciousness" counters our insecurity in the face of the flux. Moments of vision may come from simple natural effects, as Pater notes elsewhere in the book: "A sudden light transfigures a trivial thing, a weathervane, a windmill, a winnowing flail, the dust in the barn door.
Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity and economy of language, his works include Hugh Selwyn Mauberley and the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos. Pound worked in London during the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost and Ernest Hemingway. Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in Great Britain and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism, he moved to Italy in 1924 and throughout the 1930s and 1940s embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler, wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley. During World War II, he was paid by the Italian government to make hundreds of radio broadcasts criticizing the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Jews, as a result of which he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason.
He spent months in detention in a U. S. military camp in Pisa, including three weeks in a 6-by-6-foot outdoor steel cage, which he said triggered a mental breakdown: "when the raft broke and the waters went over me". The following year he was deemed unfit to stand trial, incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, D. C. for over 12 years. Pound began work on sections of The Cantos while in custody in Italy; these parts were published as The Pisan Cantos, for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, leading to enormous controversy. Due to a campaign by his fellow writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958 and returned to live in Italy until his death, his political views ensure. Hemingway wrote: "The best of Pound's writing—and it is in the Cantos—will last as long as there is any literature." Pound was born in a small, two-story house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound and Isabel Weston. His father had worked in Hailey since 1883 as registrar of the General Land Office.
Both parents' ancestors had emigrated from England in the 17th century. On his mother's side, Pound was descended from William Wadsworth, a Puritan who emigrated to Boston on the Lion in 1632; the Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York. Harding Weston and Mary Parker were the parents of Ezra's mother. Harding spent most of his life without work, with his brother, Ezra Weston, his brother's wife, looking after Mary and Isabel's needs. On his father's side, the immigrant ancestor was John Pound, a Quaker, who arrived from England around 1650. Ezra's grandfather, Thaddeus Coleman Pound, was a Republican Congressman from northwest Wisconsin who had made and lost a fortune in the lumber business. Thaddeus's son Homer, Pound's father, worked for Thaddeus in the lumber business until Thaddeus secured him the appointment as registrar of the Hailey land office. Homer and Isabel married Homer built a house in Hailey. Isabel took Ezra with her to New York in 1887, when he was 18 months old. Homer followed them, in 1889 he found a job as an assayer at the Philadelphia Mint.
The family moved to Jenkintown, in 1893 bought a six-bedroom house in Wyncote. Pound's education began in a series of dame schools, some of them run by Quakers: Miss Elliott's school in Jenkintown in 1892, the Heathcock family's Chelten Hills School in Wyncote in 1893, the Florence Ridpath school from 1894 in Wyncote, his first publication was on 7 November 1896 in the Jenkintown Times-Chronicle, a limerick about William Jennings Bryan, who had just lost the 1896 presidential election: "There was a young man from the West, / He did what he could for what he thought best. The boys wore Civil War-style uniforms and besides Latin were taught English, arithmetic, military drilling and the importance of submitting to authority. Pound made his first trip overseas in mid-1898 when he was 13, a three-month tour of Europe with his mother and Frances Weston, who took him to England, Germany and Italy. After the academy he may have attended Cheltenham Township High School for one year, in 1901, aged 15, he was admitted to the University of Pennsylvania's College of Liberal Arts.
Pound met Hilda Doolittle at Pennsylvania in 1901, she became his first serious romance. In 1911 she became involved in developing the Imagism movement. Between 1905 and 1907 Pound wrote a number of poems for her, 25 of which he hand-bound and called Hilda's Book, in 1908 he asked her father, the astronomy professor Charles Doolittle, for permission to marry her, but Doolittle dismissed Pound as a nomad. Pound was seeing two other women at the same time—Viola Baxter and Mary Moore—later dedicating a book of poetry, Personae, to the latter, he asked Moore to marry him too. His parents and Frances Weston took Pound on an
Keio University, abbreviated as Keio or Keidai, is a private university located in Minato, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo, it has eleven campuses in Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Law and Commerce, Medicine and Technology, Policy Management and Information Studies and Medical Care, Pharmacy; the university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities. In the United States, Keio has a high school called "Keio Academy of New York". Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education.
It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008. Keio has leading research centers, it has 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C. Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896. Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution, its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,to make clear how it can be applied to its family and nation,and to take an actual action of this statement. It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission; those sentences were given to students as his will, considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission. Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan.
The following are the examples: Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa. It introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before, it built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well. It is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students. Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895. Keio put "self-respect" as a foundation of its education; this is meant to be physically and mentally independent, respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education. Learning half and teaching half is the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio had used this system.
In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor". Collaboration in a company is a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, "Collaboration in a company" came from this article.
People in Keio think that all of the people related to Keio are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been seen in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai. Keio University was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi, its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796. Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio" and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school, it moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, the official university department with Economics and Literacy study in 1890. Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order. There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below. Keio launched Hiromoto Watanabe as a first chancellor of the Imperial University in 1886.
He is the first chancellor of the authorized
Viscount Kuroda Seiki was a Japanese painter and teacher, noted for bringing Western theories about art to a wide Japanese audience. He was among the leaders of the yōga movement in late early 20th-century Japanese painting, his real name was Kuroda Kiyoteru. Kuroda was born in Takamibaba, Satsuma Domain, as the son of a samurai of the Shimazu clan, Kuroda Kiyokane and his wife Yaeko. At birth, the boy was named Shintarō. Before his birth, Kuroda had been chosen by his paternal uncle, Kuroda Kiyotsuna, as heir. Kiyotsuna was a Shimazu retainer, whose services to Emperor Meiji in the Bakumatsu period and at the Battle of Toba–Fushimi led to his appointment to high posts in the new imperial government; because of his position, the elder Kuroda was exposed to many of the modernizing trends and ideas coming into Japan during the early Meiji period. In his early teens, Kuroda began to learn the English language in preparation for his university studies. At 17, he enrolled in pre-college courses in French, as preparation for his planned legal studies in college.
When in 1884 Kuroda's brother-in-law Hashiguchi Naouemon was appointed to the French Legation, it was decided that Kuroda would accompany him and his wife to Paris to begin his real studies of law. He was to remain there for the next decade. By early 1886 Kuroda had decided to abandon the study of law for a career as a painter. However, in February 1886 Kuroda was attending a party at the Japanese legation for Japanese nationals in Paris. All three urged the young student to turn to painting, saying that he could better help his country by learning to paint like a Westerner rather than learning law. Kuroda agreed, formally abandoning his studies for the study of painting in August 1887 after trying, failing, to reach a compromise between the two to please his father. In May 1886, Kuroda entered the studio of Raphaël Collin, a noted Academic art painter who had shown work in several Paris Salons. Kuroda was not the only Japanese painter studying under Collin at the time. In 1886, Kuroda met another young Japanese painter, Kume Keiichiro, newly arrived in France, who joined Collin's studio.
The two became friends, soon became roommates as well. It was during these years that he began to mature as a painter, following the traditional course of study in Academic art while discovering plein-air painting. In 1890 Kuroda moved from Paris to the village of Grez-sur-Loing, an artists' colony, formed by painters from the United States and from northern Europe. Here he found inspiration in the landscape, as well as a young woman, Maria Billault, who became one of his best models. In 1893, Kuroda returned to Paris and began work on his most important painting to date, Morning Toilette, the first nude painting to be publicly exhibited in Japan; this large work, sadly destroyed in World War II, was accepted with great praise by the Académie des Beaux-Arts. With the painting in hand, he set out for home via the United States, arriving in July 1893. Soon after arriving at home, Kuroda traveled to Kyoto to soak up the local culture, which he had missed after spending a full third of his life abroad.
He translated what he saw into some of his best paintings, such as A Maiko Girl and Talk on Ancient Romance. At the same time, Kuroda was taking on an ever-greater role as a reformer. Furthermore, Kuroda was prepared to teach painting, passing the lessons he had learned along to a new generation of painters, he took over the painting school founded by Yamamoto Hōsui, the Seikokan, renamed it the Tenshin Dojo. The school was modeled on Western precepts, students were taught the basics of plein-air painting; until Kuroda's return to Japan, the prevalent style was based on the Barbizon school, which were advocated by the Italian artist Antonio Fontanesi at the Kobu Bijutsu Gakko from 1876. Kuroda's style of bright color tones emphasizing the changes of light and atmosphere were considered revolutionary. In April 1895, Kuroda helped to organize the 4th Domestic Exposition to Promote Industry, held in Kyoto. Although he was awarded a prize for the painting, the exhibition of a picture of a nude woman before so many visitors outraged many, led to a furor in the press where critics condemned the perceived flaunting of social standards.
None criticized the technical aspects of the painting, choosing instead to lambaste Kuroda for its subject matter. Kume, Kuroda's friend from his Paris
Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet who produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His most famous work, a book of lyric poetry titled Les Fleurs du mal, expresses the changing nature of beauty in modern, industrializing Paris during the mid-19th century. Baudelaire's original style of prose-poetry influenced a whole generation of poets including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé, among many others, he is credited with coining the term "modernity" to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in an urban metropolis, the responsibility of artistic expression to capture that experience. Baudelaire was born in Paris, France, on April 9, 1821, baptized two months at Saint-Sulpice Roman Catholic Church, his father, Joseph-François Baudelaire, a senior civil servant and amateur artist, was 34 years older than Baudelaire's mother, Caroline. François died during Baudelaire's childhood, at rue Hautefeuille, Paris, on February 10, 1827.
The following year, Caroline married Lieutenant Colonel Jacques Aupick, who became a French ambassador to various noble courts. Baudelaire's biographers have seen this as a crucial moment, considering that finding himself no longer the sole focus of his mother's affection left him with a trauma, which goes some way to explaining the excesses apparent in his life, he stated in a letter to her that, "There was in my childhood a period of passionate love for you." Baudelaire begged his mother for money throughout his career promising that a lucrative publishing contract or journalistic commission was just around the corner. Baudelaire was educated in Lyon. At fourteen he was described by a classmate as "much more refined and distinguished than any of our fellow pupils... we are bound to one another... by shared tastes and sympathies, the precocious love of fine works of literature." Baudelaire was erratic in his studies, at times diligent, at other times prone to "idleness". He attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, studying law, a popular course for those not yet decided on any particular career.
He may have contracted gonorrhea and syphilis during this period. He began to run up debts for clothes. Upon gaining his degree in 1839, he told his brother "I don't feel I have a vocation for anything." His stepfather had in mind a career in law or diplomacy, but instead Baudelaire decided to embark upon a literary career. His mother recalled: "Oh, what grief! If Charles had let himself be guided by his stepfather, his career would have been different.... He would not have left a name in literature, it is true, but we should have been happier, all three of us." His stepfather sent him on a voyage to Calcutta, India, in 1841 in the hope of ending his dissolute habits. The trip provided strong impressions of the sea and exotic ports, that he employed in his poetry. On returning to the taverns of Paris, he began to compose some of the poems of "Les Fleurs du Mal". At 21, he squandered much of it within a few years, his family obtained a decree to place his property in trust, which he resented bitterly, at one point arguing that allowing him to fail financially would have been the one sure way of teaching him to keep his finances in order.
Baudelaire became known in artistic circles as a dandy and free-spender, going through much of his inheritance and allowance in a short period of time. During this time, Jeanne Duval became his mistress, she was rejected by his family. His mother thought Duval a "Black Venus" who "tortured him in every way" and drained him of money at every opportunity. Baudelaire made a suicide attempt during this period, he wrote for a revolutionary newspaper. However, his interest in politics was passing, as he was to note in his journals. In the early 1850s, Baudelaire struggled with poor health, pressing debts, irregular literary output, he moved from one lodging to another to escape creditors. He undertook many projects that he was unable to complete, though he did finish translations of stories by Edgar Allan Poe. Upon the death of his stepfather in 1857, Baudelaire received no mention in the will but he was heartened nonetheless that the division with his mother might now be mended. At 36 he wrote her: "believe that I belong to you and that I belong only to you."
His mother died on August 16, 1871, outliving her son by four years. His first published work, under the pseudonym Baudelaire Dufaÿs, was his art review "Salon of 1845", which attracted immediate attention for its boldness. Many of his critical opinions were novel in their time, including his championing of Delacroix, some of his views seem remarkably in tune with the future theories of the Impressionist painters. In 1846, Baudelaire wrote his second Salon review, gaining additional credibility as an advocate and critic of Romanticism, his continued support of Delacroix as the foremost Romantic artist gained widespread notice. The following year Baudelaire's novella La Fanfarlo was published. Baudelaire was a slow and attentive worker; however he was sidetracked by indolence, emotional distress and illness, it was not until 1857 that he published his first and most famous volume of poems, Les Fleurs du mal. Some of these poems had appeared in the Revue des deux mondes (Review of Two
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Kamakura is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Although Kamakura proper is today rather small, it is described in history books as a former de facto capital of Japan, the nation's most populous settlement from 1200 to 1300 AD, as the seat of the shogunate and of the Regency during the Kamakura period. Kamakura was designated as a city on November 3, 1939; as of September 1, 2016, the modern city has an estimated population of 172,302, a population density of 4,358.77 persons per km2. The total area is 39.53 km2. As a coastal city with a high number of seasonal festivals, as well as ancient Buddhist and Shinto shrines and temples, Kamakura is a popular tourist destination within Japan. Surrounded to the north and west by hills and to the south by the open water of Sagami Bay, Kamakura is a natural fortress. Before the construction of several tunnels and modern roads that now connect it to Fujisawa and Zushi, on land it could be entered only through narrow artificial passes, among which the seven most important were called Kamakura's Seven Entrances, a name sometimes translated as "Kamakura's Seven Mouths".
The natural fortification made Kamakura an defensible stronghold. Before the opening of the Entrances, access on land was so difficult that the Azuma Kagami reports that Hōjō Masako came back to Kamakura from a visit to Sōtōzan temple in Izu bypassing by boat the impassable Inamuragasaki cape and arriving in Yuigahama. Again according to the Azuma Kagami, the first of the Kamakura shōguns, Minamoto no Yoritomo, chose it as a base because it was his ancestors' land because of these physical characteristics. To the north of the city stands Mt. Genji, which passes behind the Daibutsu and reaches Inamuragasaki and the sea. From the north to the east Kamakura is surrounded by Mt. Rokkokuken, Mt. Ōhira, Mt. Jubu, Mt. Tendai, Mt. Kinubari, which extend all the way to Iijimagasaki and Wakae Island, on the border with Kotsubo and Zushi. From Kamakura's alluvional plain branch off numerous narrow valleys like the Urigayatsu, Shakadōgayatsu, Ōgigayatsu, Kamegayatsu and Matsubagayatsu valleys.. Kamakura is crossed by the Namerigawa river, which goes from the Asaina Pass in northern Kamakura to the beach in Yuigahama for a total length of about 8 kilometres.
The river marks the border between Yuigahama. In administrative terms, the municipality of Kamakura borders with Yokohama to the north, with Zushi to the east, with Fujisawa to the west, it includes many areas outside the Seven Entrances as Yamanouchi, Koshigoe and Ofuna, is the result of the fusion of Kamakura proper with the cities of Koshigoe, absorbed in 1939, absorbed in 1948, with the village of Fukasawa, absorbed in 1948. North-west of Kamakura lies Yamanouchi called Kita-Kamakura because of the presence of East Japan Railway Company's Kita-Kamakura Station. Yamanouchi, was technically never a part of historical Kamakura since it is outside the Seven Entrances. Yamanouchi was the northern border of the city during the shogunate, the important Kobukorozaka and Kamegayatsu Passes, two of Kamakura's Seven Entrances, led directly to it, its name at the time used to be Sakado-gō. The border post used to lie about a hundred meters past today's Kita-Kamakura train station in Ofuna's direction.
Although small, Yamanouchi is famous for its traditional atmosphere and the presence, among others, of three of the five highest-ranking Rinzai Zen temples in Kamakura, the Kamakura Gozan. These three great temples were built here because Yamanouchi was the home territory of the Hōjō clan, a branch of the Taira clan which ruled Japan for 150 years. Among Kita-Kamakura's most illustrious citizens were artist Isamu Noguchi and movie director Yasujirō Ozu. Ozu is buried at Engaku-ji. Kamakura's defining feature is a Shinto shrine in the center of the city. A 1.8-kilometre road runs from Sagami Bay directly to the shrine. This road is known as the city's main street. Built by Minamoto no Yoritomo as an imitation of Kyoto's Suzaku Ōji, Wakamiya Ōji used to be much wider, delimited on both sides by a 3 metre deep canal and flanked by pine trees. Walking from the beach toward the shrine, one passes through three torii, or Shinto gates, called Ichi no Torii, Ni no Torii and San no Torii. Between the first and the second lies Geba Yotsukado which, as the name indicates, was the place where riders had to get off their horses in deference to Hachiman and his shrine.
100 metres after the second torii, the dankazura, a raised pathway flanked by cherry trees that marks the center of Kamakura, begins. The dankazura becomes wider so that it will look longer than it is when viewed from the shrine, its entire length is under the direct administration of the shrine. Minamoto no Yoritomo made his father-in-law Hōjō Tokimasa and his men carry by hand the stones to build it to pray for the safe delivery of his son Yoriie; the dankazura used to go all the way to Geba, but it was drastically shortened during the 19th century to make way for the newly constructed Yokosuka railroad line. In Kamakura, wide streets are called Ōji 、narrower ones Kōji, the small streets that connect the two are called zushi, intersections tsuji. Komachi Ōji and Ima Kōji run east and west of Wakamiya Ōji, while Yoko Ōji, the roa