Penalty (ice hockey)
A penalty in ice hockey is a punishment for an infringement of the rules. Most penalties are enforced by sending the offending player to a penalty box for a set number of minutes. During the penalty the player may not participate in play. Penalties are enforced by the referee, or in some cases, the linesman; the offending team may not replace the player on the ice, leaving them short-handed as opposed to full strength. When the opposing team is said to be on a power play, they will have one more player on the ice than the short-handed team; the short-handed team is said to be "on the penalty kill" until the penalty expires and the penalized player returns to play. While standards vary somewhat between leagues, most leagues recognize several common varieties of penalties, as well as common infractions; the statistic used to track penalties was traditionally called "Penalty Infraction Minutes", although the alternate term "penalty minutes" has become common in recent years. It represents the total assessed length of penalties each team has accrued.
The first codified rules of hockey, known as the Halifax Rules, were brought to Montreal by James Creighton, who organized the first indoor hockey game in 1875. Two years the Montreal Gazette documented the first set of "Montreal Rules", which noted that "charging from behind, collaring, kicking or shinning the ball shall not be allowed"; the only penalty outlined by these rules was that play would be stopped, a "bully" would take place. Revised rules in 1886 mandated that any player in violation of these rules would be given two warnings, but on a third offence would be removed from the game, it was not until 1904. At that time, a referee could assess a two-, three- or five-minute penalty, depending on the severity of the foul. By 1914, all penalties were five minutes in length, reduced to three minutes two years and the offending player was given an additional fine; when the National Hockey League was founded in 1917, it mandated that a team could not substitute for any player, assessed a penalty, thus requiring them to play shorthanded for the duration.
The penalty was shortened to two minutes for the 1921–22 season, while five- and ten-minute penalties were added two years later. Both the NHL and the International Ice Hockey Federation recognize the common penalty degrees of minor and major penalties, as well as the more severe misconduct, game misconduct, match penalties. A minor penalty is the least severe type of penalty. A minor penalty is two minutes in length; the offending player is sent to the penalty box and in most cases, his team will play shorthanded. If the offending player is the goaltender or a team is given a "bench minor" penalty any skater, on the ice at the time of the infraction may serve the penalty. In rare cases, when the offending player suffers an injury on the same play, whoever is on the ice at the time of the penalty may serve the penalty, as was the case of Game 2 of the Pittsburgh Penguins-Washington Capitals during the 2017 Stanley Cup playoffs, when Phil Kessel served a penalty in place of Tom Kuhnhackl. A team with a numerical advantage in players will go on a power play.
If they score a goal during this time, the penalty will end and the offending player may return to the ice. In hockey's formative years, teams were shorthanded for the entire length of a minor penalty; the NHL changed this rule following the 1955–56 season where the Montreal Canadiens scored multiple goals on one power play. Most famous was a game on November 5, 1955, when Jean Béliveau scored three goals in 44 seconds, all on the same power play, in a 4–2 victory over the Boston Bruins. Coincidental minor penalties occur when an equal number of players from each team are given a minor penalty at the same time; the permission of a substitute player depends on the league and the situation at the time of the infractions. In some leagues, such as the NHL, the teams will play four-on-four for the duration of the penalties if they occurred when both teams were at strength. However, if there is a manpower differential both teams are allowed to make substitutions while the penalized players will remain in the penalty box until the first stoppage in play after their penalty expires.
In other competitions, such as IIHF events, coincidental penalties do not affect manpower in any situation. Coincidental minor penalties are not ended. In some cases, a referee can impose a triple minor; the infraction is counted as three separate minor penalties. If a team scores a power play goal during such a penalty, only the current block of two minutes being counted down is canceled. Expiration rules of double- or triple-minor penalties due to goals being scored are identical to that of regular minor penalties being served back-to-back. A major penalty is a stronger degree of penalty for a more severe infraction of the rules than a minor. Most infractions which incur a major penalty are more severe instances of minor penalty infractions. A player who receives a major penalty will remain off the ice for five minutes of play during which his team will be short-handed. A major penalty cannot end early if a goal is scored against the short-handed team, unless the goal is scored during an overtime period.
If major penalties are assessed to one player on each team at
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League. Since the 2010–11 season, every team in the league has an affiliation agreement with one NHL team; when NHL teams do not have an AHL affiliate, players are assigned to AHL teams affiliated with other NHL teams. Twenty-seven AHL teams are located in the United States and the remaining four are in Canada; the league offices are located in Springfield and its current president is David Andrews. In general, a player must be at least 18 years of age to play in the AHL or not be beholden to a junior ice hockey team; the league limits the number of experienced professional players on a team's active roster during any given game. The AHL allows for practice squad contracts; the annual playoff champion is awarded the Calder Cup, named for Frank Calder, the first President of the NHL. The reigning champions are the Toronto Marlies.
The AHL traces its origins directly to two predecessor professional leagues: the Canadian-American Hockey League, founded in 1926, the first International Hockey League, established in 1929. Although the Can-Am League never operated with more than six teams, the departure of the Boston Bruin Cubs after the 1935–36 season reduced it down to just four member clubs – the Springfield Indians, Philadelphia Ramblers, Providence Reds, New Haven Eagles – for the first time in its history. At the same time, the then-rival IHL lost half of its eight members after the 1935–36 season leaving it with just four member teams: the Buffalo Bisons, Syracuse Stars, Pittsburgh Hornets, Cleveland Falcons. With both leagues down to the bare minimum in membership, the governors of each recognized the need for action to assure their member clubs' long-term survival, their solution was to play an interlocking schedule. While the Can-Am League was based in the Northeast and the IHL in the Great Lakes, their footprints were close enough for this to be a viable option.
The two older leagues' eight surviving clubs began joint play in November 1936 as a new two-division "circuit of mutual convenience" known as the International-American Hockey League. The four Can-Am teams became the I-AHL East Division, with the IHL quartet playing as the West Division; the IHL contributed its former championship trophy, the F. G. "Teddy" Oke Trophy, which would go to the regular-season winners of the merged league's West Division until 1952. The Oke Trophy is now awarded to the regular-season winners of the AHL's Northeast Division. A little more than a month into that first season, the balance and symmetry of the new combined circuit suffered a setback when its membership unexpectedly fell to seven teams; the West's Buffalo Bisons were forced to cease operations on December 6, 1936, after playing just 11 games, because of what proved to be insurmountable financial problems and lack of access to a suitable arena. The makeshift new I-AHL played out the rest of its first season with just seven teams.
At the end of the 1936–37 season, a modified three-round playoff format was devised and a new championship trophy, the Calder Cup, was established. The Syracuse Stars defeated the Philadelphia Ramblers in the final, three-games-to-one, to win the first-ever Calder Cup championship; the Calder Cup continues on today as the AHL's playoff championship trophy. After two seasons of interlocking play, the governors of the two leagues' seven active teams met in New York City on June 28, 1938, agreed that it was time to formally consolidate. Maurice Podoloff of New Haven, the former head of the Can-Am League, was elected the I-AHL's first president; the former IHL president, John Chick of Windsor, became vice-president in charge of officials. The new I-AHL added an eighth franchise at the 1938 meeting to fill the void in its membership left by the loss of Buffalo two years earlier with the admission of the two-time defending Eastern Amateur Hockey League champion Hershey Bears; the Bears remain the only one of these eight original I-AHL/AHL franchises to have been represented in the league without interruption since the 1938–39 season.
The newly merged circuit increased its regular-season schedule for each team by six games from 48 to 54. After the 1939–40 season the I-AHL renamed itself the American Hockey League, it enjoyed both consistent success on the ice and relative financial stability over its first three decades of operation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the cost of doing business in professional ice hockey began to rise with NHL expansion and relocation and the 1972 formation of the World Hockey Association, which forced the relocation and subsequent folding of the Cleveland Barons, Baltimore Clippers, Quebec Aces; the number of major-league teams competing for players rose from six to thirty in just seven years. Player salaries at all levels shot up with the increased demand and competition for their services; this did not seem to affect the AHL at first, as it expanded to 12 teams by 1970. However, to help compensate for the rise in player salaries, many NHL clubs cut back on the number of p
There have been two junior ice hockey franchises known as the Quebec Remparts that played in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The first edition played from 1969 to 1985. Both franchises were based out of Quebec City, Canada; the current team plays at Videotron Centre. The team is named after the Ramparts of Quebec City; the Remparts have developed notable National Hockey League players, including Simon Gagné, Kevin Lowe, Mike Ribeiro, Antoine Vermette, Marc-Édouard Vlasic and Hall of Famers Michel Goulet and Guy Lafleur. The original Quebec Remparts team was founded in 1969 by a group of investors who purchased the assets of the junior Quebec Aces team; some of the new owners included Paul Dumont, Gérard Bolduc. The Remparts took up residence in the same arena as the Aces in the Colisée de Québec; the Remparts were finalists for the George Richardson Memorial Trophy in 1969–70, eastern Canadian champions in 1970–71. It was this team, which featured future Hockey Hall of Famer Guy Lafleur, that won a Memorial Cup championship in 1971.
The team won the President's Cup five times. Gilles Courteau was the general manager of the Remparts from 1980 to 1985. After the 1984–85 season, the team went into dormancy for three seasons before being resurrected. After returning to play, then-sponsored by "Le Collège Français", the team moved to Longueuil to become the Longueuil Collège Français; the team played for three seasons before moving to Verdun in 1991 to become the Verdun Collège Français. The franchise ceased operations in 1994; the current Remparts franchise was granted for the 1990–91 season and was known as the Beauport Harfangs, a suburb in the Quebec City metropolitan area. In 1997 the team moved to Quebec City, playing two seasons at PEPS on the campus of Laval University between 1997 and 1999. In 1999 the team moved into the Colisée de Québec, they are considered one of the most popular Canadian Hockey League teams, as they draw over 11,000 spectators per game. Similar to the National Football League's Cleveland Browns, the team claims the history and records of the original Remparts.
On May 28, 2006, the Remparts won the Memorial Cup. Then-Head Coach Patrick Roy became the seventh coach to win the Cup in his first year as head coach, the first to do so since Claude Julien of the Hull Olympiques in 1997, it was the first time in Memorial Cup history that the finals involved two teams from the QMJHL. Quebec won the Cup without winning a League championship and without hosting the event, another first in Memorial Cup history. On November 27, 2014, the Remparts were sold to Quebecor for an estimated price between $20 million and $25 million; the Remparts were chosen to be the host of the 2015 Memorial Cup. They defeated the Rimouski Océanic in tie-breaker 5-2, but got eliminated by the Kelowna Rockets in the semi-finals 9-3; the team moved to Centre Vidéotron on September 12, 2015. Original RempartsMichel Goulet, Guy Lafleur have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Modern Remparts 4 Guy Lafleur 12 Simon Gagné 22 Alexander Radulov 44 Marc-Édouard Vlasic CHRC Quebec Remparts Official Site QMJHL Arena Guide profile
Kontinental Hockey League
The Kontinental Hockey League is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008. It comprises 25 member clubs based in Belarus, Finland, Kazakhstan and Slovakia and it is planned to expand to more countries, it is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in Europe and Asia, second in the world behind the National Hockey League. KHL has the third highest average attendance in Europe with 6,121 spectators per game in the regular season, the highest total attendance in Europe with 5.32 million spectators in the regular season. The Gagarin Cup is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season; the title of Champion of Russia is given to the highest ranked Russian team. The league formed from the Russian Superleague and the champion of the 2007–08 season of the second division, with 24 teams: 21 from Russia and one each from Belarus and Kazakhstan; the teams were divided based on the performance in previous seasons. The start of the fourth season was overshadowed by the Yaroslavl air disaster on 7 September 2011 in which all members of the team Lokomotiv Yaroslavl lost their lives shortly after take-off for their flight to their season opening game in Minsk.
The Opening Cup game in Ufa, under way when news of the disaster arrived, was suspended. In memory of the disaster, 7 September remains a day of mourning on which no KHL regular season games are held. In the 2009–10 season, Avtomobilist Yekaterinburg joined the KHL and Khimik Voskresensk was transferred to a lower league. Next season, Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk joined the league. After several attempts by teams from Central Europe and Scandinavia to join the KHL, expansion beyond the borders of the former Soviet Union was realized in 2011. Lev Poprad, a newly founded team based in Poprad, Slovakia was admitted to the league, but after only one season, Lev was replaced by a team of the same name, Lev Praha, from Prague, Czech Republic, while Slovan Bratislava from Bratislava and Ukraine's Donbass from Donetsk joined the KHL as expansion teams for the 2012–13 season. Lev and Slovan qualified for the playoffs in their first KHL season. In 2013, Medveščak from Zagreb, Croatia playing in the Austrian Hockey League, Russian expansion team Admiral Vladivostok joined the league, thus expanding the league further.
The league comprised 28 teams during the 2013–14 season, of which 21 were based in Russia and 7 located in the other countries. In 2014, Finnish team Jokerit from Helsinki, Lada Togliatti, newly created team HC Sochi joined the league. However, HC Donbass did not play in the league for the 2014–15 season, due to the political instability in Ukraine, but had intended to rejoin later. Two other teams, Lev Praha and Spartak Moscow withdrew from the 2014–15 season due to financial problems. Prior to the 2015–16 season, Atlant Moscow Oblast withdrew from the KHL due to financial issues, while Spartak Moscow returned after a one-year hiatus; the newly created Chinese club HC Kunlun Red Star from Beijing was admitted for the 2016–17 season. Prior to the 2017–18 season, Medveščak Zagreb withdrew from the league to rejoin the Austrian league and Metallurg Novokuznetsk was sent down to the VHL. Since 2009, the league has been divided into West conferences. In the current season, the Western Conference includes 14 teams divided into two divisions, 7 teams per division.
The Eastern Conference has 15 teams, divided into divisions of 8 respectively. In this season, each team played every other team once at home and once on the road, giving a total of 56 games, plus 4 additional games played by each team against rival clubs from its own conference. Thus, each team played a total of 60 games in the regular season; the eight top-ranked teams in each conference receive playoff berths. Within each conference quarterfinals and finals are played before the conference winners play against each other for the Gagarin Cup; the division winners are seeded first and second in their conference, based on their regular season record. All playoff rounds are played as best-of-seven series. In each round, the top seeded remaining team is paired with the lowest seeded team etc. In the 2012–13 season, the Nadezhda Cup was introduced, a consolation tournament for the teams who did not qualify for the playoffs; the winning team in the tournament wins the first overall pick in the KHL Junior Draft.
The tournament is intended to extend the season and help maintain interest in hockey in the cities of these teams, help players of national teams prepare for upcoming World Championships. Kontinental Hockey League on Google MapsAn asterisk denotes a franchise relocation. See the respective team articles for more information. Though now not as restrictive in maintaining an Russian composition of players and teams, Russian teams are still not allowed to sign more than five foreign players, while non-Russian teams must have at least five players from their respective country. Foreign goaltenders on Russian teams have a limit regarding total seasonal ice time. Prior to the inaugural season, several KHL teams signed several players from the NHL. A dispute between the two leagues over some of these signings was supposed to have been resolved by an agreement signed on July 10, 2008, whereby each league would honor the contracts of the other, but the signing of Alexander Radulov was made public one day after the agreement, leading to an investigation by the International Ice
The Nottingham Panthers are a British professional ice hockey club based in Nottingham, England. They are members of the Elite Ice Hockey League, their main team sponsor is the Nottingham Building Society. The Nottingham Panthers have won four league titles, five Championships, six Autumn Cups and eight Challenge Cups during their history. Panthers are the only British team to win European club honours with one Continental Cup, they are the only team to have played in every season where a British league championship has been contested and are the only founding member of the Premier Division in 1983 to have continually participated in the top flight league. The Panthers have 16 members enshrined in the British Ice Hockey Hall of Fame and have had 34 players represent Great Britain at the World Championships and in Olympic qualifying; the club was founded in 1946 after earlier attempts to establish a team were postponed due to World War II. During their first eight seasons the Panthers played in the English National League.
They joined the newly formed British National League in 1954, which they competed in until its disbandment in 1960. With no league to play in the club ceased operations. In 1980, players and officials from the Sheffield Lancers relocated to Nottingham and reformed the Panthers. Both the original and modern Nottingham Panthers played their home games at the Ice Stadium until 2000 when the team moved into the National Ice Centre; the Nottingham Panthers have one of the largest fanbases in British ice hockey, averaging over 5,000 spectators per game during the 2014–15 season. Their supporters have shared a number of rivalries with other teams during their history; the Panthers have a fierce rivalry with the Sheffield Steelers. The two sides have played over 200 games, including eleven major finals, since 1992. An initial attempt to bring a professional ice hockey team to Nottingham was made in 1939 following the completion of the Ice Stadium in Nottingham City Centre. A team was assembled and brought to the United Kingdom from Canada to compete in the 1939–40 English National League season but were promptly sent home having not played a single game due to the outbreak of World War II.
Seven years after the war had ended, a second effort to bring ice hockey to the city was begun. With a team of Canadians from Winnipeg, the Nottingham Panthers played their first competitive game on 22 November 1946 with a 3–2 home victory over the Wembley Monarchs; the Panthers struggled during their early years and only once during their first four seasons did they finish in the upper half of the league table. The club's first coach, Alex Archer, left Nottingham after two seasons and was replaced by Archie Stinchcombe who would coach the team until 1955. Despite a lack of success in their formative years the team had a number of players who would become local heroes including forwards Les Strongman and Chick Zamick. Zamick became one of the most prolific scorers in the league and won the Nottingham Sportsman of the Year award on two occasions, defeating sportsmen such as the Notts County and England international footballer Tommy Lawton; the club's first major title came in the 1950–51 season.
After finishing fourth in the Autumn Cup the Panthers won 18 of their 30 league games and clinched the league championship. The team ended the campaign having scored the most goals and conceded the least; the following season Nottingham fell to the bottom of the rankings. Success returned in 1953–54 when, after a last place finish in the Autumn Cup, the Panthers secured their second English League title by one point over Streatham. In the close season of 1954 the English League and the Scottish League were merged to form a British League; the Panthers finished second to the Harringay Racers in the eleven team competition. After one season all the Scottish teams, with the exception of the Paisley Pirates, withdrew from the British League and left it with only five members; the close season of 1955 saw the departure of Stinchcombe, replaced as coach by Zamick. The 1955–56 season proved to be one of the club's most successful. Nottingham won the Autumn Cup at the beginning of the season before clinching their third league title on goal average ahead of the Wembley Lions.
They travelled to Sweden where they won the Ahearne Cup. The 1955–56 title win proved to be the original Panthers' last. Over the next four years Nottingham alternated between bottom and second place in the league standings. After finishing runner-up in 1959–60, the Panthers took part in the first British Championship final in thirty years where they faced the Brighton Tigers. Nottingham were defeated 3–2 in the first leg but won the second in regulation time by the same scoreline forcing overtime; the Tigers clinched 32 seconds of the extra session. During the close season of 1960 the British National League collapsed and the Nottingham Panthers were disbanded. Ice hockey would not return to Nottingham for the next two decades; the Nottingham Panthers were revived thanks to the efforts of Gary Keward. In 1980 the Ice Stadium directors, led by Charles Walker, agreed to a request by Keward to give ice hockey another chance; the Sheffield Lancers, a team Keward helped to run, were relocated to Nottingham taking the name of the team that had occupied the same building 20 years earlier.
On 20 September 1980 the modern Panthers took to the ice for the first time defeating the Solihull Barons 7–4 at the Ice Stadium. During their first three seasons the Panthers played in regional leagues, first in the English League South and in Section B of the British Hockey League. In 1983 the British Hockey League r
The Rimouski Océanic are a junior ice hockey team in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The franchise was granted for the 1969–70 season as the Sherbrooke Castors; the Castors played in Sherbrooke from 1969 to 1982 before moving to Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, in 1982 to become the Saint-Jean Castors. In 1989, the team was renamed the Saint-Jean Lynx. In 1995, the team moved to Rimouski, Quebec, to become the Rimouski Océanic; the Océanic logo is an ocean liner with a set of teeth on the bow, jutting out of waves creating both a profile that suggests both a striking shark and a fleur-de-lis. The team colours are royal blue, navy blue and white, their home arena is the Colisée Financière Sun Life; the team's sweater has proven popular in the United States, as Reebok has issued it with Sidney Crosby's number 87 on it. The team won the QMJHL championship in the 1999–2000 season and went on to win the Memorial Cup that year, with a team featuring future NHL star Brad Richards; the team is one of the more well-known teams in the Canadian Hockey League because of the addition of Sidney Crosby in the 2003–04 season.
Crosby's 135 points for the club set a new record for a 16-year-old in the QMJHL and was second only to Wayne Gretzky in that particular age-group for all Canadian hockey. Other notable alumni through the years include Vincent Lecavalier, Brad Richards, Ryane Clowe and Michael Frolik. In 2005, the Océanic set a QMJHL record after going 28 consecutive games without a loss; the team went on to win seven games in a row in the playoffs, improving the unbeaten streak to an unofficial 35-straight. They won their second QMJHL championship in five years and subsequently represented the QMJHL in the 2005 Memorial Cup. After losing the opener against the hometown London Knights, the Océanic beat both the defending Memorial Cup champion Kelowna Rockets, who were in their third-straight Memorial Cup, the Ottawa 67's. Rimouski beat the 67's again in the semi-finals to set up a rematch of their opening game against the Knights. However, the Océanic were shut out in the final game 4–0; the QMJHL announced on April 2008, that the Océanic were chosen to host the 2009 Memorial Cup.
In the 2014–15 season, the Océanic captured the QMJHL championship in double overtime of the seventh game against the Quebec Remparts. Because the Remparts were the hosts of 2015 Memorial Cup, they had qualified for the Memorial Cup tournament prior to the QMJHL final, thus entering Rimouski into the Cup tournament; the Océanic finished 1–2 in the round robin portion in the tournament, advancing to the tie-breaker to play the Remparts losing 5–2. Official Site
2004–05 AHL season
The 2004–05 AHL season was the 69th season of the American Hockey League. Twenty-eight teams played 80 games each in the schedule; the Rochester Americans finished first overall in the regular season. The Philadelphia Phantoms won the Calder Cup; this season featured a wealth of talent in the AHL, as the National Hockey League was in the midst of a lockout. Many players who otherwise may have been called up to be members of NHL teams for the season spent the full season in the AHL instead; the lockout provided opportunity for several NHL arenas — including those in Anaheim, Nashville, San Jose and Tampa — to host AHL games during the season. The Edmonton Road Runners, played the entire season in Rexall Place the home of the NHL's Edmonton Oilers. In addition, the shootout was reintroduced to the league, to decide a winner in games which remained tied following the overtime period; the team winning a shootout was credited with a win, the losing team with an overtime loss. The AHL announced a series of experimental rule changes, most notably a restricted area for goaltenders.
Playing the puck outside the restricted area results in an automatic two-minute delay of game penalty. The Toronto Roadrunners moved to Edmonton, becoming the Edmonton Road Runners. Note: GP = Games played. Team PlanetUSA defeated. In the skills competition held the night before, team PlanetUSA defeated team Canada 17-13. List of AHL seasons AHL official site AHL Hall of Fame HockeyDB