Jagannath means "Lord of the Universe" and is a deity worshipped in regional traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism in India and Bangladesh. Jagannath is considered a form of Vishnu, he is a part of a triad along with his brother Balabhadra and sister Subhadra. To most Vaishnava Hindus, Jagannath is an abstract representation of Krishna; the icon of Jagannath is a carved and decorated wooden stump with large round eyes and a symmetric face, the icon has a conspicuous absence of hands or legs. The worship procedures and rituals associated with Jagannath are syncretic, include rites that are uncommon in Hinduism; the origin and evolution of Jagannath worship is unclear. Some scholars interpret hymn 10.155.3 of the Rigveda as a possible origin, but others disagree and state that it is a syncretic deity with tribal roots. His name does not appear in the traditional Dashavatara of Vishnu, though in certain Odia literature, Jagannath has been treated as the Ninth avatar, as a substitute for or the equivalent of the Buddha.
Jagannath is considered a non-sectarian deity. He is significant regionally in the Indian states of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam and Tripura, he is significant to the Hindus of Bangladesh. The Jagannath temple in Puri, Odisha is significant in Vaishnavism, is regarded as one of the Char Dham pilgrimage sites in India; the Jagannath temple is massive, over 200 feet high in the Nagara [Hindu temple style, one of the best surviving specimens of Kalinga Architecture aka Odisha art and architecture. It has been one of the major pilgrimage destination for Hindus since about 800 CE; the annual festival called the Ratha yatra celebrated in June or July every year in eastern states of India is dedicated to Jagannath. His image along with the other two associated deities, is ceremoniously brought out of the sacrosanctum of his chief temple in Puri, they are placed in a chariot, pulled by numerous volunteers, thus transported to the Gundicha Temple. They stay there for a few days, are thereafter returned to the main temple.
Coinciding with the Ratha Yatra festival at Puri, similar processions are organized at Jagannath temples throughout the world. This festive public procession of Jagannath in Puri, where the heavy carriage becomes a "massive inexorable force, an unstoppable public campaign that crushes whatever is in its path" is the source of the word Juggernaut. "Jagannath" is a compound word, consisting of "Jagat" and "Nath". The word nath means "Master, Lord" while jagan or jagat means the "universe". Thus, Jagannath means "lord of the universe". In the Odia language, "Jagannath" is linked to other names, such as "Jagā" or "Jagabandhu". Both names derive from "Jagannath". Further, on the basis of the physical appearance of the deity, names like "Kālya", "Darubrahman", "Dāruēdebatā", Chakāākhi or "Chakānayan", "Cakāḍōḷā" are in vogue. According to Dina Krishna Joshi, the word may have origins in the tribal word Kittung of the Sora people; this hypothesis states that the Vedic people as they settled into tribal regions adopted the tribal words and called the deity Jagannath.
According to O. M. Starza, this is unlikely because Kittung is phonetically unrelated, the Kittung tribal deity is produced from burnt wood and looks different from Jagannath; the icon of Jagannath in his temples is a brightly painted, rough-hewn log of neem wood. The image consists of a pillar that represents his face merging with the chest; the icon lacks a neck and limbs, is identified by a large circular face symbolizing someone, anadi and ananta. Within this face are two big symmetric circular eyes with no eyelids, one eye symbolizing the sun and the other the moon, features traceable in 17th-century paintings, he is shown with the Vaishnava U-shaped mark on his forehead. His dark color and other facial features are an abstraction of the cosmic form of the Hindu god Krishna, states Starza. In some contemporary Jagannath temples, two stumps pointing forward in hug-giving position represent his hands. In some exceptional medieval and modern era paintings in museums outside India, such as in Berlin states Starza, Jagannath is shown "fully anthropomorphised" but with the traditional abstract mask face.
The typical icon of Jagannath is unlike other deities found in Hinduism who are predominantly anthropomorphic. However, aniconic forms of Hindu deities are not uncommon. For example, Shiva is represented in the form of a Shiva linga. In most Jagannath temples in the eastern states of India, all his major temples such as the Puri, Jagannath is included with his brother Balabhadra and sister Subhadra. Apart from the principal companion deities, Jagannath icon shows a Sudarshana Chakra and sometimes under the umbrella cover of multiheaded Sesha Naga, both linking him to Vishnu, he was one of the introduction to Hinduism to early European explorers and merchants who sailed into Calcutta and ports of the Bay of Bengal. The Italian Odoric of Pordenone, a Franciscan friar, visited his temple and p
Nepal Sambat is the lunar calendar used by the Nepalese speaking people native to the Indian subcontinent of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Nepalis of Indian nationality. The Calendar era began on 20 October 879 AD, with the year 2013-14 AD corresponding to 1134 in Nepal Sambat. Nepal Sambat appeared on coins and copper plate inscriptions, royal decrees, chronicles and Buddhist manuscripts, legal documents and correspondence. Today, it is used for ceremonial purposes and to determine the dates of religious festivals and death anniversaries; the name Nepal Sambat was used for the calendar for the first time in Nepal Sambat 148. The Nepal Sambat epoch corresponds to 879 AD, which commemorates the payment of all the debts of the Nepalese people by a merchant named Sankhadhar Sakhwa in popular legend. According to the legend, an astrologer from Bhaktapur predicted that the sand at the confluence Bhacha Khushi and Bishnumati River in Kathmandu would transform into gold at a certain moment, so the king sent a team of workers to Kathmandu to collect sand from the spot at the special hour.
A local merchant named Sankhadhar Sakhwa saw them resting with their baskets of sand at a traveler's shelter at Maru near Durbar Square before returning to Bhaktapur. Believing that the sand to be unusual if the workers were gathering it, he convinced them to give it to him instead; the next day, Sakhwa discovered his sand had turned to gold, while the king of Bhaktapur was left with a pile of ordinary sand which his porters had dug up after the auspicious hour had passed. Sankhadhar used the gold to repay the debts of the Nepalese people. Nepal Sambat has been used outside Nepal Mandala in Nepal and in other countries including India and Myanmar. In Gorkha, a stone inscription at the Bhairav Temple at Pokharithok Bazaar contains the date Nepal Sambat 704. An inscription in the Khas language at a rest house in Salyankot is dated Nepal Sambat 912. In east Nepal, an inscription on the Bidyadhari Ajima Temple in Bhojpur recording the donation of a door and tympanum is dated Nepal Sambat 1011; the Bindhyabasini Temple in Bandipur in west Nepal contains an inscription dated Nepal Sambat 950 recording the donation of a tympanum.
The Palanchok Bhagawati Temple situated to the east of Kathmandu contains an inscription recording a land donation dated Nepal Sambat 861. An inscription on a stupa in Panauti is dated Nepal Sambat 866. Nepalese merchants based in Tibet used Nepal Sambat in their official documents and inscriptions recording votive offerings. A copper plate recording the donation of a tympanum at the shrine of Chhwaskamini Ajima in the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa is dated Nepal Sambat 781. Nepal Sambat was replaced as the national calendar in Rana period of the Kingdom of Nepal; the victory of the Gorkha Kingdom resulted in the end of the Malla dynasty and the advent of The Shahs used Saka era. However, Nepal Sambat remained in official use for a time after the coming of the Shahs. For example, the treaty with Tibet signed during the reign of Pratap Singh Shah is dated Nepal Sambat 895. In 1903, Saka Sambat, in turn, was superseded by Bikram Sambat as the official calendar. However, the government continued to use Saka Sambat on gold and silver coins till 1912 when it was replaced by Bikram Sambat.
The campaign to reinstate Nepal Sambat as the national calendar began in the 1920s when Dharmaditya Dharmacharya, a Buddhist and Nepal Bhasa activist based in Kolkata, initiated a campaign to promote it as the national calendar. The movement was continued by language and cultural activists in Nepal with the advent of democracy following the ouster of the autocratic Rana dynasty in 1951; the demand to make Nepal Sambat a national calendar intensified with the establishment of Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala in 1979. It organized rallies and public functions publicizing the importance of the era as a symbol of nationalism. Nepal Sambat has emerged as a symbol to rally people against the suppression of their culture and literature by the politically dominant ruling classes; the Panchayat regime suppressed the movement by imprisoning the activists. In 1987 in Kathmandu, a road running event organized to mark the New Year was broken up by police and the runners thrown in jail; the Nepal Sambat movement achieved its first success on 18 November 1999 when the government declared the founder of the calendar, a trader of Kathmandu named Sankhadhar Sakhwa, a national hero.
On 26 October 2003, the Department of Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp depicting his portrait. A statue of Sankhadhar was erected in Tansen, Palpa in western Nepal on 28 January 2012. On 25 October 2011, the government decided to bring Nepal Sambat into use as the country's national calendar following prolonged lobbying by cultural and social organizations, most prominently by Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala, formed a taskforce to make recommendations on its implementation. All major newspapers now print Nepal Sambat along with other dates on their mastheads. New Year's Day celebrations have spread from the Kathmandu Valley to other towns in Nepal as well as abroad. Nepal Sambat is a lunisolar calendar with 354 days in a normal year. An intercalary month named Anālā is added every three years to prevent the calendar from drifting with the seasons. New Year's Day falls on the first day of the waxing moon during the Swanti festival. Traditionally, traders used to close their ledgers and open new account books on the first day of Nepal Sambat.
Newars observe New Year's Day by performing Mha Puja, a ritual to purify and empower the soul for the coming New
Ashtami is the eighth day of Hindu lunar calendar. Krishna Janmashtami or Gokul Ashtami is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Lord Krishna, an avatar of Hindu deity Vishnu. Krishna Janmashtami is observed on the Ashtami tithi, the eighth day of the dark half or Krishna Paksha of the month of Bhaadra in the Hindu calendar, when the Rohini Nakshatra is ascendant. Rasa lila or dramatic enactments of the life of Krishna are a special feature in regions of Mathura, Vrindavan and regions following Vaishnavism in Manipur. Trilochana Ashtami or Trilochanashtami, is a Hindu auspicious day dedicated to Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati celebrated in Odisha and different parts of India. Tri means lochan means Eye. Hence one who having three eyes is called as Trilochan means to Lord Shiva, three-eyed, that is, indication of the present and future. Bhairava Ashtami or Kalabhairava Ashtami commemorating the day Kal Bhairav, a fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva, appeared on earth, is celebrated on Krishna paksha Ashtami of the Margashirsha month with a day special prayers and rituals.
Radhastami is celebrated by Krishna devotees as the appearance anniversary of Srimati Radharani
Vat Purnima or pournima chavan or Wat Purnima (वट पूर्णिमा, vaṭapūrṇimā called Vat Savitri is a celebration observed by married women in the Western Indian states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and some regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh. On this Purnima or "full moon" during the three days of the month of Jyeshtha in the Hindu calendar a married woman marks her love for her husband by tying a ceremonial thread around a banyan tree; the celebration is based on the legend of Satyavan as narrated in the epic Mahabharata. The legends dates back to a story in the age of Mahabharata; the childless king Asvapati and his consort Malavi wish to have a son. The God Savitr appears and tells him he will soon have a daughter; the king is overjoyed at the prospect of a child. She is named Savitri in honor of the god, she is so beautiful and pure, intimidates all the men in her village so that no man will ask for her hand in marriage. Her father tells her to find a husband on her own, she sets out on a pilgrimage for this purpose and finds Satyavan, the son of a blind king named Dyumatsena who lives in exile as a forest-dweller.
Savitri returns to find her father speaking with Sage Narada who tells her she has made a bad choice: although perfect in every way, Satyavan is destined to die one year from that day. Savitri marries Satyavan. Three days before the foreseen death of Satyavan, Savitri takes a vow of vigil, her father-in-law tells her she has taken on too harsh a regimen, but she replies that she has taken an oath to perform the regimen and Dyumatsena offers his support. The morning of Satyavan’s predicted death, he is splitting wood and becomes weak and lays his head in Savitri’s lap and dies. Savitri places his body under the shade of a Vat tree. Yama, the god of Death, comes to claim Satyavan's soul. Savitri follows him, she offers him praise and Yama, impressed by both the content and style of her words, offers her any boon, except the life of Satyavan. She first asks for eyesight and restoration of the kingdom for her father-in-law a hundred children for her father, a hundred children for herself and Satyavan.
The last wish creates a dilemma for Yama. However, impressed by Savitri's dedication and purity, he offers her one more chance to choose any boon, but this time omitting "except for the life of Satyavan". Savitri asks for Satyavan to return to life. Yama blesses Savitri's life with eternal happiness. Satyavan awakens as though he has been in a deep sleep and returns to his parents along with his wife. Meanwhile, at their home, Dyumatsena regains his eyesight before Satyavan return. Since Satyavan still does not know what happened, Savitri relays the story to her parents-in-law and the gathered ascetics; as they praise her, Dyumatsena’s ministers arrive with news of the death of his usurper. Joyfully, the king and his entourage return to his kingdom. Though the tree does not play a significant role of the story, it is worshiped in memory of the love in the legend; the festival is followed by married women only, is prohibited for children and widows. Vat Purnima in English means a full moon related to the banyan tree.
It was a Hindu festival, celebrated in the Deccan area of southern India. However, in recent years few communities follow the tradition although it is observed by married women in the Western Indian states of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka and in some regions of Eastern Uttar Pradesh; the period of the festival is observed over three days the 13th, 14th and 15th days in the month of Jestha. Women observe a fast and tie threads around a banyan tree and pray for the well-being of their husbands. On the occasion of Vat Purnima, women keep a fast of three days for their husbands. During the three days, pictures of a Vat tree, Savitri and Yama, are drawn with a paste of sandal and rice on the floor or a wall in the home; the golden engravings of the couple are placed in a tray of sand, worshiped with mantras, Vat leaves. Outdoors, the banyan tree is worshiped. A thread is wound around the trunk of the tree, copper coins are offered. Strict adherence to the fast and tradition is believed to ensure the husband a long and prosperous life.
During the fast, women greet each other with "जन्म सावित्री हो". It is believed. In his book, B. A. Gupte provides a Pauranic excerpt to suggest that the mythology behind the festival is symbolic of natural phenomena, he notes that it is the representation of the annual marriage of the earth and nature represented by Satyavan and Savitri. It is like the way the earth is rejuvenated by the powers of nature, he points out that the Vat tree was chosen due to the mythological aspects connected to the tree that are known to Indians. In the present day, the festival is celebrated in the following way. Women dress in fine sarees and jewelry, their day begins with the offering of any five fruits and a coconut; each woman winds white thread around a banyan tree seven times as a reminder of their husbands. They fast for the whole day. Footnotes Citations Underhill, M. M.. The Hindu Religious Year. Oxford University Press,Aniket Kadam. Archived from the original on 31 August 2006. Call number AIN-9122
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process, it is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, or 109 times that of Earth, its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. Three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen; the Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf, it formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System; the central mass became so hot and dense that it initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that all stars form by this process.
The Sun is middle-aged. It fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result; this energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. In about 5 billion years, when hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand to become a red giant, it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, render Earth uninhabitable. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion; the enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity.
The synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, one of, the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun may be related to south. Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunne, Old Saxon sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, modern Dutch zon, Old High German sunna, modern German Sonne, Old Norse sunna, Gothic sunnō. All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn; the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not used in everyday English. Sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars; the related word solar is the usual adjectival term used for the Sun, in terms such as solar day, solar eclipse, Solar System. A mean Earth solar day is 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.244 seconds. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, itself a translation of the Greek ἡμέρα ἡλίου.
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83, estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs. The Sun is heavy-element-rich, star; the formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from more nearby supernovae. This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II, heavy-element-poor, stars; the heavy elements could most plausibly have been produced by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption within a massive second-generation star. The Sun is by far the brightest object in the Earth's sky, with an apparent magnitude of −26.74. This is about 13 billion times brighter than the next brightest star, which has an apparent magnitude of −1.46. The mean distance of the Sun's center to Earth's center is 1 astronomical unit, though the distance varies as Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.
At this average distance, light travels from the Sun's horizon to Earth's horizon in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds, while light from the closest points of the Sun and Earth takes about two seconds less. The energy of this sunlight supports all life on Earth by photosynthesis, drives Earth's climate and weather; the Sun does not have a definite boundary, but its density decreases exponentially with increasing height above the photosphere. For the purpose of measurement, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun. By this measure, the Sun is a near-perfect sphere with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 kilometres; the tidal effect of the planets is weak and does not affect the shape of the Sun. The Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles; this differential rotation is caused by convective motion
Pausha is a month of the Hindu calendar in the Indian national calendar, the tenth month of the year, corresponding with December/January in the Gregorian calendar. In lunar Hindu calendars, Pausha begins with either the full or new moon in December and is the ninth month of the year. Since it follows the lunar cycle, its start and end varies year by year unlike the solar cycle Hindu calendars. Pausha is a winter month; the Hindu lunar month Pausha overlaps with its solar month Dhanu in the Hindu lunisolar calendars. Pausa Bahula Amavasya day is celebrated Theppotsavam at Sri Varaha Lakshmi Narasimha Swamyvari Temple in Simhachalam; the ‘Utsava idols’ are taken in a palanquin to ‘Varaha Pushkarini’. Inform start and End of Amavasya Hindu units of measurement Hindu astrology Indian astronomy
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times. Some of the earliest roots of Indian astronomy can be dated to the period of Indus Valley Civilization or earlier. Astronomy developed as a discipline of Vedanga or one of the "auxiliary disciplines" associated with the study of the Vedas, dating 1500 BCE or older; the oldest known text is the Vedanga Jyotisha, dated to 1400–1200 BCE. Greek astronomy was influenced by Indian astronomy and vice versa beginning in the 4th century BCE and through the early centuries of the Common Era, for example by the Yavanajataka and the Romaka Siddhanta, a Sanskrit translation of a Greek text disseminated from the 2nd century. Indian astronomy flowered in the 5th–6th century, with Aryabhata, whose Aryabhatiya represented the pinnacle of astronomical knowledge at the time; the Indian astronomy influenced Muslim astronomy, Chinese astronomy, European astronomy, others. Other astronomers of the classical era who further elaborated on Aryabhata's work include Brahmagupta and Lalla.
An identifiable native Indian astronomical tradition remained active throughout the medieval period and into the 16th or 17th century within the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. Some of the earliest forms of astronomy can be dated to the period of Indus Valley Civilization, or earlier; some cosmological concepts are present in the Vedas, as are notions of the movement of heavenly bodies and the course of the year. As in other traditions, there is a close association of astronomy and religion during the early history of the science, astronomical observation being necessitated by spatial and temporal requirements of correct performance of religious ritual. Thus, the Shulba Sutras, texts dedicated to altar construction, discusses advanced mathematics and basic astronomy. Vedanga Jyotisha is another of the earliest known Indian texts on astronomy, it includes the details about the Sun, nakshatras, lunisolar calendar. Greek astronomical ideas began to enter India in the 4th century BCE following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
By the early centuries of the Common Era, Indo-Greek influence on the astronomical tradition is visible, with texts such as the Yavanajataka and Romaka Siddhanta. Astronomers mention the existence of various siddhantas during this period, among them a text known as the Surya Siddhanta; these were not fixed texts but rather an oral tradition of knowledge, their content is not extant. The text today known as Surya Siddhanta was received by Aryabhata; the classical era of Indian astronomy begins in the 5th to 6th centuries. The Pañcasiddhāntikā by Varāhamihira approximates the method for determination of the meridian direction from any three positions of the shadow using a gnomon. By the time of Aryabhata the motion of planets was treated to be elliptical rather than circular. Other topics included definitions of different units of time, eccentric models of planetary motion, epicyclic models of planetary motion, planetary longitude corrections for various terrestrial locations; the divisions of the year were on the basis of religious seasons.
The duration from mid March—Mid May was taken to be spring, mid May—mid July: summer, mid July—mid September: rains, mid September—mid November: autumn, mid November—mid January: winter, mid January—mid March: dew. In the Vedānga Jyotiṣa, the year begins with the winter solstice. Hindu calendars have several eras: The Hindu calendar, counting from the start of the Kali Yuga, has its epoch on 18 February 3102 BCE Julian; the Vikrama Samvat calendar, introduced about the 12th century, counts from 56–57 BCE. The "Saka Era", used in some Hindu calendars and in the Indian national calendar, has its epoch near the vernal equinox of year 78; the Saptarshi calendar traditionally has its epoch at 3076 BCE. J. A. B. Van Buitenen reports on the calendars in India: The oldest system, in many respects the basis of the classical one, is known from texts of about 1000 BCE, it divides an approximate solar year of 360 days into 12 lunar months of 28 days. The resulting discrepancy was resolved by the intercalation of a leap month every 60 months.
Time was reckoned by the position marked off in constellations on the ecliptic in which the Moon rises daily in the course of one lunation and the Sun rises monthly in the course of one year. These constellations each measure an arc of 13° 20′ of the ecliptic circle; the positions of the Moon were directly observable, those of the Sun inferred from the Moon's position at Full Moon, when the Sun is on the opposite side of the Moon. The position of the Sun at midnight was calculated from the nakṣatra that culminated on the meridian at that time, the Sun being in opposition to that nakṣatra. Among the devices used for astronomy was gnomon, known as Sanku, in which the shadow of a vertical rod is applied on a horizontal plane in order to ascertain the cardinal directions, the latitude of the point of observation, the time of observation; this device finds mention in the works of Varāhamihira, Āryabhata, Bhāskara, among others. The Cross-staff, known as Yasti-yantra, was used by the time of Bhaskara II.
This device could vary from a simple stick to V-shaped staffs designed for determining angles with the help of a calibrated scale. The clepsydra was used in India for astronomical purposes until recent times. Ōhashi notes that: "Se