California mission clash of cultures
These aspects have received more research in recent decades. One of the assigned to early Spanish explorers of California was to report on the native peoples found there. The Portolá expedition of 1769-70 was the first European land exploration, several members of the expedition kept diaries that, among other things, described interactions with and observations about the natives. The most detailed of these diaries was by Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, a report written by Pedro Fages, one of the expeditions military officers, was influential. The priests offered beads, blankets, even food to the heathens to attract them to the prospects of mission life and convince them to move into the mission compound or a nearby village. Each Indian was expected to contribute a number of hours labor each week towards making adobes or roof tiles, working on construction crews, performing some type of handicraft. Women wove cloth, prepared meals, washed clothes, and were responsible for whatever domestic chores arose at the mission.
In 1811, the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico sent an interrogatorio to all missions in Alta California regarding the customs and condition of the Mission Indians. The replies, which varied greatly in length, and he sent the compilation to the viceregal government. The contemporary nature of the responses, no matter how incomplete or biased some may be, are nonetheless of considerable value to modern ethnologists, the Indians spent much of their days learning the Christian faith, and attended worship services several times a day. Mexican secularization act of 1833 ended the mission system, much of the prime agricultural lands had Californios with Spanish land grants who remained, who tended to utilize the Indian peoples as a form of enslaved labor. The Mexican land grant period formed many more ranchos in California from mission, the Indians were purportedly often granted leave to visit their villages and participated in many ceremonies and celebrations throughout the year at the urging of their benefactors.
Evidence has now brought to light that puts the Californian Native Americans experiences in a very different context. For instance, women were quartered separately from the men, regardless of marital status, in addition, Native American cultural and spiritual beliefs about marriage and sex were routinely disrespected or punished. Indians were often subjected to punishment and other discipline as determined by the padres. The pre-contact population of California had been reduced by 33 percent during Spanish and Mexican rule, under American rule, when most of the twenty-one missions were in ruins, the loss of indigenous lives was catastrophic—80 percent died, leaving just 30,000 in 1870. And nearly half of losses were due not to disease. Baja California experienced a reduction in native population resulting from Spanish colonization efforts there
San Gabriel River (California)
The San Gabriel River flows 43 miles through Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California in the United States. Measured to its highest headwaters in the Angeles National Forest, along the Prairie Fork in the San Gabriel Mountains, the river is 60.6 miles long, draining a watershed of 713 square miles. The San Gabriel River basin includes the southern slopes of the San Gabriel Mountains, the urbanized San Gabriel Valley. The river derives its name from the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel founded in 1771, today most of the San Gabriel River is channelized, with the section below Whittier Narrows Dam lined by concrete, and impounded in places by debris and flood control dams. The East and North Forks of the San Gabriel River, rising in the San Gabriel Mountains inside the Angeles National Forest, form the source headwaters of the river. The East Fork, sometimes considered part of the main stem, the East Fork officially begins at the confluence of the Prairie Fork and a smaller tributary, Vincent Gulch.
The Fish Fork and the East Fork combine at the base of Iron Mountain in a canyon nearly 5,000 feet deep, from there, the East Fork flows south turns west, flowing into the east arm of San Gabriel Reservoir. The similarly sized West Fork starts near San Gabriel Peak near the Angeles Crest Highway and flows east before being impounded in Cogswell Reservoir, the river continues to flow east and receives Bear Creek from the left before combining with the North Fork, which rises near Mount Islip. San Gabriel Reservoir and Morris Reservoir, both formed by flood prevention dams built in the 20th Century, submerge most of the stretches of the main stem San Gabriel. It is not long after the leaves the San Gabriel Canyon. The normally dry riverbed proceeds southwest to the Santa Fe Dam, the San Gabriel River, continues to flow south, past Bellflower and Cerritos. It forms the boundary between Los Angeles and Orange Counties for a stretch before merging with Coyote Creek, one of its main tributaries. The river eventually becomes tidal and empties into the outlet of Alamitos Bay between the cities of Long Beach and Seal Beach, the San Gabriel River watershed is in the native range of the steelhead within the Southern California Distinct Population Segment which has been listed as endangered since 1997.
Genetic analysis of the steelhead show them to be of native, headwaters of the San Gabriel River hold native resident coastal rainbow trout. The river has been extensively stocked over the years with hatchery strains of rainbow trout as well, other endemic fish species include the Santa Ana sucker, and Santa Ana speckled dace. Headwaters of the San Gabriel River, particularly the East Fork, the San Gabriel River drains a watershed basin area of 713 square miles in eastern Los Angeles County and northwestern Orange County. It is the middle of the three rivers of the Los Angeles Basin, with its watershed bounded on the west by the Los Angeles River. To the north is the arid interior endorheic drainage basin of the Mojave Desert, the San Gabriel River mainly flows along the west side of its watershed
The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering approximately 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built near their territory, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000, many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago. These migrants either absorbed or pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region, by 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded widely with neighboring peoples, over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
There may have five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542 and this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina, in 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades later, California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared, the endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been widely adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh.
Two of the groups are the result of a split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva as the tribe of the Los Angeles Basin. In 2008, more than 1,700 people identified as Tongva or claimed partial ancestry, the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for house, Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called Kīj, suggesting that the words were distinct. The term Kizh was generally used at that time to designate the language, in 1875, Yarrow indicated that the name Kizh was unknown at Mission San Gabriel. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning settlers, in 1885, Hoffman referred to the natives as Tobikhar. The word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant and he spelled it Tong-vā, by his orthography, it would be pronounced /ˈtɒŋveɪ/, TONG-vay
Isabel Allende is a Chilean-American writer. Allende, whose works sometimes contain aspects of the magic realist tradition, is famous for such as The House of the Spirits and City of the Beasts. Allende has been called the worlds most widely read Spanish-language author, in 2004, Allende was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and in 2010, she received Chiles National Literature Prize. President Barack Obama awarded her the 2014 Presidential Medal of Freedom, Allendes novels are often based upon her personal experience and historical events and pay homage to the lives of women, while weaving together elements of myth and realism. She has lectured and toured many American colleges to teach literature, fluent in English as a second language, Allende was granted United States citizenship in 1993, having lived in California with her American husband since 1989. Allende was born Isabel Allende Llona in Lima, the daughter of Francisca Llona Barros and Tomás Allende and her father was a first cousin of Salvador Allende, President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, thus the former head of state is her first cousin once removed.
Many sources cite Allende as being Salvador Allendes niece, the stems from Allende herself often referring to Salvador as her uncle in her private life. This is because in Spanish a first cousin once removed is translated as second degree uncle, in 1945, after Tomás disappeared, Isabels mother relocated with her three children to Santiago, where they lived until 1953. Between 1953 and 1958, Allendes mother was married to Ramón Huidobro, Huidobro was a diplomat appointed to Bolivia and Beirut. In Bolivia, Allende attended an American private school, and in Beirut, the family returned to Chile in 1958, where Allende was briefly home-schooled. In her youth, she read widely, particularly the works of William Shakespeare, in 1970, Salvador Allende appointed Huidobro as ambassador to Argentina. While living in Chile, Allende finished her studies and met engineering student Miguel Frías whom she married in 1962. From 1959 to 1965, Allende worked with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization in Santiago, Chile, in Brussels, for a short time in Chile, she had a job translating romance novels from English to Spanish.
Allende and Fríass daughter Paula was born in 1963, in 1966, Allende again returned to Chile and her son Nicolás was born there that year. The CIA-backed military coup in September 1973 changed everything for Allende, when she herself was added to the list and began receiving death threats, she fled to Venezuela, where she stayed for 13 years. In Venezuela she was a columnist for El Nacional, a national newspaper. In 1978, she began a temporary separation from Miguel Frías and she lived in Spain for two months, returned to her marriage. During a visit to California in 1988, Allende met her second husband, in 1994, she was awarded the Gabriela Mistral Order of Merit, the first woman to receive this honor
Indigenous peoples of California
With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population. The California cultural area does not exactly conform to the state of Californias boundaries, many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, and some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as Indigenous peoples of Mexico, before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of approximately 100 distinct languages. The majority of California Indian language belong either to highly localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates, of the remainder, most are Uto-Aztecan or Athapaskan languages. The Hokan superstock has the greatest time depth and has been most difficult to demonstrate and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic. The several Athapaskan languages are relatively recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago, evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago.
Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico. Because of the climate and easy access to food sources. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BCE, due to the local abundance of food, tribes never developed agriculture or tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex, from 3000 to 2000 BCE, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by approximately 500 BCE, the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, and wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants.
They controlled fire on a scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land, a form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle, a primitive permaculture. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at widely different times, the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California, tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century, the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California and their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native populations
San Gabriel Valley
The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, lying generally to the east of the city of Los Angeles. At one time predominantly agricultural, the San Gabriel Valley is today almost entirely urbanized and is an part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the country, about 200 square miles in size, the valley includes thirty-one cities and five unincorporated communities. In 1886, Pasadena was the first independent incorporated city located in Los Angeles County. The San Gabriel Valley is in Los Angeles County, some of Whittier sits below the Puente Hills. Although these hills are small compared to the San Gabriel Mountains and this is similar to Montebello, which is a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments, despite geographically being part of the San Gabriel Valley. The 57 Freeway is generally considered the line between the Pomona and San Gabriel valleys. However, for statistical and economic development purposes, the County of Los Angeles generally includes these six cities as part of the San Gabriel Valley, the community of El Sereno, in the city of Los Angeles, is situated at the westernmost edge of the Valley.
Unofficial estimates place the population of the San Gabriel Valley at around 2 million—roughly a fifth of the population of Los Angeles County. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the land along the Rio Hondo River, the Tongva occupied much of the Los Angeles basin and the islands of Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, San Clemente and Santa Barbara. In 1542, when the Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho arrived off the shores of San Pedro, the Tongva were the people who rowed the remarkable Tiats out to meet Cabrilho. The language of the Tongva was different from the neighboring Indian tribes, the Tongva provide the origin of many current names, Piwongna – Pomona, Pasakeg-na – Pasadena, Cucomog-na – Cucamonga. The Gabrielinos lived in structures with thatched exteriors. Both sexes wore long hair styles and tattooed their bodies, during warm weather the men wore little clothing, but the women would wear minimal skirts made of animal hides. During the cold weather they would wear animal skin capes, European diseases killed many of the Tongva and by 1870 the area had few remaining native inhabitants.
Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area, on July 30, the expedition crossed the San Gabriel River and continued north toward what is now the city of Los Angeles. To cross the river, the built an rough bridge, which gave the name La Puente to todays San Gabriel Valley city. A few years later, a mission was established near the river crossing, Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was founded by Franciscan Father Junipero Serra, first head of the Spanish missions in California, on September 8,1771
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
The Serrano are an indigenous people of California. They use the autonyms of Taaqtam, meaning people, people from Morongo, today the Maarengayam are enrolled in the Morongo Band of Mission Indians, and the Yuhaviatam are enrolled in the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians. Additionally, some Serrano people are enrolled in the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, the Serrano historically lived in the San Bernardino Mountains and other Transverse Ranges, and in the southern Mojave Desert, within Southern California. The Serrano language is part of the Takic subset of the large Uto-Aztecan languages group of people of North America. The language family historically extended from Mexico along the West Coast and into the Great Basin and they were a branch of the Takic languages speaking people who arrived in Southern California around 2,500 years ago. Serrano means highlander or mountaineer in Spanish, the Spanish founded Mission San Gabriel Arcangel in 1771, south of the San Gabriel Mountains and southwest of the San Bernardino Mountains.
With the Cahuilla and Quechan tribes, in 1812 the Serrano revolted against it, in 1834 the Mexican Alta California government forcibly relocated many Serrano to the missions. They suffered devastating smallpox outbreaks in 1840 and 1860, as they had no immunity to the Eurasian disease, in 1867 the Yuhaviatam band of Serrano were the victims of a massacre conducted by American settlers of the San Bernardino Valley, during a 32-day campaign at Chimney Rock. The massacre was a response to a raid, probably carried out by Chemehuevi Southern Paiutes, on a settlement at Lake Arrowhead. Three American ranch hands were killed at a ranch called Los Flores in Summit Valley, tribal leader Santos Manuel led the survivors from the mountains to the valley, where they established permanent residence adjacent to the hot springs near present-day Highland. In 1891 the United States established the San Manuel Reservation for the Serrano people, the Serrano populated the San Bernardino Mountains and extended northwest into the Mojave River area of the Mojave Desert and west into the Tejon Creek watershed in the Tehachapi Mountains.
The Serrano populations along Tejon Creek were identified as the Cuahajai or Cuabajay, mountain camps were used for hunting. One such encampment was accidentally unearthed by the U. S. Forest Service fighting a wildfire in 2003 near Baldwin Lake, uncovered were artifacts of non-local jasper and obsidian and charcoal, grinding stones, and fire pits possibly dating back 1,000 years. Their society was divided into two exogamous moieties and their villages had from 25 to a hundred people. Their dwellings were large and communal, framed with willow branches and covered over with woven mats, the lodges were made with fireplaces inside for each family. The men did not wear clothing and the women wore deerskin, the Serrano who inhabited the San Bernardino Mountains would go to the milder areas of Apple Valley and Lucerne Valley during the winter, and the area in and around Big Bear Lake during the summer. They hunted small game such as rabbits, using traps along with bows and arrows and they did not hunt the grizzly bears, which they believed were reincarnations of their ancestors spirits.
They were skilled craftsmen and experts in basketweaving, which created in a variety of sizes and shapes for different purposes, such as storage, carrying
Zorro is a 2005 novel by Chilean author Isabel Allende. Its subject is the pulp hero Diego de la Vega, better known as El Zorro, the novel takes the form of a biography and is the first origin story for this legendary character. In terms of material, it is a prequel to Johnston McCulleys 1919 novella The Curse of Capistrano, the story incorporates details from a variety of works that have featured the pulp hero, including the 1998 film The Mask of Zorro. Allendes story is split into six parts, each dealing with one stage of Diego de la Vegas life. The novel chronicles Diegos upbringing as well as the origins of his Zorro alter ego and he goes to America to find his dream. Led by a chief named Chief Gray Wolf, the Indians want to destroy the San Gabriel mission. Alejandro, aided by Padre Mendoza and a few Indian converts, defeats the Indians, however, as they contemplate the chiefs fate, they find out she is a woman. She is Toypurnia, a young Indian woman and she recuperates in the mission with Alejandros help.
Alejandro goes to Pedro Fages, the governor of California, here he decides to allow Toypurnia to be a lady-in-waiting to Eulalia de Callis, Fages rich and stubborn wife. He proposes marriage to Regina and she accepts, the two are wed by Padre Mendoza, and Fages bequeaths a large acreage of land to Alejandro. He retires from the military and becomes an owner. Regina befriends Ana, a convert who is assigned to care for her. Regina has a birth, spending fifty hours in labor, and requiring Padre Mendoza to deliver the baby. The infant boy is baptized on the spot and Bernardo, Anas son, become close friends. Since Ana breastfed Diego while his mother was convalescing from her pregnancy, as well as Bernardo, the rest of the chapter deals with significant events in Diego and Bernardos lives, and their early formation. At an early age and Bernardo share an unusual childhood and they capture a live bear using the sleeping potion from White Owl, once used to amputate a wounded priest, with the assistance of a frightened, obese boy named Garcia.
Together and Bernardo undergo Indian training, while Alejandro teaches fencing to Diego and this causes Bernardo to be mute, as a sign of mourning. Diego and Bernardo undergo a test to prove their maturity and to find their spirit guide, Bernardos spirit guide is a horse, in the form of Tornado, a motherless colt which Bernardo encounters and cares for
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in both the United States and the state of California, the countrys most populous state. Its population is larger than that of 42 individual U. S. states and it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of the U. S. states of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S and its county seat, the City of Los Angeles, is its most populous city at about four million. Los Angeles County is one of the counties of California. The county originally included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Riverside, as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, and Orange County in 1889. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley, the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, and are contained mostly within the Angeles National Forest. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, non-Hispanic whites numbered 2,728,321, or 28% of the population. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race numbered 4,687,889, 36% of Los Angeles Countys population was of Mexican ancestry,3. 7% Salvadoran, and 2. 2% Guatemalan heritage. The largest Asian groups of the 1,346,865 Asians in Los Angeles County are 4. 0% Chinese,3. 3% Filipino,2. 2% Korean,1. 0% Japanese,0. 9% Vietnamese,0. 8% Indian, and 0.
3% Cambodian. The racial makeup of the county is 48. 7% White,11. 0% African American,0. 8% Native American,10. 0% Asian,0. 3% Pacific Islander,23. 5% from other races, and 4. 9% from two or more races. 44. 6% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race, the largest European-American ancestry groups are German, Irish and Italian. 45. 9% of the population reported speaking only English at home,37. 9% spoke Spanish,2. 22% Tagalog,2. 0% Chinese,1. 9% Korean,1. 87% Armenian,0. 5% Arabic, and 0. 2% Hindi. At the census of 2000, there were 9,519,338 people,3,133,774 households, the population density was 2,344 people per square mile. There were 3,270,909 housing units at a density of 806 per square mile. 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.61. In the county, the population was out with 28% under the age of 18, 10% from 18 to 24, 33% from 25 to 44, 19% from 45 to 64