Robert Campin, now identified with the Master of Flémalle, was the first great master of Flemish and Early Netherlandish painting. Campin's identity and the attribution of the paintings in both the "Campin" and "Master of Flémalle" groupings have been a matter of controversy for decades. Campin was successful during his lifetime, thus his activities are well documented, but he did not sign or date his works, none can be securely connected with him. A corpus of work attached to the unidentified "Master of Flémalle", so named in the 19th century after three religious panels said to have come from a monastery in Flémalle, they are each assumed to be wings of triptychs or polyptychs, are the Virgin and Child with a Firescreen now in London, a panel fragment with the Thief on the Cross in Frankfurt, the Brussels version of the Mérode Altarpiece. Campin was active by 1406 as a master painter in Tournai, in today's Belgium, became that city's leading painter for 30 years, he had attained citizenship by 1410, may have studied under Jan van Eyck.
His fame had spread enough by 1419 that he led a profitable workshop. He became involved in the revolt of the Brotherhoods in the early 1420s, yet he maintained his standing and workshop until his death in 1444. The early Campin panels shows the influence of the International Gothic artists the Limbourg brothers and Melchior Broederlam, but display a more realistic observation than any earlier artists, which he achieved through innovations in the use of oil paints, he was successful in his lifetime, the recipient of a number of civic commissions. Campin taught Jacques Daret, he was a contemporary of Jan van Eyck, they met in 1427. Campin's best known work is the Mérode Altarpiece of c 1425-28. Campin first appears as settled in Tournai from the archives of 1405–6, as a free master of the guild of goldsmiths and painters, there has been a lot of speculation about his origin and birthplace, unknown, although he is sometimes listed as having been born in Valenciennes. In 1408 he had purchased the house.
In 1410 he bought into the full citizenship. Records show a large number of commissions from individuals and guilds, as well as from ecclesiastical and civic authorities. Campin purchased city bonds and invested in mortgages. Between 1423 and 1429, the city government was dominated by the guilds. Campin was the deputy dean of the guild of goldsmiths and painters in 1423/24 and 1425. In 1427 he represented the guild on the city council. After restoration of the oligarchy of full citizens, the leaders of the guild regime, including Robert Campin, were brought to court. Campin was ordered to pay the fine. Campin was married to Ysabel de Stocquain; the couple was childless. He had an affair with Laurence Polette, for which he was prosecuted in 1432 and sentenced to banishment for a year. Margaret of Burgundy, wife of the Count of Holland and sister of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy intervened on his behalf, this was reduced to a fine. Short time after the verdict Campin’s apprentices Rogier van der Weyden and Jacques Daret were accepted as masters into the guild of painters.
However, the dated Werl Altarpiece shows. He died in his adopted city of Tournai in 1444. Although indebted to late 14th-century manuscript illumination aesthetics, Campin displayed greater powers of realistic observation than any other painter before him, he was one of the first to experiment with the use of oil-based colours, in lieu of egg-based tempera, to achieve the brilliance of color typical for this period. Campin used the new technique to convey strong, rounded characters by modelling light and shade in compositions of complex perspectives, it remains a matter of debate how far the complex symbolism, accepted as existing in the work of Van Eyck exists in the work of Campin. Art historians have long been keen to trace the beginnings of the Northern Renaissance - with far less evidence to go on than in Italy. For a long time it was thought that Jan van Eyck was the first painter to make full use of the innovations apparent in manuscript illumination in panel painting. By the end of the 19th century it became clear, that Van Eyck was the contemporary of an artist who painted a number of works, including the Mérode Altarpiece.
Dated to about 1428, the altarpiece is permeated with loving attention to details and realism. Three other panels in a similar manner, supposed to come from the so-called abbey of Flémalle, are now in Frankfurt, it was argued that these works belong to one "Master of Flémalle", whose identity at that time could not be established. In the 20th century, several scholars suggested that the Master of Flémalle may be Robert Campin, documented as a master painter in Tournai from 1406; the argument turns around a paper mentioning two pupils entering his studio in 1427 - Jacques Daret and Rogelet de la Pasture. The latter was Rogier van der Weyden. A well-documented altarpiece by Daret shows striking similarities with the works of Master of Flémalle, as do early works by Rogier. Therefore, it is
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis
Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia. It is located on the lowest slope of a small mountain of the Apennines; the city's origins are ancient. The hills above the town were occupied in the Bronze Age; as Ikuvium, it was an important town of the Umbri in pre-Roman times, made famous for the discovery there of the Iguvine Tablets in 1444, a set of bronze tablets that together constitute the largest surviving text in the Umbrian language. After the Roman conquest in the 2nd century BC — it kept its name as Iguvium — the city remained important, as attested by its Roman theatre, the second-largest surviving in the world. Gubbio became powerful in the beginning of the Middle Ages; the town sent 1000 knights to fight in the First Crusade under the lead of Girolamo Gabrielli, according to an undocumented local tradition, they were the first to penetrate into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre when the city was seized. The following centuries were quite turbulent, Gubbio was engaged in wars against the surrounding towns of Umbria.
One of these wars saw the miraculous intervention of its bishop, who secured Gubbio an overwhelming victory and a period of prosperity. In the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Gabrielli, such as the condottiero Cante dei Gabrielli da Gubbio, were of the Guelph faction, supportive of the papacy. In 1350 Giovanni Gabrielli, count of Borgovalle, a member of the most prominent noble family of Gubbio, seized communal power and became lord of Gubbio; however his rule was short, he was forced to hand over the town to Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, representing the Church. A few years Gabriello Gabrielli, bishop of Gubbio, proclaimed himself again lord of Gubbio. Betrayed by a group of noblemen which included many of his relatives, the bishop was forced to leave the town and seek refuge at his home castle at Cantiano. With the decline of the political prestige of the Gabrielli family, Gubbio was thereafter incorporated into the territories of the House of Montefeltro. Federico da Montefeltro rebuilt the ancient Palazzo Ducale, incorporating in it a studiolo veneered with intarsia like his studiolo at Urbino.
The maiolica industry at Gubbio reached its apogee in the first half of the 16th century, with metallic lustre glazes imitating gold and copper. Gubbio became part of the Papal States in 1631, when the family della Rovere, to whom the Duchy of Urbino had been granted, was extinguished. In 1860 Gubbio was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy along with the rest of the Papal States; the name of the Pamphili family, a great papal family, originated in Gubbio went to Rome under the pontificate of Pope Innocent VIII, is immortalized by Diego Velázquez and his portrait of Pope Innocent X. The town is located near the border with Marche; the municipality borders Cagli, Costacciaro, Fossato di Vico, Gualdo Tadino, Pietralunga, Scheggia e Pascelupo, Sigillo and Valfabbrica. The frazioni of the comune of Gubbio are the villages of: Belvedere, Branca, Camporeggiano, Casamorcia-Raggio, Colonnata, Ferratelle, Magrano, Monteleto, Nogna, Petroia, Ponte d'Assi, San Benedetto Vecchio, San Marco, San Martino in Colle, Santa Cristina, Semonte, Torre Calzolari and Villa Magna.
The historical centre of Gubbio has a decidedly medieval aspect: the town is austere in appearance because of the dark grey stone, narrow streets, Gothic architecture. Many houses in central Gubbio date to the 14th and 15th centuries, were the dwellings of wealthy merchants, they have a second door fronting on the street just a few inches from the main entrance. This secondary entrance is narrower, a foot or so above the actual street level; this type of door is called a porta dei morti because it was proposed that they were used to remove the bodies of any who might have died inside the house. This is certainly false, but there is no agreement as to the purpose of the secondary doors. A more theory is that the door was used by the owners to protect themselves when opening to unknown persons, leaving them in a dominating position. Among most visited buildings and sites in the city are: Roman Theater: This ancient open air theater built in the 1st century BC using square blocks of local limestone.
Traces of mosaic decoration have been found. The diameter of the cavea was 70 metres, could house up to 6,000 spectators. Roman Mausoleum: This Mausoleum is sometimes said to be of Gaius Pomponius Graecinus, but on no satisfactory grounds. Palazzo dei Consoli: Dating to the first half of the 14th century, this massive palace, is now a museum housing the Iguvine Tablets. Palazzo and Torre Gabrielli Duomo: This Cathedral was built in the late 12th century; the most striking feature is the rose-window in the façade with, at its sides, the symbols of the Evangelists: the eagle for John the Evangelist, the lion for Mark the Evangelist, the angel for Matthew the Apostle and the ox for Luke the Evangelist. The interior has latine cross plan with a single nave; the most precious art piece is the wooden Christ of Umbrian school. Palazzo Ducale: The Palace built from 1470 by Luciano Laurana or Francesco di Giorgio Martini for Federico da Montefeltro. Famous is the inner court, reminiscent of the Palazzo Ducale, Urbino.
San Francesco: This church from the second half of the 13th century is the sole re
Gerard David was an Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color. Only a bare outline of his life survives, he may have been the Meester gheraet van brugghe who became a master of the Antwerp guild in 1515. He was successful in his lifetime and ran two workshops, in Antwerp and Bruges. Like many painters of his period, his reputation diminished in the 17th century until he was rediscovered in the 19th century, he was born in Oudewater, now located in the province of Utrecht. His year of birth is approximated as c. 1460 on the basis that he looks to be around 50 years in the 1509 self-portrait found in his Virgin among the Virgins. He spent his mature career in Bruges. Upon the death of Hans Memling in 1494, David became Bruges' leading painter, he moved to Bruges in 1483 from Haarlem, where he had formed his early style under Albert van Oudewater, joined the Guild of Saint Luke at Bruges in 1484. He became dean of the guild in 1501, in 1496 married Cornelia Cnoop, daughter of the dean of the goldsmiths' guild.
David was one of the town's leading citizens. Ambrosius Benson served his apprenticeship with David, but they came into dispute around 1519 over a number of paintings and drawings Benson had collected from other artists; because of a large debt owed to him by Benson, David had refused to return the material. Benson pursued the matter and won, leading to David serving time in prison, he was buried in the Church of Our Lady at Bruges. David had been forgotten when in the early 1860s he was rescued from oblivion by William Henry James Weale, whose researches in the archives of Bruges brought to light the main facts of the painter's life and led to the reconstruction of David's artistic personality, beginning with the recognition of David's only documented work, the Virgin Among Virgins at Rouen. David's surviving work consists of religious scenes, they are characterised by an atmospheric and dream like serenity, achieved through soft and subtle colourisation, masterful handling of light and shadow.
He is innovative in his recasting of traditional themes and in his approach to landscape, only an emerging genre in northern European painting. His ability with landscape can be seen in the detailed foliage of his Triptych of the Baptism and the forest scene in the New York Nativity. Although many of the art historians of the early 20th century, including Erwin Panofsky and Max Jakob Friedländer saw him as a painter who did little but distill the style of others and painted in an archaic and unimaginative style; however today most view him as a master colourist, a painter who according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, worked in a "progressive enterprising, casting off his late medieval heritage and proceeding with a certain purity of vision in an age of transition."In his early work David followed Haarlem artists such as Dirk Bouts, Albert van Oudewater and Geertgen tot Sint Jans, though he had given evidence of superior power as a colourist. To this early period belong the St John of the Richard von Kaufmann collection in Berlin and the Salting's St Jerome.
In Bruges came directly under the influence of Memling, the master whom he followed most closely. It was from him that David acquired a solemnity of treatment, greater realism in the rendering of human form, an orderly arrangement of figures, he visited Antwerp in 1515 and was impressed with the work of Quentin Matsys, who had introduced a greater vitality and intimacy in the conception of sacred themes. The works for which David is best known are the altarpieces painted before his visit to Antwerp: the Marriage of St Catherine at the National Gallery, London. Only a few of his works have remained in Bruges: The Judgment of Cambyses, The Flaying of Sisamnes and the Baptism of Christ in the Groeningemuseum, the Transfiguration in the Church of Our Lady; the rest were scattered around the world, to this may be due the oblivion into which his name had fallen. In his best work he had only given newer variations of the art of his predecessors and contemporaries, his rank among the masters was renewed, when a number of his paintings were assembled at the seminal 1902 Gruuthusemuseum, Bruges exhibition of early Flemish painters.
He worked with the leading manuscript illuminators of the day, seems to have been brought in to paint specific important miniatures himself, among them a Virgin among the Virgins in the Morgan Library, a Virgin and Child on a Crescent Moon in the Rothschild Prayerbook, a portrait of the Emperor Maximilian in Vienna. Several of his drawings survive, elements from these appear in the works of other painters and illuminators for several decades after his death. At the time of David's death, the glory of Bruges and its painters was on the wane: Antwerp had become the leader in art as well as in political and commercial importance. Of David's pupils in Bruges, only Isenbrant, Albert Cornelis and Ambrosius Benson achieved importance. Among other Flemish painters, Joachim Patinir and Jan Mabuse were to some degree influenced by him. "The Virgin Among The Virgins". Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen
Simon Bening was a Flemish miniaturist regarded as the last major artist of the Netherlandish tradition. Bening, born either in Ghent or Antwerp, was trained by his father, illuminator Alexander Bening, in the family workshop in Ghent, he travelled between Ghent and Bruges and became a member of the guild of San John and Saint Luke in Bruges as an illuminator in 1508. He made his own name after moving to Bruges in about 1510. From 1517 to 1555 he is listed in the guild's annual accounts. Bening served as a dean of the calligraphers, booksellers and bookbinders in the Guild of Saint John and Saint Luke three separate times, he had six daughters. Two of them continued the family artistic tradition: Levina Teerlinc became a miniature painter of portrait miniatures, emigrated to England, Alexandrine Claeiszuene became a successful art dealer. Bening specialised in book of hours, but by his time these were produced only for royal or rich patrons, he created genealogical tables and portable altarpieces on parchment.
Many of his finest works are Labours of the Months for books of Hours which are small scale landscapes, at that time a nascent genre of painting. In other respects his style is little developed beyond that of the years before his birth, but his landscapes serve as a link between the 15th century illuminators and Peter Brueghel, his self-portrait and other portraits are early examples of the portrait miniature. He produced books for German rulers, like Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg, royalty like Emperor Charles V and Don Fernando, the Infante of Portugal. Robert de Clercq, abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Ter Duinen at Koksijde, near Bruges, commissioned a Benedictional from him sometime between 1519 and 1529. Bening portrayed the abbot in a colourful Crucifixion scene. Media related to Simon Bening at Wikimedia Commons Gerard David: Purity of Vision in an Age of Transition, exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Hennessy Book of Hours, c. 1530-1540 The Golf Book, c. 1540 Book of Hours, c.
1525, from the collection at Waddesdon Manor
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i