Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Central Connecticut State University
Central Connecticut State University is a public university in New Britain, Connecticut. Founded in 1849 as the State Normal School, CCSU is Connecticut's oldest publicly funded university. CCSU is made up of four schools: the Ammon College of Liberal Social Sciences; the university is attended by 11,822 students, 9,546 of whom are undergraduates, 2,276 of whom are graduate students. More than half of students live off campus and 96 percent are Connecticut residents; the school is part of the Connecticut State Colleges and Universities system, which oversees Eastern and Southern Connecticut State Universities. Together they have a student body of 32,722. In 1849 CCSU was founded as the State Normal School to train teachers, it is the oldest public university in Connecticut. It ran until 1867 when the school was temporarily closed due to opposition in the Connecticut General Assembly. Two years the Normal School resumed its services and continued to do so until the 1930s. During this time, the Connecticut General Assembly created the Teachers College of Connecticut and the first bachelor's degrees were granted.
In 1922, the campus moved to its current location on Stanley Street. In 1983 the school transitioned from a college to a regional university. Organizational governance changed in 2011 when the Connecticut Department of Higher Education was dissolved and replaced by the Office of Higher Education and the Connecticut Board of Regents for Higher Education; the most popular Bachelor's programs by student enrollment are Business and Marketing, Social Sciences and Psychology, Engineering, Communications and Biology. Bachelor's programs are offered in a variety of other fields such as computer information systems and the visual and performing arts; the school has a student-faculty ratio of 17:1 with 43 percent of its classes enrolling fewer than 20 students. In 2012, the 6-year graduation rate for first-time students increased to 52%. There are over 83 % of whom possess the terminal degree in their field. Another 501 part-time instructors teach at the university. Graduate programs are offered in all of the academic schools.
These include programs in accountancy, literature, international studies, engineering technology, information technology. A number of doctoral degrees are offered. Facilities include 10 academic halls, the Student Center, the Burritt Library, numerous laboratories. Computer labs are available throughout campus, the largest of, located in Marcus White Hall. Dining facilities are located in the Student Center. Additional computers and laboratories are spread across all of the academic halls. Welte Hall, Maloney Hall, the Student Center function as large gathering areas for events, music performances, theater productions. Welte contains the main auditorium and Kaiser Hall houses the main gymnasium, houses an olympic-size pool. Fitness classes are available to students in Memorial Hall and fitness equipment is provided in four locations across campus through RECentral. Administrative offices, including Admissions, the Registrar, Financial Aid are located in Davidson Hall. New building projects have expanded liberal arts classroom space and made significant upgrades to all sports facilities.
Residence halls can accommodate up to 2,500 students in nine residence halls in two quads, which are split between the north and south ends of campus. A new eight-story residence hall opened for occupancy in the Fall of 2015; the $82 million dorm features "suite" style rooms, in addition to a 2,000 square foot fitness facility, a kitchen on each floor, a server kitchen and main lounge with a fireplace on the main floor. The Office of Residence Life is located on the first floor of the new facility. During the past several years, the new $37-million Social Sciences Hall, 4,300-square-foot Bichum Engineering Laboratory, 12,500-square-foot Campus Police Station opened. In 2011, the first floor of the Elihu Burritt Library was renovated to create a new common area with seating, couches and food vendors. Arute Field and its adjacent practice and baseball fields underwent extensive construction and renovation from 2010 through the present, including new football, soccer and practice field turf. New football and soccer stadium seating was added, as well as construction on the Balf–Savin baseball field.
The university's athletic teams are known as the Blue Devils. Their mascot was named Victor E, but was changed to Kizer in 2011 after unveiling a new logo. Central Connecticut State participates in NCAA at the Division I level as a member of the Northeast Conference; the university fields 18 varsity sports, eight men's sports: baseball, cross country, golf, soccer, as well as indoor and outdoor track & field. CCSU's commencement speakers are successful alumni such as Congressman John B. Larson, CitiFinancial CEO Michael Knapp, CCSU professor Kristine Larsen; the most recent four governors of Connecticut have spoken at CCSU commencement exercises. Since 1983, twenty-three speakers have been featured as part of the Vance Distinguished Lecture Series; these have included well-known journalists such as Anderson Cooper, Dan Rather, Bob Woodward
Church of the Province of West Africa
The Church of the Province of West Africa is a province of the Anglican Communion, covering 17 dioceses in eight countries of West Africa in Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Ghana is the country with most dioceses, now numbering 11. Missionary work began in Ghana in 1752; the Church of the Province of West Africa was established in 1951 by the bishops of five West African dioceses with the consent of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1977 they were joined by the Diocese of Liberia. In February 1979, the new Church of Nigeria was inaugurated as a separate province. In 1981 Sierra Leone was divided into the Diocese of Freetown and the new missionary Diocese of Bo and four new Ghanaian dioceses of Cape Coast, Koforidua and Sunyani/Tamale were formed. In 1985 the Gambia and Guinea diocese was partitioned into English-speaking Gambia and French-speaking Guinea; the Diocese of Asante Mampong a suffragan see to Kumasi, was inaugurated in November 2014. The final total of 17 represents 6 in the other seven nations.
For this reason actions are in hand to move towards making Ghana a separate province. The country has the status of an "internal province", the archbishop of, the Primate of the whole Province of West Africa. Today, the church has to survive in areas of civil unrest. List of archbishops1951–1955 Leslie Gordon Vining 1955–1961 James Lawrence Cecil Horstead 1961–1969 Cecil John Patterson 1969–1981 Moses Nathanael Christopher Omobiala Scott 1981–1982 Ishmael Mills Le-Maire 1982–1989 George Daniel Browne 1993–2003 Robert Garshong Allotey Okine 2003–2012 Justice Ofei Akrofi 2012–2014 Solomon Tilewa Johnson 2014–2019 Daniel Sarfo 2019-incumbent Jonathan B. B. Hart Today, there are over one million Anglicans out of an estimated population of 35 million in the countries that form the province; the polity of the Church of the Province of West Africa is episcopal church governance, the same as other Anglican churches. Geographical parishes are organized into dioceses, since 2012 the dioceses have been grouped into internal provinces.
There are 2 internal provinces consisting of 17 dioceses. Internal Province of West AfricaAnglican Diocese of Bo – Emmanuel Tucker Anglican Diocese of Cameroon – Dibo Thomas-Babyngton Elango Anglican Diocese of Freetown – Thomas Arnold Ikunika Wilson Anglican Diocese of Gambia – James Allen Yaw Odico Anglican Diocese of Guinea – Jacques Boston Episcopal Diocese of Liberia – Jonathan Bau-Bau Bonaparte Hart Internal Province of GhanaAnglican Diocese of Accra - Daniel Torto Anglican Diocese of Asante Mampong - Cyril Kobina Ben-Smith Anglican Diocese of Cape Coast – Victor Atta Baffoe Anglican Diocese of Ho – Matthias Mededues-Badohu Anglican Diocese of Koforidua – Francis Quashie Anglican Diocese of Kumasi – Daniel Sarfo Anglican Diocese of Sekondi – John K. Otoo Anglican Diocese of Sunyani – Festus Yeboah Asuamah Anglican Diocese of Tamale – Jacob Kofi Ayeebo Anglican Diocese of Wiawso – Abraham Kobina Ackah Anglican Diocese of Dunkwa-on-Offin – Edmund Dawson Ahmoah The Church of the Province of West Africa embraces three orders of ministry: deacon and bishop.
A local variant of the Book of Common Prayer is used, as well as the Church of England Alternative Service Book, used in the Diocese of Tamale on account of its more accessible use of modern English. The center of the Church of the Province of West Africa's teaching is the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ; the basic teachings of the church, or catechism, includes: Jesus Christ is human and God. He was resurrected from the dead. Jesus provides the way of eternal life for those; the Old and New Testaments of the Bible were written by people "under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit". The Apocrypha are additional books that are used in Christian worship, but not for the formation of doctrine; the two great and necessary sacraments are Holy Baptism and Holy Eucharist Other sacramental rites are confirmation, marriage, reconciliation of a penitent, unction. Belief in heaven and Jesus's return in glory; the threefold sources of authority in Anglicanism are scripture and reason. These three sources critique each other in a dynamic way.
This balance of scripture and reason is traced to the work of Richard Hooker, a sixteenth-century apologist. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine and things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, checked by reason. At its 20th Provincial Synod in 2000, the Province approved in principal the ordination of women to the priesthood. There is a variety of practice from diocese to diocese, with some remaining closed to the ordination of women as priests, others welcoming the practice; the province does not permit the ordination of women to the episcopate. Like many other Anglican churches, the Church of the Province of West Africa is a member of the ecumenical World Council of Churches; the Church of the Province of West Africa was one of the first Anglican provi
University of Ghana
The University of Ghana is the oldest and largest of the thirteen Ghanaian public universities. It was founded in 1948, in the British colony of the Gold Coast, as the University College of the Gold Coast, was an affiliate college of the University of London, which supervised its academic programmes and awarded degrees, it gained full university status in 1961, now has nearly 40,000 students. The original emphasis was on the liberal arts, social sciences, basic science and medicine. However, as part of a national educational reform program, the university's curriculum was expanded to provide more technology-based and vocational courses as well as postgraduate training; the university is based at Legon, about 12 kilometres northeast of the centre of Accra. Its medical school is in Korle Bu, with a teaching hospital and secondary campus in the city of Accra, it has a graduate school of nuclear and Allied Sciences at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, making it one of the few universities on the Africa continent offering programs in nuclear physics and nuclear engineering.
The formation of the West African Commission of the Asquith Commission on Higher Education in the Colonies under the chairmanship of Rt. Hon. Walter Elliot was the birth of this notable institution in 1948; the commission recommended the setting up of university colleges in association with the University of London, thus the University College of the Gold Coast was founded by Ordinance on 11 August 1948 for the purpose of providing for and promoting university education and research. This was made possible by the rejection of the first recommendation which stated that only one university college was feasible for the whole of British West Africa, which would be located in Nigeria by the people of Gold Coast led principally by Dr. J. B. Danquah; the library is located on the main campus of the University. There are five schools, one research institute under this college. School of Medicine and Dentistry School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences School of Nursing Located on the Legon campus though its students receive practical training at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital.
School of Pharmacy School of Public Health Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research Centre for Tropical, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Starting from the 2014/2015 academic year, the University of Ghana adopted the collegiate system and thus categorized all schools and departments under four colleges, which are: College of Basic and Applied Sciences College of Humanities College of Education College of Health Sciences There are six faculties outside the above colleges. Faculty of Arts British Faculty of Social Studies Faculty of Science Faculty of Law The Faculty of Law was first established as a department of the Faculty of Social Studies in the 1958/59 academic year and became a full-fledged faculty in the 1960/61 academic year. From the 2012/2013 academic year, the university will admit fresh S. H. S students into the LLB first-degree program but will retain the post-first degree program, thus the university will have two entry means to the Faculty of Law. Faculty of Engineering Sciences The university has these facilities in the various regions where it runs a variety of programs, including degree courses.
Awudome College has residential facilities that enable short courses over weekends and other duration to be run there. Accra Workers' College, Accra Awudome Residential Workers' College, Tsito Bolgatanga Workers' College, Bolgatanga Cape Coast Workers' College, Cape Coast Ho Workers' College, Ho Koforidua Workers' College, Koforidua Kumasi Workers' College, Kumasi Takoradi Workers' College, Sekondi-Takoradi Tamale Workers' College, Tamale Tema Workers' College, Tema Sunyani Workers' College, Sunyani Wa Workers' College, Wa The Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018 ranks the University of Ghana at the 800-1000th place globally and 11th in Africa. Other rankings place the university as the best in Ghana. School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences Center of Excellence for Global Environmental Change Research. Center for Social Policy Analysis Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Legon Center for International Affairs and Diplomacy Center for Migration International Center for African Music and Dance Center for Tropical Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Center for Biotechnology Research Center for African Wetlands Language Center West African Center for Crop Improvement West African Center for Cell Biology and Infectious Pathogens The United Nations University for Natural Resources in Africa Center for Gender Studies and Advocacy Regional Training Center for Archivists Ecological laboratory Legon Botanical Gardens The Ghana Herbarium Center for African Foods Center for West African foods Center for International foods Center for Ghana foods African Regional Center for training in postgraduate insect science Institute of African Studies Kade Agricultural Research Station, or Kade Agricultural Research Centre, is an agricultural research center located at Kade, in the Eastern Region of Ghana is part of the University of Ghana Centers of Research and Learning.
It is one of the three agricultural research centers of Ghana's university. The center at Kade was established in 1957, it covers an area of 99.3 hectares and is concerned with research into production of forest zone crops such as citrus, cocoyam, oil palm and rubber, with a special interest in agronomy of perennial crop plants. Commonwealth Hall Legon Hall Mensah Sarbah Hall Volta Hall Akuafo Hall Jubilee HallThe university has eight newly created halls of resi
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i