The Meuse or Maas is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea from the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. It has a total length of 925 km. From 1301 the upper Meuse marked the western border of the Holy Roman Empire with the Kingdom of France, after Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of the County of Bar as a French fief from the hands of King Philip IV; the border remained stable until the annexation of the Three Bishoprics Metz and Verdun by King Henry II in 1552 and the occupation of the Duchy of Lorraine by the forces of King Louis XIII in 1633. Its lower Belgian portion, part of the sillon industriel, was the first industrialized area in continental Europe; the Afgedamde Maas was created in the late Middle Ages, when a major flood made a connection between the Maas and the Merwede at the town of Woudrichem. From that moment on, the current Afgedamde Maas was the main branch of the lower Meuse.
The former main branch silted up and is today called the Oude Maasje. In the late 19th century and early 20th century the connection between the Maas and Rhine was closed off and the Maas was given a new, artificial mouth - the Bergse Maas; the resulting separation of the rivers Rhine and Maas reduced the risk of flooding and is considered to be the greatest achievement in Dutch hydraulic engineering before the completion of the Zuiderzee Works and Delta Works. The former main branch was, after the dam at its southern inlet was completed in 1904, renamed Afgedamde Maas and no longer receives water from the Maas; the Meuse and its crossings were a key objective of the last major German WWII counter-offensive on the Western Front, the Battle of the Bulge in the winter of 1944/45. The Meuse is represented in the documentary; the name Meuse is derived from the French name of the river which derives from the Celtic or Proto-Celtic name *Mosā. The Dutch name Maas descends from Middle Dutch Mase, which comes from the presumed but unattested Old Dutch form *Masa, from Proto-Germanic *Masō.
Modern Dutch and German Maas and Limburgish Maos preserve this Germanic form. Despite the similarity, the Germanic name is not derived from the Celtic name, judging from the change from earlier o into a, characteristic of the Germanic languages; the Meuse rises in Pouilly-en-Bassigny, commune of Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse on the Langres plateau in France from where it flows northwards past Sedan and Charleville-Mézières into Belgium. At Namur it is joined by the Sambre. Beyond Namur the Meuse winds eastwards, skirting the Ardennes, passes Liège before turning north; the river forms part of the Belgian-Dutch border, except that at Maastricht the border lies further to the west. In the Netherlands it continues northwards through Venlo along the border to Germany turns towards the west, where it runs parallel to the Waal and forms part of the extensive Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, together with the Scheldt in its south and the Rhine in the north; the river has been divided near Heusden into the Afgedamde Maas on the right and the Bergse Maas on the left.
The Bergse Maas continues under the name of Amer, part of De Biesbosch. The Afgedamde Maas joins the Waal, the main stem of the Rhine at Woudrichem, flows under the name of Boven Merwede to Hardinxveld-Giessendam, where it splits into Nieuwe Merwede and Beneden Merwede. Near Lage Zwaluwe, the Nieuwe Merwede joins the Amer, forming the Hollands Diep, which splits into Grevelingen and Haringvliet, before flowing into the North Sea; the Meuse is crossed by railway bridges between the following stations: Netherlands: Hasselt – Maastricht Weert - Roermond Blerick – Venlo Cuijk – Mook-Molenhoek Ravenstein – Wijchen's-Hertogenbosch – ZaltbommelThere are numerous road bridges and around 32 ferry crossings. The Meuse is navigable over a substantial part of its total length: In the Netherlands and Belgium, the river is part of the major inland navigation infrastructure, connecting the Rotterdam-Amsterdam-Antwerp port areas to the industrial areas upstream:'s-Hertogenbosch, Maastricht, Liège, Namur. Between Maastricht and Maasbracht, an unnavigable section of the Meuse is bypassed by the 36 km Juliana Canal.
South of Namur, further upstream, the river can only carry more modest vessels, although a barge as long as 100 m. can still reach the French border town of Givet. From Givet, the river is canalized over a distance of 272 kilometres; the canalized Meuse used to be called the "Canal de l'Est — Branche Nord" but was rebaptized into "Canal de la Meuse". The waterway can be used by the smallest barges that are still in use commercially 40 metres long and just over 5 metres wide. Just upstream of the town of Commercy, the Canal de la Meuse connects with the Marne–Rhine Canal by means of a short diversion canal; the Cretaceous sea reptile. The first fossils of it were discovered outside Maastricht in 1780. An international agreement was signed in 2002 in Ghent, Belgium about the management of the river amongst France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium. Participating in the agreement were the Belgian regional governments of Flanders and Brussels. Most of the basin area is in Wallonia, followe
Liège International (1905)
Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Liège was a world's fair held in Liège from 27 April to 6 November 1905 just 8 years after a Belgian exposition held in Brussels. Intended to show Liege's industrial importance it marked 75 years of Belgian independence and 40 years of Leopold II's reign; the exposition covered 52 acres and made 75,117 Belgian Francs. Twenty-nine countries were official participants, from Europe: Austria, Denmark, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Germany and Spain were unofficial participants There was an exhibition of medieval and Renaissance art, L'art ancien au Pays de Liège, as part of the event; the Palais des Beaux Arts building was left to the city, housed the Musee d'Art Moderne et d'Art Contemporaine. After closing in 2013, in May 2016 it reopened, as La Boverie. A piece by Jean-Théodore Radoux entitled Cantate pour l'inauguration de l'Exposition universelle de Liège, 1905, with words by Jules Sauvenière, was written for the expo.
Colonial exhibition The Walloon Movement Official website of the BIE A poster advertising France's involvement in the exhibition
Pepin of Herstal
Pepin II known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death. He took the title Prince of the Franks upon his conquest of all the Frankish realms; the son of the powerful Frankish statesman Ansegisel, Pepin worked to establish his family, the Pippinids, as the strongest in Francia. He became Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia in 680. Pepin subsequently embarked on several wars to expand his power, he united all the Frankish realms by the conquests of Neustria and Burgundy in 687. In foreign conflicts, Pepin increased the power of the Franks by his subjugation of the Alemanni, the Frisians, the Franconians, he began the process of evangelisation in Germany. Pepin's statesmanship was notable for the further diminution of Merovingian royal authority, for the acceptance of the undisputed right to rule for his family. Therefore, Pepin was able to name as heir his grandson Theudoald, but this was not accepted by his powerful son Charles Martel, leading to a civil war after his death in which the latter emerged victorious.
Pepin, sometimes called Pepin II and Pepin the Middle, was the grandson and namesake of Pepin I the Elder through the marriage of Pepin I's daughter Begga to Ansegisel. He was the grandfather of Pepin the Short and great-grandfather of Charlemagne; that marriage united the two houses of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings which created what would be called the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin II was born in Herstal, modern Belgium, whence his byname; as mayor of Austrasia and Martin, the duke of Laon, fought the Neustrian mayor Ebroin, who had designs on all Francia. Ebroin came close to uniting all the Franks under his rule. Pepin made peace with his successor, Waratton. However, Waratton's successor and the Neustrian king Theuderic III, since 679, was nominal king of all the Franks, made war on Austrasia; the king and his mayor were decisively defeated at the Battle of Tertry in the Vermandois in 687. Berthar and Theuderic withdrew themselves to Paris, where Pepin followed and forced on them a peace treaty with the condition that Berthar leave his office.
Pepin was created mayor in all three Frankish kingdoms and began calling himself Duke and Prince of the Franks. In the ensuing quarrels, Berthar fled, his wife Anstrude married Pepin's eldest son Drogo, Duke of Champagne, Pepin's place in Neustria was secured. The Neustrians tolerated an Austrasian overlord, but Pepin preferred to put these local resistances aside to deal with Germany. Over the next several years, Pepin subdued the Alemanni and Franconians, bringing them within the Frankish sphere of influence. Between 690 and 692, Utrecht fell; this gave the Franks control of important trade routes on the Rhine to the North Sea. He supported the missionary work of Willibrord. In 695, he placed Drogo in the Burgundian mayorship and his other son, Grimoald, in the Neustrian one. Around 670, Pepin had married Plectrude, who had inherited substantial estates in the Moselle region, she was the mother of Drogo of Grimoald II, both of whom died before their father. However, Pepin had a mistress named Alpaida who bore him two more sons: Charles Martel and Childebrand.
Just before Pepin's death, Plectrude convinced him to disinherit the sons he had with his second wife Alpaida in favour of his grandson, still a young child. Pepin died at the age of 79 on 16 December 714, at Jupille, his grandchildren through Plectrude claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and, with the help of Plectrude, tried to maintain the position of mayor of the palace after Pepin's death. However, Charles had gained favour among the Austrasians for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her child's rival by imprisoning him, he became the sole mayor of the palace—and de facto ruler of Francia—after a civil war which lasted for more than three years after Pepin's death. In 2018, Dutch production company Farmhouse will release a movie called "Redbad", based on the historical Redbad and directed by Roel Reiné. Jonathan Banks will play Pepin of Herstal, the main villain in this movie.
Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476–918. London: Rivingtons, 1914. Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. translator. The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1960. Bachrach, Bernard S. translator. Liber Historiae Francorum. 1973
Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death. He was the first of the Carolingians to become king; the younger son of the Frankish prince Charles Martel and his wife Rotrude, Pepin's upbringing was distinguished by the ecclesiastical education he had received from the monks of St. Denis. Succeeding his father as the Mayor of the Palace in 741, Pepin reigned over Francia jointly with his elder brother Carloman. Pepin ruled in Neustria and Provence, while his older brother Carloman established himself in Austrasia and Thuringia; the brothers were active in suppressing revolts led by the Bavarians, Aquitanians and the Alemanni in the early years of their reign. In 743, they ended the Frankish interregnum by choosing Childeric III, to be the last Merovingian monarch, as figurehead king of the Franks. Being well disposed towards the church and Papacy on account of their ecclesiastical upbringing and Carloman continued their father's work in supporting Saint Boniface in reforming the Frankish church, evangelising the Saxons.
After Carloman, an intensely pious man, retired to religious life in 747, Pepin became the sole ruler of the Franks. He suppressed a revolt led by his half-brother Grifo, succeeded in becoming the undisputed master of all Francia. Giving up pretense, Pepin forced Childeric into a monastery and had himself proclaimed king of the Franks with support of Pope Zachary in 751; the decision was not supported by all members of the Carolingian family and Pepin had to put down a revolt led by Carloman's son and again by Grifo. As King, Pepin embarked on an ambitious program to expand his power, he continued the ecclesiastical reforms of Boniface. Pepin intervened in favour of the Papacy of Stephen II against the Lombards in Italy, he was able to secure several cities, which he gave to the Pope as part of the Donation of Pepin. This formed the legal basis for the Papal States in the Middle Ages; the Byzantines, keen to make good relations with the growing power of the Frankish empire, gave Pepin the title of Patricius.
In wars of expansion, Pepin conquered Septimania from the Islamic Umayyads, subjugated the southern realms by defeating Waiofar and his Gascon troops, after which the Gascon and Aquitanian lords saw no option but to pledge loyalty to the Franks. Pepin was, troubled by the relentless revolts of the Saxons and the Bavarians, he campaigned tirelessly in Germany, but the final subjugation of these tribes was left to his successors. Pepin was succeeded by his sons Charlemagne and Carloman. Although unquestionably one of the most powerful and successful rulers of his time, Pepin's reign is overshadowed by that of his more famous son. Pepin's father Charles Martel died in 741, he divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, demanded a share in the inheritance, but he was besieged in Laon, forced to surrender and imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers.
In the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was connected with the person of the king. So Carloman, to secure this unity, raised the Merovingian Childeric to the throne. In 747 Carloman either resolved to or was pressured into entering a monastery; this left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of dux et princeps Francorum. At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Pepin put down the renewed revolt led by his half-brother and succeeded in restoring the boundaries of the kingdom. Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel, the dux et princeps Francorum was the commander of the armies of the kingdom, in addition to his administrative duties as mayor of the palace; as mayor of the palace, Pepin was formally subject to the decisions of Childeric III who had only the title of King but no power. Since Pepin had control over the magnates and had the power of a king, he now addressed to Pope Zachary a suggestive question: In regard to the kings of the Franks who no longer possess the royal power: is this state of things proper?
Hard pressed by the Lombards, Pope Zachary welcomed this move by the Franks to end an intolerable condition and lay the constitutional foundations for the exercise of the royal power. The Pope replied. In these circumstances, the de facto power was considered more important than the de jure authority. After this decision the throne was declared vacant. Childeric III was confined to a monastery, he was the last of the Merovingians. Pepin was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish nobles, with a large portion of his army on hand; the earliest account of his election and anointing is the Clausula de Pippino written around 767. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was killed in the battle of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in 753. Pepin was assisted by his friend Vergilius of Salzburg, an Irish monk who used a copy of the "Collectio canonum Hibernensis" to advise him to receive royal unction to assist his recognition as king. Anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons, Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of patric
The Sillon industriel is the former industrial backbone of Belgium. It runs across Wallonia, passing from Dour, the region of Borinage, in the west, to Verviers in the east, passing along the way through Mons, La Louvière, Namur, Liège, it follows a continuous stretch of valleys of the rivers Haine, Sambre and Vesdre, has an area of 1000 km². The strip is known as the Sambre and Meuse valley, as those are the main rivers, or the Haine-Sambre-Meuse-Vesdre valley, which includes two smaller rivers.. It is called the Dorsale wallonne, meaning "Walloon backbone", it is less defined by physical geography, is more a description of human geography and resources. As heavy industry is no longer the prevailing feature of the Belgian economy, it is now more common to refer to the area as a former industrial belt. Around two-thirds of the population of Wallonia lives in the area – over two million people, its main stretch is sometimes called the Charleroi-Liège valley, which connects Liège. Some see it as a Walloon metropolis.
The sillon industriel was the first industrialized area in continental Europe. Its industry brought much wealth to Belgium, it was the economic core of the country; this continued until after World War II, when the importance of Belgian steel and industry began to diminish. The region's economy shifted towards extraction of non-metallic raw materials such as glass and soda, which lasted until the 1970s; the days of prosperity were gone, a trend of unemployment and partial economic dependence on the poorer Flemish Region began, continues to this day. The region has seen some with social aims, some with political aims. In 1886, due to economic crisis, lowering of salaries and unemployment. More strikes occurred in 1932 and 1936, with a strike in 1950 on the question of the return of Leopold III to the Belgian throne; the region was at the heart of the general strike of winter 1960-1961, which helped Wallonia to gain autonomy. It was the site of the first dechristianisation in Belgium, the most ferocious opposition to Leopold III's return to the throne.
The region is the base of the Belgian francophone Socialist Party in Wallonia. Some of the region qualifies for Objective 1 or Objective 2 status under the Regional policy of the European Union because of its low GDP per capita; this is to encourage growth in the area. This is rare in Western Europe. Flemish diamond, Flanders's loose equivalentBlack Country, British equivalent in the Midlands of England around Birmingham
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The Ourthe is a 165-kilometre long river in the Ardennes in Wallonia. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse; the Ourthe is formed at the confluence of the Ourthe Occidentale and the Ourthe Orientale, west of Houffalize. The source of the Ourthe Occidentale is in the Belgian province Luxembourg; the source of the Ourthe Orientale is near Gouvy in the Belgian province Luxembourg, close to the border with Luxembourg. After the confluence of the two Ourthes near Nisramont, the Ourthe flows in north-west and in northern direction. Near Noiseux it flows for a short distance through the province of Namur. After the municipality of Durbuy it flows in the province of Liège, it flows into the river Meuse in the city of Liège. The most important tributaries of the river Ourthe are the Vesdre. Towns along the Ourthe are Houffalize, La Roche-en-Ardenne, Durbuy and Esneux. Département de l'Ourthe