Juventas known as Iuventus or Juventus, was the ancient Roman goddess whose sphere of tutelage was youth and rejuvenation. She was the goddess of young men "new to wearing the toga" —that is, those who had just come of age. Several voluntary associations were formed for Juventas in the Italian municipalities, as attested by inscriptions. Juventas had a shrine within the cella of Minerva on the Capitoline that dates no earlier than 218 BC, at which time she was identified with the Greek Hebe. According to Dionysius and Livy, both she and the god Terminus are supposed to have "refused" the ceremony of reversal performed when Tarquin wished to rebuild the temple district on the Capitoline. Although other deities were relocated, these two were incorporated into the new structure. Dionysius records that the semi-legendary king Servius Tullius established a temple fund for Juventas, to which each family had to contribute; the view that she was a part of archaic Roman religion depends on these two aetiological legends, as she has no presence in the early history of Roman festivals.
On the advice of the Sibylline books, which were consulted amid anxieties surrounding the Second Punic War, Juventas was included in sacrifices in 218 BC relating to a lectisternium, a public banquet at which divine images were displayed as if the deities were participating. Like other deities whose cult was ordained by the Sibylline books, Juventas was venerated ritu graeco, according to "Greek" rite. At the lectisternium of 218 BC, a supplication was performed at the Temple of Hercules. In Greek myth, the divinized Hercules had Hebe as his wife; the cultivation of both deities at the time of the Second Punic War seems intended to reinvigorate men of fighting age: Juventas "was regarded as a powerful divine force rendering a vital gift of strength at a critical moment." This occasion is the first time the Genius Publicus is recorded. After the disastrous Battle of Lake Trasimene in April 217 BC, Juventas and the Genius Publicus were excluded for a time from divine honors, as they were not felt to have been efficacious.
Marcus Livius Salinator vowed a temple to her during the Battle of the Metaurus, when he faced Hasdrubal in 207 BC—an indication that Juventas was still felt to have potency. A procession in which Romans carried crucified dogs passed between the Temple of Juventas and that of Summanus. A late source dates the "punishment of the dogs" to August 3. On Imperial coins and Spes are associated with the reigning Caesar. A supplication to Juventas and Spes marked the anniversary of Augustus's coming of age. Juventas was among the many Virtutes to appear on the coinage of Antoninus Pius. "Juventas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Estadio Olímpico Atahualpa is a multi-purpose stadium in Quito, Ecuador. It is used for football matches and has a capacity of 35,724. Built in 1951, it sits at the intersection of the Avenida 6 de Diciembre and Avenida Naciones Unidas, two major streets in Ecuador's capital city. Football clubs Deportivo Quito, El Nacional and Universidad Católica use the facility for their home games, although other prominent teams in the city have used the stadium for home games in the past; the stadium is named after Inca prince Atahualpa. The stadium is located at an elevation of 2,782 metres. At this venue, the Ecuadorian national football team has beaten Brazil twice, Paraguay three times, Argentina twice, amongst others, securing their positions in Korea/Japan 2002, Germany 2006, Brazil 2014. During the qualifying for Germany 2006 and Brazil 2014, Ecuador qualified and remained undefeated in this stadium; this record was broken by Brazil in 2018 World Cup qualification, after Brazil demolished Ecuador 3–0 in the same ground.
Media related to Estadio Olímpico Atahualpa at Wikimedia Commons Concentración Deportiva de Pichincha's website
Sallie Foster Harshbarger was California State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Sallie Foster was born in Reno, Nevada, on February 23, 1874, the daughter of Asa Eastman Foster and Sophia Steele. Sallie Foster Harshbarger was active in fraternal work. In 1915 she was Regent of the Tamalpais Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in San Francisco and from 1920 to 1922, she was State Regent, she was member of the National Officers Club of the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1913 she was Worthy Matron of the Golden Gate No. 1 of the Order of the Eastern Star She was member of Daughters of Founders and Patriots of America and Colonial Dames of America Sallie Foster Harshbarger moved to California in 1898. She had two children, Asa Foster and Virginia La Forge, she lived at California. She died on April 17, 1958, was buried in Klamath Falls, Oregon
South Korea has traditional sports of its own, as well as sports from different cultures and countries. Taekwondo, a popular martial sport is claimed to have historical origins on the Korean peninsula with origins said to have been traced as far back as the 1st century BCE. However, such historical claims are difficult to empirically verify and separate from the influences of neighboring counties; the sport rose to prominence following the end of Japanese occupation with the end of WWII. Formalized rules were established in 1961 and in 1988 the sport became an Olympic event; the name "Taekwondo" means way of foot and fist, although the modern emphasis lies on the kicks. This may be a way to help legitimize the sport's connection to the traditional practice called Taekkyon, which originated in Korea during the Goguryeo period in the 4th century. Taekkyon uses feet as well as any part of the body; the motions are more curvilinear than in Taekwondo. Although both disciplines start with the sound "tae" in English, there is no relationship.
Although there is much controversy regarding the historical origins of many martial disciplines in South Korea, there is little question that, Koreanized or traditional in origin, Korean martial arts and sports have enjoyed considerable success. Styles such as Hapkido, Kuk Sool, Han Moo Do, Kumdo, Goog-sool, many others arose out of an independent Korea and have spread to countries around the world. Although they are not as popular as Taekwondo, they each uniquely represent the Korean martial spirit which dates back to antiquity. Unlike Japanese martial arts which use "-do" at a name's end, traditional Korean martial arts were called "Mu Sool" or "Mu Yea"; this could lead to some confusion since although the "do" in Taekwondo and Hapkido means "way", the historical meaning in Hwarangdo is different from the modern usage. When that martial art was invented in the 1960s, the name was borrowed from an ancient group consisting of the children of the gentry class for learning military tactics and fighting skills.
A 2019 poll showed that a plurality of 22.7% of South Korean sports fans identified football as their favorite sport, with baseball ranked 2nd at 20.6% of respondents. However, the polling did not indicate the extent. Baseball carries a strong following today; the Korea Professional Baseball league, a 10-team circuit, was established in 1982. Korea won the Gold Medal in baseball at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Korea is a regular participant in the World Baseball Classic, is considered one of the best baseball countries in international competition. Several Korean players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball; the domestic KBO League draws 8 million total fans per year, averaging 11,500 spectators per game, both highest among professional spectator sports in South Korea. There is an active baseball cheering culture in South Korea, with each team having its own method of cheering; the national football team became the first team in the Asian Football Confederation to reach the FIFA World Cup semi-finals in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan.
The Korea Republic national team has qualified for every World Cup since Mexico 1986, has broken out of the group stage twice: first in 2002, again in 2010, when it was defeated by eventual semi-finalist Uruguay in the Round of 16. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, South Korea won the Bronze Medal for football. South Korea, which competes internationally under the name of "Korea Republic", has qualified for ten FIFA World Cups including the most recent 2018 tournament, co-hosted the 2002 World Cup, finishing in 4th place. In 2010, the country's under-17 women's team won the 2010 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup in Trinidad and Tobago, claiming South Korea's first-ever title in worldwide FIFA competition; the K-League is the oldest domestic professional football league in Asia. A huge number of tiny amateur football gatherings are immensely popular. Another sport gaining popularity in South Korea is basketball. Professional basketball teams compete in the Korean Basketball League; the South Korea national basketball team won a record number of 25 medals at the Asian Basketball Championship.
The only Korean NBA player to date has been Ha Seung-Jin who played there in 2004-06. Basketball was the most popular sport in South Korea in the 1990s along with baseball, but its popularity has declined since the 2000s. Volleyball is popular in South Korea with the V-League being a professional league with men's and women's teams. South Korea has dominated archery at the international level having the most medals in the Olympics and international competitions. In recent years, South Korea has performed well in fencing winning many medals from recent Olympic Games and World Championships. Taekwondo is the most practiced martial in the country and popular outside of Korea. Golf is popular in South Korea, it is thought that this is linked to the fact that golf is considered a status symbol. Membership in golf clubs in South Korea is more expensive than in Japan or the US. South Korea is strong in women's golf; the best-known Korean golfer is Pak Se-ri. Ice skating is a popular sport which sees kids as young as 5 years old starting to compete and getting private coaching on a daily basis.
Cobalt acetate is the cobalt salt of acetic acid. It is found as the tetrahydrate Co2·4 H2O, abbreviated Co2·4 H2O, it is used as a catalyst. It may be formed by the reaction between cobalt oxide or hydroxide and acetic acid: CoO + 2 CH3CO2H + 3 H2O → Co2·4 H2OThe tetrahydrate has been shown by X-ray crystallography to adopt an octahedral structure, the central cobalt centre being coordinated by four water molecules and two acetate ligands. Cobalt acetate is a precursor to various oil drying agents, catalysts that allow paints and varnishes to harden. Cobalt acetate reacts with salenH2 to give salcomine, a precursor to a transition metal dioxygen complex: Co2 + salenH2 → Co + 2 HOAc Cobalt salts are poisonous
Ronald Oliver Bowlby known as Ronnie Bowlby, was a British Anglican bishop. He was the ninth Bishop of Newcastle from 1973 until 1980, he was translated to Southwark where he served until his retirement eleven years in 1991. He was "a leading advocate for the ordination of women". Bowlby was born on 16 August 1926, he was educated at Trinity College, Oxford. Bowlby's first post after ordination was as a curate at St Luke's, Sunderland 1952-1956, he was priest in charge of St Aidan's, Billingham and Vicar of Croydon before his ordination to the episcopate. Bowlby was nominated to Newcastle on 27 November 1972 and consecrated 6 January 1973, he was translated to Southwark on 14 December 1980. At the time of this move, he commented that his support of the ordination of women had not been popular in the North East, he retired in August 1991. He remained an honorary fellow at Oxford, his interest was in housing matters and he served as president of the National Federation of Housing Associations from 1984 to 1988 and of the Churches' National Housing Coalition from 1991 to 1994.