Joanna I of Naples
Joanna I known as Johanna I, was Queen of Naples, Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1343 to 1382. Joanna was the eldest daughter of Charles, Duke of Marie of Valois to survive infancy, her father was the son of Robert the Wise, King of Naples, but he died before his father in 1328. Three years King Robert appointed Joanna as his heir and ordered his vassals to swear fealty to her. To strengthen Joanna's position, he concluded an agreement with his nephew, King Charles I of Hungary, about the marriage of Charles's younger son and Joanna. Charles I wanted to secure his uncle's inheritance to Andrew, but King Robert named Joanna as his sole heir on his deathbed in 1343, he appointed a regency council to govern his realms until Joanna's 21st birthday, but the regents could not take control of state administration after the King's death. Joanna's cousin, Duke of Durazzo, married her sister, without her permission. Joanna was the second child of Charles, Duke of Calabria, Marie of Valois; the precise date of her birth is unknown, but she was most born in 1326 or 1327.
The Renaissance historian Donato Acciaioli claimed that she had been born in Florence, but she may have been born during her parents' travel towards the town, according to scholar Nancy Goldstone. Joanna's elder sister, had died in January 1326, her only brother, Charles Martel, lived only eight days in April 1327. Charles of Calabria died unexpectedly on 9 November 1328. With his death, his father faced the problem of succession, because Charles' posthumous child was a daughter, Maria. Although Neapolitan law did not prevent women from inheriting the throne, the concept of a reigning queen was unusual; the agreement between the Holy See and Robert the Wise's grandfather, Charles I of Anjou, had explicitly acknowledged the right of Charles I's female descendants to inherit the throne, but it stipulated that a female monarch was to marry and to allow her husband to rule. Furthermore, the Neapolitan royal house was a branch of the Capet dynasty of France and the French had excluded women from royal succession.
Robert's nephew, Charles I of Hungary, had been disinherited in Robert's favor in 1296, but he did not abandon his claim to the Regno. Pope John XXII had ignored Charles's demands for years, but Robert's support for the spiritual Franciscans and his negligence to pay the yearly tribute to the Holy See gave rise to tensions between Naples and the Papacy. Robert's two younger brothers, Philip I, Prince of Taranto, John, Duke of Durazzo, could claim the throne against a female monarch. Robert was determined to secure the succession to his own descendants and named Joanna and Maria as his heirs at a public ceremony at the Castel Nuovo in Naples on 4 December 1330. John of Durazzo and his wife, Agnes of Périgord, accepted Robert's decision, but Philip I of Taranto and his wife, Catherine of Valois, decided not to obey; when Joanna was invested with the right to succeed her grandfather on 30 November and Agnes were among the Neapolitan vassals who swore fealty to her, but Philip and Catherine did not attend the ceremony.
The Pope could only persuade Philip to send a deputy to Naples to pay homage to Joanna on his behalf on 3 March 1331. Charles I of Hungary had meanwhile asked the Pope to persuade Robert to restore the two fiefs that his father, Charles Martel, had held in the Regno—the Principality of Salerno and the Honor of Monte Sant' Angelo—to him and his sons, he put forward a marriage alliance, asking Joanna's hand for one of his sons. The Pope kept urging Robert to accept it; the widowed Catherine of Valois approached her half-brother, Philip VI of France, to intervene and block the marriage. She proposed her sons, Prince of Taranto and Louis, as suitable husbands for Joanna and Maria; the Pope was resolute and issued a bull on 30 June 1331, ordering that Joanna and her sister were to marry Charles I's sons. Charles I's eldest son, was designated for husband to Joanna, his younger brother, was only Louis's substitute in case of his premature death. At one point during the negotiations, Charles I changed his decision and appointed Andrew to marry Joanna.
After Joanna's mother died in 1332, Robert's second wife, Sancia of Majorca, assumed responsibility for her education. Queen Sancia, a fervent patron of the spiritual Franciscans, lived like a Clarisse nun, although the Pope had refused to annul her marriage to King Robert. Joanna's nurse, Philippa of Catania, exercised an greater influence on her education. Sancia and Philippa were the most influential personalities in the court of Robert who did not make decisions without their consent, according to Boccaccio. Charles I of Hungary came to Naples to complete the negotiations with his uncle about the marriage of Joanna and Andrew in the summer of 1333, he had not spared money during the journey, because he wanted to demonstrate his power. The two kings came to terms after further negotiations. According to the agreement and Joanna were engaged, but Robert and Charles I stipulated that Andrew was to marry Maria if he outlived Joanna, one of Charles I's surviving sons—Louis or Stephen—should marry Joanna if Andrew died before her.
The marriage contract was ceremoniously signed on 26 September. Next day, Robert invested Joanna and Andrew with the Duchy of Calabria and the Princip
Jeanne d'Albret known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France, she became the Duchess of Vendôme by marriage. Jeanne was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, a key figure in the French Wars of Religion. After her public conversion to Calvinism in 1560, she joined the Huguenot side. During the first and second war she remained neutral, but in the third war she fled to La Rochelle, becoming the de facto leader of the Huguenot-controlled city. After negotiating a peace treaty with Catherine de' Medici and arranging the marriage of her son, Henry, to Catherine's daughter, Marguerite de Valois, she died in Paris. Jeanne was the last active ruler of Navarre, her son inherited her kingdom, but as he was leading the Huguenot forces, he entrusted the government of Béarn to his sister, Catherine de Bourbon, who held the regency for more than two decades.
In 1620, Jeanne's grandson Louis XIII annexed Navarre to the French crown. Jeanne was born in the palace of the royal court at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France at five o'clock in the afternoon on 16 November 1528, the daughter of Henry II, King of Navarre, by his wife Marguerite of Angoulême, her mother, the daughter of Louise of Savoy and Charles, Count of Angoulême, was the sister of Francis I of France and had been married to Charles IV, Duke of Alençon. She was a writer of some talent. Jeanne's birth was announced the following 7 January when King Francis gave his permission for the addition of a new master in all cities where there were incorporated guilds "in honour of the birth of Jeanne de Navarre, the king's niece". Since the age of two, as was the will of her uncle King Francis who took over her education, Jeanne was raised in the Château de Plessis-lèz-Tours in the Loire Valley, thus living apart from her parents, she received an excellent education under the tutelage of humanist Nicolas Bourbon.
Described as a "frivolous and high-spirited princess", she at an early age, displayed a tendency to be both stubborn and unyielding. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, offered to have her married to his son and heir, Philip, to settle the status of the Kingdom of Navarre. In 1541, when Jeanne was 12, Francis I, for political reasons, forced her to marry William "the Rich", Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, the brother of Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England. Despite having been whipped into obedience, she continued to protest and had to be carried bodily to the altar by the Constable of France, Anne de Montmorency. A description of Jeanne's appearance at her wedding revealed that she was sumptuously attired, wearing a golden crown, a silver and gold skirt encrusted with precious stones, a crimson satin cloak richly trimmed with ermine. Before her wedding, Jeanne signed two documents which she had officers of her household sign, declaring: "I, Jeanne de Navarre, persisting in the protestations I have made, do hereby again affirm and protest by these present, that the marriage which it is desired to contract between the duke of Cleves and myself, is against my will.
She remained at the royal court. After the death of Francis in 1547 and the accession of Henry II to the French throne, Jeanne married Antoine de Bourbon, "first prince of the blood", at Moulins in the Bourbonnais on 20 October 1548; the marriage was intended to consolidate territorial possessions in the south of France. Jeanne's marriage to Antoine was described by author Mark Strage as having been a "romantic match". A contemporary of Jeanne said of her that she had "no pleasure or occupation except in talking about or writing to, she does it in company and in private... the waters cannot quench the flame of her love". Antoine was a notorious philanderer. In 1554, he fathered an illegitimate son, Charles, by Louise de La Béraudière de l'Isle Rouhet, a court beauty known as "La belle Rouet". Antoine's frequent absences left Jeanne in Béarn to rule alone, in complete charge of a household which she managed with a firm and resolute hand; the couple had five children, of whom only two, king of France and king of Navarre, Catherine of Navarre, Duchess of Lorraine, lived to adulthood.
On 25 May 1555, Henry II of Navarre died, at which time Jeanne and her husband became joint rulers of Navarre. On accession to the throne, she inherited a conflict over Navarre and an independent territorial hold on Lower Navarre and the principality of Béarn, as well as other dependencies suzerain to the Crown of France. On 18 August 1555 at Pau and Antoine were crowned in a joint ceremony according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church; the previous month, a coronation coin commemorating the new reign had been minted. It was inscribed in Latin with the following words: Antonius et Johanna Dei gratia reges Navarrae Domini Bearni. Jeanne was influenced by her mother, who died in 1549, with leanings toward religious reform, humanist thinking, individual liberty; this legacy was influential in her decision to convert to Calvinism. In the first year of her reign, Qu
Maria II of Portugal
Dona Maria II "the Educator" or "the Good Mother", reigned as Queen of Portugal from 1826 to 1828, again from 1834 to 1853. Born in Rio de Janeiro, she was the first child of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil and his first wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the House of Braganza. One of the two surviving children born when Pedro was still heir apparent to Portugal, she inherited Portuguese titles and was placed in the line of succession to the former Portuguese throne after becoming a member of the Brazilian Imperial Family, from which she was excluded in 1835 after her definitive ascension to the Portuguese throne. Maria II was born Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga at 4 April 1819 in the Palace of São Cristóvão in Rio de Janeiro, Kingdom of Brazil, she was the eldest daughter of the Prince Pedro de Alcântara, future King of Portugal as Pedro IV and first Emperor of Brazil as Pedro I, his first wife Maria Leopoldina, herself a daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.
She was titled Princess of Beira upon her birth. Born in Brazil, Maria was the only European monarch to have been born outside of Europe, though she was still born in Portuguese territory; the death of Maria's grandfather, King João VI, in March 1826 sparked a succession crisis in Portugal. The king had a male heir, but Pedro had proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822 with himself as Emperor; the late king had a younger son, but he was exiled to Austria after leading a number of revolutions against his father and his liberal regime. Before his death, the king had nominated his favourite daughter, Isabel Maria, to serve as regent until "the legitimate heir returned to the kingdom" — but he had failed to specify which of his sons was the legitimate heir: Pedro, the liberal Emperor of Brazil, or Miguel, the absolutist exiled prince. Most people considered Pedro to be the legitimate heir, but Brazil did not want him to unite Portugal and Brazil's thrones again. Aware that his brother's supporters were ready to bring Miguel back and put him on the throne, Pedro decided for a more consensual option: he would renounce his claim to the Portuguese throne in favour of his daughter Maria, that she was to marry her uncle Miguel, who would accept the liberal constitution and act as a regent until his niece reached majority.
Miguel pretended to accept, but upon his arrival in Portugal he deposed Maria and proclaimed himself king, abrogating the liberal constitution in the process. During his reign of terror, Maria traveled to many European courts, including her maternal grandfather's in Vienna, as well as London and Paris. Maria's first reign was interrupted by the absolutist uprising led by her uncle, fiancé and regent Miguel, who proclaimed himself King of Portugal on 23 June 1828. Began the Liberal Wars that lasted until 1834, the year in which Maria was restored to the throne and Miguel exiled to Germany; the Marquis of Barbacena, arriving in Gibraltar with the princess on 3 September 1828, was informed by an emissary of what was happening in Portugal. He had the foresight to understand that Miguel had come from Vienna determined to put himself at the head of the absolutist movement, advised by Prince Klemens von Metternich, directing European politics, so it was dangerous for the young Queen to go to Vienna.
Taking responsibility, he changed the direction of the journey, departed for London, where he arrived on 7 October. English policy was not conducive to its purpose; the Duke of Wellington's office sponsored Miguel, so the asylum the Marquis had sought was not safe. Maria II was received in court with the honors due to her high hierarchy, but the British prevented their subjects there emigres to go to reinforce the garrison of the island Terceira. Miguel's coup d'état had not gone unrevealed. On 16 May 1828, the garrison of Porto revolted, in Lagos an infantry battalion; the revolts were stifled. Saldanha and others, who had come to take charge of the movement in Porto, re-embarked on Belfast ship, which had brought them. At the head of a small liberal expedition, the Marquis of Saldanha attempted to disembark in Terceira, but was not allowed to take the English cruise, whose vigilance he could not avoid for some time after the Count of Vila Flor of Terceira, was able to disembark. In time, because in August 1829 appeared in front of the island a huge Miguelist squad that sent to soil a body of disembarkation.
There was the Battle of August 11 in the village of Praia, where the miguelists were defeated. When the emigrants in England received the news of the victory, they felt great enthusiasm, they soon lost hope of knowing that the young queen was returning to the Brazilian Empire to her father. In fact, the situation of Maria II in the English court, next to the ministry in the power, became embarrassing and humiliating; the Queen left London to meet Amélie of Leuchtenberg. They left together on 30 August 1829 for Rio de Janeiro, arriving on 16 October; the constitutional cause was thought to have been lost. The dispersed emigres were divided into rival factions. Only Terceira Island recognized the constitutional principles, there appeared miguelists guerillas. France was ready to recognize Miguel's government when the revolution of July broke out in Paris in 1830, which encouraged the Portuguese liberals. In 7 April 1831, Pedro I abdicated the im
A queen regnant is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, as opposed to a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead. An empress regnant is a female monarch. A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, whereas a queen consort shares her husband's rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband; the husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wife's title or sovereignty. However, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in both classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king. A queen mother is a queen dowager, the mother of a reigning sovereign. In Ancient Africa, Ancient Persia and Pacific cultures, in some European countries, female monarchs have been given the title king or its equivalent, such as pharaoh, when gender is irrelevant to the office, or else have used the masculine form of the word in languages that have grammatical gender as a way to classify nouns.
The Byzantine Empress Irene sometimes called herself basileus,'emperor', rather than basilissa,'empress' and Jadwiga of Poland was crowned as Rex Poloniae, King of Poland. Among the Davidic Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judah, there is mentioned a single queen regnant, though the Hebrew Bible regards her negatively as a usurper; the much Hasmonean Queen Salome Alexandra was popular. Accession of a queen regnant occurs as a nation's order of succession permits. Methods of succession to queendoms, tribal chiefships, such include nomination and ultimogeniture; the scope of succession may be patrilineal, or both. The right of succession may be limited to men only or to women only; the most typical succession in European monarchies from the Late Middle Ages until the late 20th century was male-preference primogeniture: the order of succession ranked the sons of the monarch in order of their birth, followed by the daughters. Many realms forbade succession by women or through a female line in accordance with the Salic law, some still do.
No queen regnant ruled France, for example. Only one woman, Maria Theresa, ruled Austria; as noted in the list below of widely-known ruling queens, many reigned in European monarchies. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark and the UK amended their laws of succession to absolute primogeniture. In some cases, the change does not take effect during the lifetimes of people in the line of succession at the time the law was passed. In 2011, the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms agreed to remove the rule of male-preference primogeniture. Once the necessary legislation was passed, this means that had Prince William had a daughter first, a younger son would not become heir apparent. In 2015, Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in world history. In 2016, she became the longest serving head of state and longest reigning monarch. In China, Wu Zetian became the Chinese empress regnant and established the Zhou Dynasty after dismissing her sons.
The Empress Wu used the title huangdi and in many European sources, is referred to as a female emperor rather than an empress regnant. A few decades earlier in Korea, Queen Seondeok of Silla and Jindeok of Silla developed the term yeowang to refer to themselves, using the title instead of wangbi, translated as "queen consort" and refers to the wife of a king or emperor. Although the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan is barred to women, this has not always been the case. Again, the Japanese language uses the term josei tennō for the position which would be "empress regnant" in English, with kōgō being the term reserved for an empress consort; the Japanese succession debate became a significant political issue during the early 2000s, as no male children had been born to the Imperial House of Japan since 1965. Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi pledged to present parliament with a bill to allow women to ascend the Imperial Throne, but he withdrew this after the birth of Prince Hisahito in 2006 Queens regnant portal Monarch List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government Order of succession Queen consort Rani Regent Salic law Sultana Women in government Monter, William.
The Rise of Female Kings in Europe, 1300-1800. Yale University Press. P. 271. ISBN 9780300173277.. Media related to Queens regnant at Wikimedia Commons
Aimery of Cyprus
Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus, reigning from 1196 to his death. He reigned as King of Jerusalem from his marriage to Isabella I in 1197 to his death, he was the younger son of Hugh VIII of a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, he went to the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, his marriage to Eschiva of Ibelin strengthened his position in the kingdom. His younger brother, married Sibylla, the sister of and heir to Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Baldwin made Aimery Constable of Jerusalem around 1180, he was one of the commanders of the Christian army in the Battle of Hattin, which ended with decisive defeat at the hands of the army of Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, on 4 July 1187. Aimery supported his brother, Guy after Guy had lost his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem according to most barons of the realm, because of the death of Sibylla and their two daughters.
The new king of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne, arrested him for a short period. After his release, he retired to Jaffa, the fief of his elder brother, Geoffrey of Lusignan, who had left the Holy Land. After Guy died in May 1194, his vassals in Cyprus elected Aimery as their lord, he accepted the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI. With the emperor's authorization, Aimery was crowned King of Cyprus in September 1197, he soon married Henry of Isabella I of Jerusalem. He and his wife were crowned king and queen of Jerusalem in January 1198, he signed a truce with Al-Adil I, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, which secured the Christian possession of the coastline from Acre to Antioch. His rule was a period of stability in both of his realms. Aimery was born before 1155, he was the fifth son of his wife, Burgundia of Rancon. His family had been noted for generations of crusaders in their native Poitou, his great-grandfather, Hugh VI of Lusignan, died in the Battle of Ramla in 1102. Aimery's father came to the Holy Land and died in a Muslim prison in the 1160s.
Earlier scholarship erroneously referred to him as Amalric, but documentary evidence shows he was called Aimericus, a distinct name. Runciman and other modern historians erroneously refer to him as Amalric II of Jerusalem, because they confused his name with that of Amalric "I" of Jerusalem. Aimery joined a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, according to Robert of Torigni's chronicle, but Henry crushed the rebellion. Aimery left for the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he was held in captivity in Damascus. A popular tradition held, the king of Jerusalem, ransomed him personally. Ernoul claimed, Agnes of Courtenay. Aimery married Eschiva of Ibelin, a daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, one of the most powerful noblemen in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amalric of Jerusalem, who died on 11 July 1174, was succeeded by his thirteen-year-old son by Agnes of Courtenay, Baldwin IV who suffered from leprosy. Aimery became the member of the royal court with his father-in-law's support.
Aimery's youngest brother, married Baldwin IV's widowed sister, Sibylla, in April 1180. Ernoul wrote, it was Aimery who had spoken of his brother to her and her mother, Agnes of Courtenay, describing him as a handsome and charming young man. Aimery, continued Ernoul, hurried back to Poitou and persuaded Guy to come to the kingdom, although Sibylla had promised herself to Aimery's father-in-law. Another source, William of Tyre, did not mention that Aimery had played any role in the marriage of his brother and the king's sister. Many elements of Ernoul's report were most invented. Aimery was first mentioned as Constable of Jerusalem on 24 February 1182. According to Steven Runciman and Malcolm Barber, he had been granted the office shortly after his predecessor, Humphrey II of Toron, died in April 1179. Historian Bernard Hamilton writes, Aimery's appointment was the consequence of the growing influence of his brother and he was appointed only around 1181. Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, launched a campaign against the Kingdom of Jerusalem on 29 September 1183.
Aimery defeated the sultan's troops in a minor skirmish with the support of his father-in-law and his brother, Balian of Ibelin. After the victory, the crusaders' main army could advance as far as a spring near Saladin's camp, forcing him to retreat nine days later. During the campaign, it turned out that most barons of the realm were unwilling to cooperate with Aimery's brother, the designated heir to Baldwin IV; the ailing king dismissed Guy and made his five-year-old nephew, Baldwin V, his co-ruler on 20 November 1183. In early 1185, Baldwin IV decreed that the pope, the Holy Roman Emperor and the kings of France and England were to be approached to choose between his sister and their half-sister, Isabella, if Baldwin V died before reaching the age of majority; the leper king died in April or May 1185, his nephew in late summer of 1186. Ignoring Baldwin IV's decree, Sybilla was proclaimed queen by her supporters and she crowned her husband, king. Aimery was not l
Joan II of Navarre
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre, Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king; the Navarrese noblemen did homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, a member of the French royal family. Philip V was succeeded by his brother, Charles IV, in both France and Navarre in 1322, but most Navarrese lords refused to swear loyalty to him.
After Charles IV died in 1328, the Navarrese expelled the French governor and declared Joan the rightful monarch of Navarre. In France, Philip of Valois was crowned king, he concluded an agreement with Joan and her husband, who renounced Joan's claims to Champagne and Brie in exchange for three counties, while Philip acknowledged their right to Navarre. Joan and her husband were together crowned in Pamplona Cathedral on 5 March 1329; the royal couple cooperated during their joint reign, but Philip of Évreux was more active. However, they lived in their French domains. Navarre was administered by governors during their absence. Joan was the daughter of Louis, King of Navarre, his wife, Margaret of Burgundy. Joan was born in 1312, her father was heir of Philip IV of France, by his wife Joan I of Navarre. Joan's mother and Margaret's sisters-in-law and Blanche of Burgundy, were arrested, together with two knights, the brothers Philip and Walter of Aunay, in 1314. After being tortured, one of the brothers confessed that they had been the lovers of Margaret and Blanche for three years.
The Aunay brothers were soon executed, Margaret and Blanche were imprisoned. Before long, Margaret died in her prison in Château Gaillard. After the scandal, the legitimacy of Joan became dubious, because her mother was accused of having had an extramarital affair around the year of Joan's birth. Philip IV died on 26 November 1314, Joan's father became Louis X of France. Louis stated, he died on 5 June 1316. His second wife, Clementia of Hungary, was pregnant. According to an agreement of the most powerful French lords, completed on 16 July, if Clementia gave birth to a son, the son was to be crowned King of France, but if a daughter was born and Joan could only inherit the Kingdom of Navarre and the counties of Champage and Brie, it was agreed that Joan was to be sent to her mother's relatives in Burgundy, but her marriage could not be decided without the consent of the members of the French royal family. Clementia gave birth to a son, John the Posthumous, on 13 November 1316, but he died five days later.
Joan's maternal uncle, Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy, in Paris, entered into negotiations with Philip IV's second son, Philip the Tall, to protect Joan's interests, but Philip did not respond to Odo's demands. Instead, he made arrangements for his own coronation, which took place in Reims on 9 January 1317; the Estates-General of 1317, an assembly of the French lords strengthened Philip's position on 2 February, declaring that a woman could not inherit the French crown. The Navarrese noblemen sent a delegation to Paris to swear fidelity to Philip. Philip refused to give Champagne and Brie to Joan. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, sent letters to the leading French lords, protesting against his coronation, but Philip V mounted the throne without real opposition. Letters were written to the lords of Champagne in Joan's name, urging them to refrain from paying homage to Philip and to protect Joan's rights to Champagne. In another letter, Odo IV argued that the disinheritance of Joan by Philip V went against "the divine right of law, by custom, in the usage kept in similar cases in empires, fiefs, in baronies in such a length of time that there is no memory of the contrary".
However, Philip V's uncle, Charles of Valois, defeated Joan's supporters. Philip and Odo concluded an agreement on 27 March 1318. Philip gave his eldest daughter in marriage to Odo, recognizing them as heirs to the counties of Burgundy and Artois, while Joan was to marry her cousin, Philip of Évreux, with a dowry of 15,000 livres tournois in rents and the right to inherit Champagne and Brie if Philip V died leaving no sons; the men agreed that Joan was to renounce her claims to France and Navarre at the age of twelve. There is no evidence that the renunciation took place; the marriage of Joan and Philip was celebrated on 18 June 1318. Thereafter Joan lived with Marie of Brabant. Although they lived near each other and Joan were not raised together due to age difference; the marriage was only consummated in 1324. Philip V died without leaving a surviving son in early 1322, his brother, Charles the Fair, Philip IV's last surviving son, succeeded him in both France and Navarre. Most Navarrese refused to do homage to Charles, he did not confirm the Fueros of Navarre.
Philip III of Navarre
Philip III, called the Noble or the Wise, was King of Navarre from 1328 until his death. He was born a minor member of the French royal family but gained prominence when the Capetian main line went extinct, as he and his wife and cousin, Joan II of Navarre, acquired the Iberian kingdom and a number of French fiefs. Philip and Joan's accession signified the end of the 44-year-long personal union between France and Navarre. Although neither succeeded in claiming the crown of France and Joan were powerful vassals of the Valois king Philip VI as well as successful co-monarchs in Navarre. Despite initial reluctance by the Navarrese to accept him as king alongside Joan, Philip in particular is credited with improving the kingdom's legislature; the couple resided chiefly in their French lands but spent enough time in Navarre to earn them substantial popularity in the country. Philip supported his Valois cousin with his troops and as army leader during the onset of the Hundred Years' War. During his joint reign with his wife, the focus of Navarre again shifted to its Iberian neighbours.
This may have influenced Philip to join the crusade against the Kingdom of Granada, during which he fell ill wounded, died. Philip was the son of Louis, Count of Évreux, a younger son of King Philip III of France by his second wife, Marie of Brabant. Philip's father was the founder of the Capetian House of Évreux, while his mother, belonged to another Capetian branch, the House of Artois; the House of Évreux was involved in negotiations about the succession to King Louis X, the nephew of Philip's father. At the time of his sudden death in 1316, Louis X's only child was a four-year-old daughter, which presented a problem because no Capetian king had died sonless. Joan's maternal family, the Capetian House of Burgundy, claimed the crown on her behalf, but her paternal uncle succeeded instead as King Philip V. Philip V displaced her in succession to the Kingdom of Navarre, which had only come into Capetian hands through Queen Joan I, his and Louis X's mother. Philip V was pressured to renegotiate his niece's status.
An agreement reached on 27 March 1318 included territorial concessions which placated Joan's maternal family, as well as her betrothal to Philip of Évreux, a dowry and a promise of succession to the counties of Champagne and Brie if King Philip V were to die sonless. Philip's marriage to Joan was celebrated on 18 June, after which she lived with his grandmother, Queen Marie. A dispensation had been sought. Although they lived near each other and Joan were not raised together due to age difference, their union was not consummated until 1324. Philip inherited the fief of Évreux in Normandy upon his father's death in 1319; as Philip was a minor, his uncle Charles of Valois was appointed his guardian. King Philip V died sonless in 1322 and all his patrimony passed to his and King Louis X's younger brother, King Charles IV, who married Philip's sister Joan in 1325; when Charles too died leaving no sons on 1 February 1328, the direct male line of the House of Capet came to an end. With the bypassing first of Philip of Évreux's wife and of Philip V's daughters, the principle of agnatic succession had become established.
Philip of Évreux and his namesake cousin, Philip of Valois, were the strongest Capetian candidates for the throne, while King Edward III of England claimed it as Charles IV's sororal nephew. The 15-year-old Edward's claim was dismissed, the 35-year-old Philip of Valois was preferred over the 23-year-old Philip of Évreux on account of his more mature age; the House of Valois thus ascended the throne in the person of Philip VI, who took Philip of Évreux on his council. The Valois had no right to the Kingdom of Navarre or the French counties of Champagne and Brie, however, as they were not descended from Joan I. Philip VI could not allow the Évreux couple to take possession of Champagne and Brie since that, coupled with their holdings in Normandy, would give them a powerbase encircling his capital at Paris. Philip and Joan thus ceded these lands to the Valois in return for the counties of Angoulême, Mortain and Longueville; the death of Charles, Joan's younger uncle, in February 1328 paved the way for Philip's accession to the throne of Navarre, as there was no longer anyone who could challenge the couple's right to it.
The Navarrese, uncomfortable with repressive governors appointed from Paris, were pleased to see the personal union with France come to an end. They held a general assembly in March and again in May, recognizing Philip's wife as their sovereign; the ascension of the House of Évreux under Philip III is thus important as beginning of a new era in the history of Navarre, now once again free from the government of France. While Joan's hereditary right to the crown was universally recognized by the Estates, Philip's future role was not clear. Joan alone was invited to the capital Pamplona to assume government on her uncle's death. Philip was ignored but determined to assert his own authority; the spouses negotiated with the Estates separately in July, on 22 August Pope John XXII issued a bull confirming Philip as King of Navarre. Of particular concern was Philip's role in the forthcoming coronation; the Estates insisted that Joan alone, as "the natural lady", would be raised on the shield and crowned and that "no one can be raised up if they are not the natural lord".
They agreed to allow Philip to take part in the government. Philip was dissatisfied, believing that his position would be undermined if he were not crowned alongside Joan; the couple's legate