Anthony David Weiner is an American former Democratic congressman who represented New York's 9th congressional district from January 1999 until June 2011. He won seven terms as a Democrat. Weiner resigned from Congress in June 2011 after an incident in which a sexually suggestive photo that he sent to a woman via Twitter was captured and publicized. On May 19, 2017, Weiner pled guilty to another, unrelated sexting charge of transferring obscene material to a minor, was sentenced to 21 months in prison, ordered to pay a $10,000 fine, was required to permanently register as a sex offender. Weiner began serving his federal prison sentence in November 2017. A New York City native, Weiner attended public schools and graduated from SUNY Plattsburgh in 1985 with a B. A. in political science. He was a member of the New York City Council from 1992 to 1998 and a congressional aide to U. S. Representative Chuck Schumer from 1985 to 1991, he was an unsuccessful candidate for Mayor of New York City in the 2005 and 2013 New York City mayoral elections.
Weiner was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the middle son of his Jewish parents, Mort Weiner, a lawyer, his wife, Frances, a public high school math teacher. The family lived for a time in the Park Slope neighborhood of Brooklyn. Weiner attended elementary school at P. S. 39 The Henry Bristow School. His older brother Seth was 39 years old when he was killed by a hit-and-run driver in 2000, his younger brother, Jason, is a co-owner of several New York restaurants. Weiner took the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test, an examination used to determine admission to all but one of New York City's specialized high schools, was admitted to Brooklyn Technical High School, from which he graduated in 1981, he attended the State University of New York at Plattsburgh, spent his junior year as an exchange student at the College of William & Mary, where he was friends with future comic and political commentator Jon Stewart. Stewart acknowledged the friendship when he poked fun at him during the sexting scandal in 2011.
Weiner's interests turned towards politics. After he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science in 1985, Weiner joined the staff of then–United States Representative and current Senator Charles Schumer, he worked in Schumer's Washington, D. C. office for three years transferred to the district office in Brooklyn in 1988, when Schumer encouraged him to become involved in local politics. After working for Schumer for six years, Weiner got his first chance at political office in 1991 when the New York City Council was expanded from 35 to 51 seats. Weiner was considered a long-shot because he faced strong competition in the Democratic primary elections from two other candidates who had better local name recognition and funding. Weiner narrowly won the primary. Controversy ensued in the last weeks of the campaign after Weiner's campaign anonymously spread leaflets around the district that had alleged ties between Cohen and the so-called "Jackson-Dinkins agenda". Weiner's win in the November general election was considered a formality because he had no opposition in the Democratic district.
He was 27 years old. Over the next seven years on the City Council, Weiner initiated programs to address quality of life concerns, he started a program to put at-risk and troubled teens to work cleaning up graffiti, he backed development plans that helped revive the historic Sheepshead Bay area. In 1998, Weiner ran for Congress from New York's 9th congressional district, the seat held by his mentor, Chuck Schumer, running for the U. S. Senate. Weiner won the Democratic primary election, tantamount to election in the Democratic district that included parts of southern Brooklyn and south and central Queens. Weiner received a 100% rating from the NARAL Pro-Choice America in 2003 and a 0% rating from National Right to Life Committee 2006, which indicated a strong pro-choice voting record, he was critical of the 2009 Stupak-Pitts Amendment to the Affordable Care Act, which prohibits the use of taxpayer funds for abortions, calling it "unnecessary and divisive" and saying it would prevent health insurers from offering abortion coverage regardless of whether an individual uses federal funds to purchase an insurance plan.
In April 2008, Weiner created the bi-partisan Congressional Middle Class Caucus. He received an "A" on the Drum Major Institute's 2005 Congressional Scorecard on middle-class issues. In June 2008, Weiner sponsored a bill to increase the number of O-visas available to foreign fashion models, arguing that it would help boost the fashion industry in New York City, he criticized UN diplomats for failing to pay parking tickets in New York City, claiming foreign nations owed $18,000,000 to the city. During the health care reform debates of 2009, Weiner advocated for a bill called the United States National Health Care Act, which would have expanded Medicare to all Americans, regardless of age, he remarked that while 4% of Medicare funds go to overhead, private insurers put 30% of their customer's money into profits and overhead instead of into health care. In late July 2009, he secured a full House floor vote for single payer health care in exch
Brian C. Bosma is an American politician and lawyer, the current Speaker of the Indiana House of Representatives. A member of the Republican Party, Bosma has served in the Indiana House since 1986, he replaced Gordon Harper. He was elected in the 50th district, but was redistricted to the 88th district in 1992; the 88th district encompasses northeast portions of Hancock and Hamilton County. Upon Republicans regaining a majority in the Indiana House in 2004, he was elected to his first of four nonconsecutive terms to the speakership, he served his first term as speaker until 2006, when Democrats gained control of the House, has since served as speaker after Republicans obtained a super majority in the House in the 2010 elections. Outside of state politics, Bosma is in an attorney in private practice, working as a partner with Kroger, Gardis & Regas and is the founding director of Bosma Industries for the Blind, an Indianapolis-based private non-profit which serves as Indiana's largest employer of blind individuals and those with severe visual impairments.
Brian Bosma was born in Indiana to parents Margaret and Charles Bosma. His mother was a kindergarten teacher, while his father, a United States Army officer in World War II and businessman, served in the Indiana State Senate from 1962 to 1980, his grandfather, who immigrated from the Netherlands with his eleven brothers and sisters, was a dairy operator and founded Bosma Dairy Barn, where Brian worked growing up. Bosma graduated from Beech Grove High School, where he played on the school's basketball team, subsequently attended Purdue University. At Purdue, Bosma received a bachelor of science in engineering in 1981 and was a member of Beta Sigma Psi fraternity, he went on to study at Indiana University's Robert H. McKinney School of Law, where graduated with his Juris Doctor in 1984 and was admitted to the Indiana State Bar Association and became a member of the American Bar Association that year. Bosma resides in Indiana with his wife Cheryl. Together, they have two children. Bosma is a Protestant and attends Grace Community Church in Noblesville, where he serves on the church's governing board.
He is a discussion leader with the Bible Study Fellowship. After passing the Indiana Bar, Bosma began working as an associate attorney with Bingham Summers Welsh and Spilman, he worked at the law firm from 1984 to 1985 upon becoming a legislative adviser in the Indiana Department of Education, a position he held from 1985 to 1986, where he served as the legislative liaison to Indiana Superintendent of Public Instruction H. Dean Evans. After leaving the state education department, Bosma reentered private practice and joined as a partner at Indianapolis-based Kroger and Regas, LLP in 1986. Bosma has since continued to work as a partner at Kroger and Regas outside of his work in the Indiana House's legislative sessions, where he practices Governmental law, Environmental law, Construction law and Real Estate law and is the chairman of the firms' environmental practice group; the facility of Bosma Industries was a public institution created by the Indiana Legislature in 1915 and was known as the Board of Industrial Aid for the Blind, having been operated in part by Indiana's Vocational Rehabilitation Services.
During his time as a legislator, Bosma's father, who advocated for the rights of the blind and disabled, was honored by the state via an executive order by then-Governor Robert D. Orr in renaming the board'Bosma Industries for the Blind'. A few years after the renaming to Bosma Industries, members of the Indiana Legislature, becoming concerned with the cost and effectiveness of the program, had removed all state funding for the facility; this move by the state led Bosma and others to arrange the process of privatizing Bosma Industries. In 1988, Bosma became its founding director under private leadership, while maintaining over $1 million in contracts with the state. Bosma Industries works to create employment opportunities for individuals with severe visual impairments and its business model has been described as "part 5013 foundation that does the rehab and training, part business, that packs and ships vast quantities of latex gloves, packages dry food, provides business services, contracts for other production needs, competing on the open market."
Having over 200 employees, including over 85 of which being blind and visually impaired, Bosma Industries operates off of a $42.5 million annual budget. Bosma Industries serves as the largest employer in Indiana of individuals with visual disabilities. Representative Brian Bosma was first elected in 1986 to represent House District 88, which today encompasses the northeast portion of Marion County, a portion of southern Hamilton County and the western part of Hancock County, he replaced Gordon Harper. He served as the Republican Minority Floor Leader from 1994 to 1999. Bosma was selected to serve as the Republican Minority Leader from 2000 to 2004 and again from 2006 to 2010. In 2004, when House Republicans assumed a 52-48 majority, Bosma was elected Speaker of the House by his peers. After serving as Republican Leader following the 2006 and 2008 elections, Bosma was again elected Speaker of the House when Republicans won a 60-seat majority in 2010 and a 69-seat super-majority in 2012; as Speaker of the 114th General Assembly, Representative Bosma and the House Republicans worked to revitalize Indiana's economy, passed a balanced budget, adopted sweepi
Sean R. Eberhart is a Republican member of the Indiana House of Representatives, representing the 57th District since 2007, he served on the Shelby County Council from 1998 to 2006 and as its President from 2003 to 2006. He served on the County Council's 4th district. State Representative Sean Eberhart official Indiana State Legislature site Sean Eberhart for State Representative official campaign site Profile at Vote Smart
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Butler University is a private university in Indianapolis, United States. Founded in 1855 and named after founder Ovid Butler, the university has over 60 major academic fields of study in six colleges: Lacy School of Business, College of Communication, College of Education, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Jordan College of the Arts, it comprises a 295-acre campus located five miles from downtown Indianapolis. On January 15, 1850, the Indiana State legislature adopted Ovid Butler's proposed charter for a new Christian university in Indianapolis. After five years in development, Butler University opened on November 1, 1855, as North Western Christian University at 13th Street and College Avenue on Indianapolis' near north side at the eastern edge of the present Old Northside Historic District. Attorney and university founder Ovid Butler provided the property; the University's department of religion became a separate Christian Church seminary and "college of applied Christianity" in 1924.
In 1930, Butler merged with the Teacher's College of Indianapolis, founded by Eliza Blaker, creating the university's second college. The third college, the College of Business Administration, was established in 1937, the College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences was established in 1945, following a merger that absorbed the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy; the Jordan College of Fine Arts, the university's fifth college, was established in 1951, following a merger with the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music. Butler's School of Religion, established in 1924, became independent in 1958 and is known as the Christian Theological Seminary. Butler University was founded by members of the Christian Church, though it was never controlled by the church; the university charter called for "a non-sectarian institution free from the taint of slavery, offering instruction in every branch of liberal and professional education." The university was the first in Indiana and the third in the U. S. to admit both women.
Butler was the first university in the United States to endow a chair designated for a woman, the Demia Butler Chair. Catharine Merrill, the first person to hold the chair, became the second woman to be named a professor in an American university; the university established the first professorship in English literature and the first Department of English in the state of Indiana. The original location of the school was 13th Street and College Avenue on the near-northside of Indianapolis. In 1875, the university, renamed for Ovid Butler "in recognition of Ovid Butler's inspirational vision, determined leadership, financial support," moved to a 25-acre campus in Irvington, which at the time was an independent suburb of Indianapolis; the campus consisted of several buildings, including an observatory, most of which were demolished in 1939. The Bona Thompson Library at the intersection of Downey and University avenues, designed by architects Henry H. Dupont and Jesse T. Johnson, is the only remaining building, although several buildings that housed faculty still remain, including the Benton House.
Enrollment at Butler increased following the end of World War I, prompting the administration to examine the need for a larger campus. The new and current campus, designed in-part by noted architect George Sheridan, was formed on the site of Fairview Park, a former amusement park on the city's northwest side. Classes began on the campus in 1928; the first building on the Fairview campus was Arthur Jordan Memorial Hall, designed by Robert Frost Daggett and Thomas Hibben. The structure's Collegiate Gothic style of architecture used in the original William Tinsley-designed 13th Street and College Avenue building, set the tone for subsequent buildings erected on the campus over the next three decades. In 1928, the Butler Fieldhouse was completed after being designed by architect Fermor Spencer Cannon; the building remained the largest indoor sports facility in the state until the mid-1960s. The Religion Building and Sweeney Chapel were completed in 1942; these structures, designed by Burns and James, were remodeled into Robertson Hall in 1966.
The building now serves as the university's admissions offices. Following World War II, construction began on Atherton Union; this building includes an on-campus Starbucks. McGuire and Shook designed Ross Hall, a dormitory designed for men but is now coed, Schwitzer Hall, a women's dormitory. Art Lindbergh, with help from Daggett, designed the Holcomb Observatory and Planetarium, dedicated in 1955; this building houses Indiana's largest telescope. Acclaimed architect Minoru Yamasaki, who designed the World Trade Center, designed Irwin Library, which opened in 1963 and serves as the university's main library. In the early 1960s, Lilly Hall and Clowes Memorial Hall were constructed following the move of the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music to the campus. Clowes Hall, which opened in 1963, was co-designed by Indianapolis architect Evans Woollen III and John M. Johansen. Ten years following the construction of Clowes Hall and Irwin Library, the science complex of Gallahue Hall and the Holcomb Research Institute were built, completing the "U" shaped complex of academic buildings.
The Holcomb Building now houses the College of Business, Ruth Lilly Science Library, Information Technology. The Residential College, designed by James and Associates, was the university's
Indiana House of Representatives
The Indiana House of Representatives is the lower house of the Indiana General Assembly, the state legislature of the United States state of Indiana. The House is composed of 100 members representing an equal number of constituent districts. House members serve two-year terms without term limits. According to the 2010 census, each State House district contains an average of 64,838 people; the House convenes at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. In order to run for a seat for the Indiana House of Representatives one must be a citizen of the United States, has to be at least 21 years of age upon taking office, should reside in the state of Indiana for 2 years and in the district to represent for at least 1 year at the time of the election. Representatives serve terms of two years, there is no limit on how many terms a representative may serve. †Member was appointed to the seat. As of 25 July 2018; the Indiana House of Representatives held its first session in the first statehouse in the original state capital of Corydon and the first speaker of the body was Isaac Blackford.
Under the terms of the constitution of 1816, state representatives served one years terms, meaning elections were held annually. In 1851, the constitution was replaced by the current constitution and terms were lengthened to two years, but sessions were held biennially. A 1972 constitutional amendment allowed for a short legislative session to be held in odd numbered years. On November 6, 2012, the Republican Party in Indiana expanded their majority in the House of Representatives from 60 members in the 117th General Assembly to 69 members, a "quorum-proof" majority; the Republicans were able to take 69% of the seats, despite having only received 54% of the votes for the state's House of Representatives. Of the 3 newly elected members of the U. S. House elected to the 113th Congress from Indiana, two are former members of the Indiana House of Representatives. Congresswoman Jackie Walorski represented Indiana's 21st district from 2005 to 2011 and Congressman Luke Messer represented Indiana's 57th district from 2003 to 2007.
Congressman Marlin Stutzman was re-elected to a second term, he is a former member of the Indiana House of Representatives where he served Indiana's 52nd district from 2003 to 2009. Speaker of the Indiana State House of Representatives Indiana Senate Government of Indiana Politics of Indiana American Legislative Exchange Council members Indiana General Assembly Indiana House of Representatives at Ballotpedia State House of Indiana at Project Vote Smart Indiana House Democrats Indiana House Republicans 2015 Indiana Candidate Guide - Qualifications