SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g. Michigan tax law. In federations like the United States, areas of jurisdiction apply to local and federal levels. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado. The legal term refers only to the granted authority, not to a geographical area. Jurisdiction draws its substance from international law, conflict of laws, constitutional law, the powers of the executive and legislative branches of government to allocate resources to best serve the needs of society. International laws and treaties provide agreements which nations agree to be bound to; such agreements are not always maintained. The exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction by three principles outlined in the UN charter; these are equality of territorial sovereignty and non-intervention. This raises the question of when can many states enforce jurisdiction.

The Lotus case establishes two key rules to the enforcement of jurisdiction. The case outlines that jurisdiction is territorial and that a state may not exercise its jurisdiction in the territory of another state unless there is a rule that permits this. On that same note, states enjoy a wide measure of discretion to prescribe jurisdiction over persons and acts within their own territory unless there was a rule that prohibits this. Supranational organizations provide mechanisms whereby disputes between nations may be resolved through arbitration or mediation; when a country is recognized as de jure, it is an acknowledgment by the other de jure nations that the country has sovereignty and the right to exist. However, it is at the discretion of each nation whether to co-operate or participate. If a nation does agree to participate in activities of the supranational bodies and accept decisions, the nation is giving up its sovereign authority and thereby allocating power to these bodies. Insofar as these bodies or nominated individuals may resolve disputes through judicial or quasi-judicial means, or promote treaty obligations in the nature of laws, the power ceded to these bodies cumulatively represents its own jurisdiction.

But no matter how powerful each body may appear to be, the extent to which any of their judgments may be enforced, or proposed treaties and conventions may become, or remain, effective within the territorial boundaries of each nation is a political matter under the sovereign control each nation. The fact that international organizations and tribunals have been created raises the difficult question of how to co-ordinate their activities with those of national courts. If the two sets of bodies do not have concurrent jurisdiction but, as in the case of the International Criminal Court, the relationship is expressly based on the principle of complementarity, i.e. the international court is subsidiary or complementary to national courts, the difficulty is avoided. But if the jurisdiction claimed is concurrent, or as in the case of International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the international tribunal is to prevail over national courts, the problems are more difficult to resolve politically.

The idea of universal jurisdiction is fundamental to the operation of global organizations such as the United Nations and the International Court of Justice, which jointly assert the benefit of maintaining legal entities with jurisdiction over a wide range of matters of significance to nations. Under Article 34 Statute of the ICJ only nations may be parties in cases before the Court and, under Article 36, the jurisdiction comprises all cases which the parties refer to it and all matters specially provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in treaties and conventions in force. But, to invoke the jurisdiction in any given case, all the parties have to accept the prospective judgment as binding; this reduces the risk of wasting the Court's time. Despite the safeguards built into the constitutions of most of these organizations and tribunals, the concept of universal jurisdiction is controversial among those nations which prefer unilateral to multilateral solutions through the use of executive or military authority, sometimes described as realpolitik-based diplomacy.

Within other international contexts, there are intergovernmental organizations such as the World Trade Organization that have and economically significant dispute resolution functions but, again though their jurisdiction may be invoked to hear the cases, the power to enforce their decisions is at the will of the nations affected, save that the WTO is permitted to allow retaliatory action by successful nations against those nations found to be in breach of international trade law. At a regional level, groups of nations can create political and legal bodies with sometimes complicated patchworks of overlapping provisions detailing the jurisdictional relationships between the member states and providing for some degree of harmonization between their national legislative and judicial functions, for example, the European Union and African Union both have the potential to become federated nations although the political barriers to such unification in the face of entrenched nationalism will be very

Neil Pointon

Neil Geoffrey Pointon is an English former professional footballer. Pointon was a left-back, best remembered for playing for Everton, Manchester City and Oldham Athletic. Pointon began his career at lower-league Scunthorpe United and established himself as a regular first-teamer and a consistent and reliable performer in defence. In the autumn of 1985, after four years at Scunthorpe, Pointon was bought by the reigning English league champions Everton for £75,000, manager Howard Kendall hoping Pointon could provide squad cover for regular left-back Pat Van Den Hauwe. Pointon ended up featuring in the majority of Everton's games during the remainder of the 1985/86 season as a result of Van den Hauwe moving to central defence to cover for the injured centre-back Derek Mountfield. Everton finished that season as runners-up to local rivals Liverpool in both the league championship and the FA Cup, though Pointon played no part in the FA Cup final due to Mountfield's return to fitness. In the following season, Pointon struggled with injury and had to compete with not only Van den Hauwe but veteran defender Paul Power, signed from Manchester City, for the left-back spot at Goodison.

Pointon did however play enough games that year to qualify for a Championship winners medal as Everton won their second title in three years. Over the next couple of years Pointon was a consistent performer in the Everton defence when called up to the first team, although Kendall's departure to Athletic Bilbao and the break-up of the Championship winning side saw a decline in the club's fortunes. During 1989/90, Pointon became Everton's first choice left-back following the sale of Van den Hauwe to Tottenham Hotspur. In the summer of 1990, Pointon left Everton to rejoin Howard Kendall at his new club Manchester City, with Kendall receiving Pointon and £300,000 in exchange for Andy Hinchcliffe. Pointon spent two years at City as a first-team regular before moving on to Joe Royle's Oldham Athletic a top-flight club. Pointon spent three years at Boundary Park, during which time the club were relegated from the Premiership. On 10 April 1994, Pointon put the Latics ahead in the 106th minute of the FA Cup semi final at Wembley Stadium against Manchester United, only for Mark Hughes to equalise one minute before the final whistle and force a replay.

The replay at Maine Road saw. United went on to win both the Premier League title and FA Cup, while Pointon and his colleagues had the double misery of an FA Cup exit and Premier League relegation in less than a month. During this period Neil made the tabloid papers following a brief liaison with television personality Dani Behr. Pointon joined Scottish Premier Division outfit Heart of Midlothian in 1995, enjoying a number of seasons up in Scotland before playing for Walsall and Hednesford Town, he scored for Hednesford against former club Oldham Athletic in an FA Cup tie at Keys Park, soon before being handed the reins as Manager at Hednesford. He lasted as little as 9 games in his first Managerial post before being sacked after not winning a single game; the club were relegated. After a spell as player-manager of Retford United he joined Mossley as a player and helped Mossley to win the Worthington Challenge Trophy at Gigg Lane, Bury with a 2–1 win over Clitheroe in his last professional game.

He works for Higher Lane Primary School as a sports coach. Neil Pointon at Soccerbase

Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam

Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam known as DHBVN is an Indian state owned Power Distribution Utility company. It is owned by Government of Haryana and its headquarter is located in Hisar city of Haryana, India, it has two Operation Zones namely Delhi. Each zone is headed by Chief Engineer. Both Zones have Operation circles namely Hisar, Fatehabad and Bhiwani in Hisar Zone and Gurugram-I, Gurgugram-II, Palwal and Narnaul in Delhi Zone; each circle is headed by Superintending Engineer. In 1998, Haryana State Electricity Board was divided into two parts, Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited and Haryana Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Limited. On 1 July 1999, HVPNL was further divided into two parts, Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam and Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. DHBVN is responsible for distribution of power in South Haryana whether UHBVN is responsible for distribution of power in North Haryana. DHBVN is responsible for distribution of power in the following 12 districts of Haryana: Bhiwani Faridabad Fatehabad Gurgaon Hisar Mewat Mohindergarh Rewari Sirsa Jind Charkhi Dadri Palwal Divisions of Haryana Official website of DHBVN e-payment link of DHBVN Official portal of Government of Haryana HarSamadhan Haryana Govt's online Complaints portal