"Hello, World!" program
A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays the message "Hello, World!". Because it is simple in most programming languages, it is used to illustrate the basic syntax of a programming language and is the first program that those learning to code write. A "Hello, World!" program is traditionally used to introduce novice programmers to a programming language. "Hello, world!" is traditionally used in a sanity test to make sure that a computer language is installed, that the operator understands how to use it. While small test programs have existed since the development of programmable computers, the tradition of using the phrase "Hello, world!" as a test message was influenced by an example program in the seminal book The C Programming Language. The example program from that book prints "hello, world", was inherited from a 1974 Bell Laboratories internal memorandum by Brian Kernighan, Programming in C: A Tutorial: The C version was preceded by Kernighan's own 1972 A Tutorial Introduction to the Language B, where the first known version of the program is found in an example used to illustrate external variables: main a'hell'.
The phrase is divided into multiple variables because in B, a character constant is limited to four ASCII characters. The previous example in the tutorial printed hi! on the terminal, the phrase hello, world! was introduced as a longer greeting that required several character constants for its expression. The Jargon File claims that hello, world originated instead with BCPL; this claim is supported by the archived notes of the inventors of BCPL, Prof. Brian Kernighan at Princeton and Martin Richards at Cambridge. For modern languages, world programs vary in sophistication. For example, the Go programming language introduced a multilingual program, Sun demonstrated a Java hello, world based on scalable vector graphics, the XL programming language features a spinning Earth hello, world using 3D graphics. While some languages such as Perl, Python or Ruby may need only a single statement to print "hello, world", a low-level assembly language may require dozens of commands. Mark Guzdial and Elliot Soloway have suggested that the "hello, world" test message may be outdated now that graphics and sound can be manipulated as as text.
There are many variations on the punctuation and casing of the phrase. Variations include the presence or absence of the comma and exclamation mark, the capitalization of the'H', both the'H' and the'W', or neither; some languages are forced to implement different forms, such as "HELLO WORLD", on systems that support only capital letters, while many "hello, world" programs in esoteric languages print out a modified string. For example, the first non-trivial Malbolge program printed "HEllO WORld", this having been determined to be good enough. There are variations in spirit, as well. Functional programming languages, like Lisp, ML and Haskell, tend to substitute a factorial program for Hello, World, as functional programming emphasizes recursive techniques, whereas the original examples emphasize I/O, which violates the spirit of pure functional programming by producing side effects. Languages otherwise capable of Hello, World may be used in embedded systems, where text output is either difficult or nonexistent.
For devices such as microcontrollers, field-programmable gate arrays, CPLD's, "Hello, World" may thus be substituted with a blinking LED, which demonstrates timing and interaction between components. The Debian and Ubuntu Linux distributions provide the "hello, world" program through the apt packaging system. While of itself useless, it serves as a sanity check and a simple example to newcomers of how to install a package, it is more useful for developers, however, as it provides an example of how to create a.deb package, either traditionally or using debhelper, the version of hello used, GNU Hello, serves as an example of how to write a GNU program. Time to "Hello World" is a metric for how long it takes to get a "Hello World" program running from scratch in a given programming language. "99 Bottles of Beer" as used in computer science Foobar Java Pet Store Just another Perl hacker List of basic computer science topics Trabb Pardo-Knuth algorithm List of hello world programs at Wikibooks Rösler, Wolfram.
"Hello World Collection". Helloworldcollection.de. "Hello world/Text". Rosetta Code. "Unsung Heroes of IT / Part One: Brian Kernighan". TheUnsungHeroesOfIT.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved 2014-08-23
An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms in that messages are longer than one line of text, are at least temporarily archived. Depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes publicly visible. Forums have a specific set of jargon associated with them. A discussion forum is hierarchical or tree-like in structure: a forum can contain a number of subforums, each of which may have several topics. Within a forum's topic, each new discussion started is called a thread and can be replied to by as many people as so wish. Depending on the forum's settings, users can be anonymous or have to register with the forum and subsequently log in to post messages. On most forums, users do not have to log in to read existing messages; the modern forum originated from bulletin boards, so-called computer conferencing systems, are a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system.
From a technological standpoint, forums or boards are web applications managing user-generated content. Early Internet forums could be described as a web version of an electronic mailing list or newsgroup. Developments emulated the different newsgroups or individual lists, providing more than one forum, dedicated to a particular topic. Internet forums are prevalent in several developed countries. Japan posts the most with over two million per day on 2channel. China has many millions of posts on forums such as Tianya Club; some of the first forum systems were the Planet-Forum system, developed at the beginning of the 1970-s, the EIES system, first operational in 1976, the KOM system, first operational in 1977. One of the first forum sites is Delphi Forums, once called Delphi; the service, with four million members, dates to 1983. Forums perform a function similar to that of dial-up bulletin board systems and Usenet networks that were first created starting in the late 1970s. Early web-based forums date back as far as 1994, with the WIT project from W3 Consortium and starting from this time, many alternatives were created.
A sense of virtual community develops around forums that have regular users. Technology, video games, music, fashion and politics are popular areas for forum themes, but there are forums for a huge number of topics. Internet slang and image macros popular across the Internet are abundant and used in Internet forums. Forum software packages are available on the Internet and are written in a variety of programming languages, such as PHP, Java and ASP; the configuration and records of posts can be stored in a database. Each package offers different features, from the most basic, providing text-only postings, to more advanced packages, offering multimedia support and formatting code. Many packages can be integrated into an existing website to allow visitors to post comments on articles. Several other web applications, such as blog software incorporate forum features. WordPress comments at the bottom of a blog post allow for a single-threaded discussion of any given blog post. Slashcode, on the other hand, is far more complicated, allowing threaded discussions and incorporating a robust moderation and meta-moderation system as well as many of the profile features available to forum users.
Some stand alone threads on forums have reached fame and notability such as the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread on MovieCodec.com's forums, described as the "web's top hangout for lonely folk" by Wired Magazine. A forum consists of a tree-like directory structure; the top end is "Categories". A forum can be divided into categories for the relevant discussions. Under the categories are sub-forums and these sub-forums can further have more sub-forums; the topics come under the lowest level of sub-forums and these are the places under which members can start their discussions or posts. Logically forums are organized into a finite set of generic topics driven and updated by a group known as members, governed by a group known as moderators, it can have a graph structure. All message boards will use one of three possible display formats; each of the three basic message board display formats: Non-Threaded/Semi-Threaded/Fully Threaded, has its own advantages and disadvantages. If messages are not related to one another at all, a Non-Threaded format is best.
If a user has a message topic and multiple replies to that message topic, a semi-threaded format is best. If a user has a message topic and replies to that message topic and responds to replies a threaded format is best. Internally, Western-style forums logged in members into user groups. Privileges and rights are given based on these groups. A user of the forum can automatically be promoted to a more privileged user group based on criteria set by the administrator. A person viewing a closed thread as a member will see a box saying he does not have the right to submit messages there, but a moderator will see the same box granting him access to more than just posting messages. An unregistered user of the site is known as a guest or visitor. Guests are granted access to all functions that do not require database alterations or breach privacy. A guest can view the contents of the forum or use such features as read marking, but an administrator will disallow visi
For the early-20th-century automotive engineer, see Jesse G. Vincent. Jesse Vincent is a computer programmer and entrepreneur, best known for his work with the Perl programming language, he created the ticket-tracking system Request Tracker and founded the company Best Practical Solutions. He created RT while working at Wesleyan University in 1994. Graduating from the university in 1998, Vincent founded Best Practical in 2001, he co-authored RT Essentials in 2005. He is the founder and former project lead of K-9 Mail Email app for Android. In 2012 he became interested in the ergonomics of keyboards, having designed and built himself several designs. In 2014 he co-founded Keyboardio. From 2005 to 2008 he served as the project manager for Perl 6, he was the keeper of the pumpkin for Perl versions 5.12 and 5.14. He changed the release cycle for Perl 5 from an irregular release done at the leisure of the project manager to a regular timeboxed release with development releases monthly and stable releases annually.
RT Essentials Personal Web site Interview about Perl 6 contributions to CPAN
Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language; the source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task on a computer for solving a given problem; the process of programming thus requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, formal logic. Tasks accompanying and related to programming include: testing, source code maintenance, implementation of build systems, management of derived artifacts, such as the machine code of computer programs.
These might be considered part of the programming process, but the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices. Reverse engineering is the opposite process. A hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem, but it can mean a security hacker in common language. Programmable devices have existed at least as far back as 1206 AD, when the automata of Al-Jazari were programmable, via pegs and cams, to play various rhythms and drum patterns. However, the first computer program is dated to 1843, when mathematician Ada Lovelace published an algorithm to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, intended to be carried out by Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Women would continue to dominate the field of computer programming until the mid 1960s. In the 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form.
A control panel added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way. However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced in 1949, both programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory. Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the instruction set of the particular machine in binary notation. Assembly languages were soon developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, with abbreviations for each operation code and meaningful names for specifying addresses. However, because an assembly language is little more than a different notation for a machine language, any two machines with different instruction sets have different assembly languages. Kathleen Booth created one of the first Assembly languages in 1950 for various computers at Birkbeck College. High-level languages allow the programmer to write programs in terms that are syntactically richer, more capable of abstracting the code, making it targetable to varying machine instruction sets via compilation declarations and heuristics.
The first compiler for a programming language was developed by Grace Hopper. When Hopper went to work on UNIVAC in 1949, she brought the idea of using compilers with her. Compilers harness the power of computers to make programming easier by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula using infix notation for example. FORTRAN, the first used high-level language to have a functional implementation which permitted the abstraction of reusable blocks of code, came out in 1957. In 1951 Frances E. Holberton developed the first sort-merge generator which ran on the UNIVAC I. Another woman working at UNIVAC, Adele Mildred Koss, developed a program, a precursor to report generators. In USSR, Kateryna Yushchenko developed the Address programming language for the MESM in 1955; the idea for the creation of COBOL started in 1959 when Mary K. Hawes, who worked for Burroughs Corporation, set up a meeting to discuss creating a common business language, she invited six people, including Grace Hopper.
Hopper was involved in developing COBOL as a business language and creating "self-documenting" programming. Hopper's contribution to COBOL was based on her programming language, called FLOW-MATIC. In 1961, Jean E. Sammet developed FORMAC and published Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals which went on to be a standard work on programming languages. Programs were still entered using punched cards or paper tape. See computer programming in the punch card era. By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Frances Holberton created a code to allow keyboard inputs while she worked at UNIVAC. Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more than with punched cards. Sister Mary Kenneth Keller worked on developing the programming language, BASIC when she was a graduate student at Dartmouth in the 1960s. One of the first object-oriented programming languages, was developed by seven programmers, including Adele Goldberg, in the 1970s.
In 1985, Radia Perlman developed the Spannin
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server.
Usenet is culturally significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam". Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online and the general public received access to the Internet, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name Usenet emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science.
Or, talk.origins and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
This is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned; the groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents; some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which carries software, music and images, accounts for over 99 percent of article data. There are Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed. See news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
Newsgroups are accessed with newsreaders: applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgro
Damian Conway is a computer scientist, a member of the Perl community and the author of several books. Until 2010, he was an adjunct associate professor in the Faculty of Information Technology at Monash University. Damian completed his PhD at Monash, he is best known for his contributions to CPAN and Perl 6 language design, his Perl programming training courses. He has won the Larry Wall Award three times for CPAN contributions, his involvement in Perl 6 language design has been as an explicator of Larry Wall. He is one of the authors of the Significantly Easier C++ Syntax. Object Oriented Perl: A Comprehensive Guide to Concepts and Programming Techniques Perl Best Practices Perl Hacks: Tips & Tools for Programming and Surviving Damian Conway's old homepage at Monash meta::cpan modules authored by Damian Conway Interview on CodingByNumbers podcast Interview on How I Vim
Audrey Tang is a Taiwanese free software programmer, described as one of the "ten greats of Taiwanese computing personalities." In August 2016, she was invited to join the Taiwan Executive Yuan as a minister without portfolio, making her the first transgender official in the top executive cabinet. Tang's parents are Lee Ya-ching. Tang showed an early interest in computers, beginning to learn Perl programming at age 12. Two years she dropped out of high school, unable to adapt to student life. By the year 2000, at the age of 19, Tang had held positions in software companies, worked in California's Silicon Valley as an entrepreneur. In late 2005, Tang began transitioning to female, including changing her English and Chinese names, citing a need to reconcile her outward appearance with her self-image; when her gender transition is brought up, Tang has said, ″I've been shutting reality off and lived exclusively on the net for many years, because my brain knows for sure that I am a woman, but the social expectations demand otherwise″The Television news channel of Republic of China, ETToday, reports that she has an IQ of 180.
She is a vocal proponent for individualist anarchism. Tang is better known for initiating and leading the Pugs project, a joint effort from the Haskell and Perl communities to implement the Perl 6 language. On CPAN, Tang initiated over 100 Perl projects between June 2001 and July 2006, including the popular Perl Archive Toolkit, a cross-platform packaging and deployment tool for Perl 5, she is responsible for setting up smoke test and digital signature systems for CPAN. In October 2005, she was a speaker at O'Reilly Media's European Open Source Convention in Amsterdam. Tang was named a minister without portfolio in the Lin Chuan cabinet in August 2016, she took office as the "Digital Minister" on October 1, was placed in charge of helping government agencies communicate policy goals and managing information published by the government, both via digital means. Tang was quoted saying, "My existence is not to become a minister for a certain group, nor to broadcast government propaganda. Instead, it is to become a "channel" to allow greater combinations of intelligence and strength to come together."
Tang was given this role in the Taiwanese cabinet, as a minister without portfolio, to bridge the gap between the older and younger generations. Tang is working on the development of free software, for the public to access, show that the new Taiwanese sharing economy, is in fact a working system. At age 35, Tang became the youngest minister without portfolio in Taiwanese history. Aker, Brian. 架設 Slash 社群網站. Taipei, Taiwan: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-986-7794-22-2. Huang, Echo. "Taiwan's new digital minister is a transgender software programmer who wants to make governement more open". Quartz. Audrey's Personal Blog. An interview with Autrijus by Debby Podcast interview with Audrey on Perlcast Perl Archive Toolkit Audrey's contributions on CPAN "SocialCalc" Can Taiwan Build An'Asian Silicon Valley'? "Asian Silicon Valley" in Taoyuan misses key points'Asian Silicon Valley' project will change Taiwan's future: premier Asian Silicon Valley = Taiwan’s DPP Collision with Student Movement