Jyotisha is the science of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time. It refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism; this field of study was concerned with fixing the hours of Vedic rituals. Some scholars have opined that Hindu Astrology developed from the conquest of Persia and parts of Northern India Greek astrology by Alexander the Great, their zodiac signs being nearly identical.. But this view of Hellenistic transmission is not without contention. Hindu Astrology is inherently a study of karma, which gives it a different foundation compared to Greek astrology. In addition to this, the predictive techniques used in Hindu Astrology such as Dashas, Vargas are not that evolved in Greek astrology. In fact, there is little evidence that these techniques were used in Greek astrology in the sophisticated evolved manner as used in Jyotisha. Jyotisha, states Monier-Williams, is rooted in the word Jyotish which means light, such as that of sun or moon or heavenly body.

The term Jyotisha includes the study of astronomy and the science of timekeeping using the movements of astronomical bodies. It aimed to keep time, maintain calendar, predict auspicious times for Vedic rituals. According to David Pingree, the field of timekeeping in Jyotisha may have been "derived from Mesopotamia during the Achaemenid period", but Yukio Ohashi considers this proposal as "definitely wrong". Ohashi states. Other scholars dismiss various arguments of Pingree and K. S. Shukla points out a controversy by showing Pingree’s incorrect amendations to the manuscript of the Yavanajātaka, which Pingree believed to be corrupted; the texts of Vedic Jyotisha sciences were translated into the Chinese language in the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, the Rigvedic passages on astronomy are found in the works of Zhu Jiangyan and Zhi Qian. Timekeeping as well as the nature of solar and lunar movements are mentioned in Vedic texts. For example, Kaushitaki Brahmana chapter 19.3 mentions the shift in the relative location of the sun towards north for 6 months, south for 6 months.

The ancient extant text on Jyotisha is the Vedanga-Jyotisha, which exists in two editions, one linked to Rigveda and other to Yajurveda. The Rigveda version consists of 36 verses, while the Yajurveda recension has 43 verses of which 29 verses are borrowed from the Rigveda; the Rigveda version is variously attributed to sage Lagadha, sometimes to sage Shuci. The Yajurveda version credits no particular sage, has survived into the modern era with a commentary of Somakara, is the more studied version; the Jyotisha text Brahma-siddhanta composed in the 5th century CE, discusses how to use the movement of planets and moon to keep time and calendar. This text lists trigonometry and mathematical formulae to support its theory of orbits, predict planetary positions and calculate relative mean positions of celestial nodes and apsides; the text is notable for presenting large integers, such as 4.32 billion years as the lifetime of the current universe. The ancient Hindu texts on Jyotisha only discuss time keeping, never mention astrology or prophecy.

These ancient texts predominantly at a rudimentary level. Technical horoscopes and astrology ideas in India came from Greece and developed in the early centuries of the 1st millennium CE. Medieval era texts such as the Yavana-jataka and the Siddhanta texts are more astrology-related; the field of Jyotisha deals with ascertaining time forecasting auspicious day and time for Vedic rituals. The field of Vedanga structured time into Yuga, a 5-year interval, divided into multiple lunisolar intervals such as 60 solar months, 61 savana months, 62 synodic months and 67 sidereal months. A Vedic Yuga had 1,860 tithis, it defined a savana-day from one sunrise to another; the Rigvedic version of Jyotisha may be a insertion into the Veda, states David Pingree between 513 and 326 BCE, when Indus valley was occupied by the Achaemenid from Mesopotamia. The mathematics and devices for time keeping mentioned in these ancient Sanskrit texts, proposes Pingree, such as the water clock may have arrived in India from Mesopotamia.

However, Yukio Ohashi considers this proposal as incorrect, suggesting instead that the Vedic timekeeping efforts, for forecasting appropriate time for rituals, must have begun much earlier and the influence may have flowed from India to Mesopotamia. Ohashi states that it is incorrect to assume that the number of civil days in a year equal 365 in both Hindu and Egyptian–Persian year. Further, adds Ohashi, the Mesopotamian formula is different from the Indian formula for calculating time, each can only work for their respective latitude, either would make major errors in predicting time and calendar in the other region. According to Asko Parpola, the Jyotisha and luni-solar calendar discoveries in ancient India, similar discoveries in China in "great likelihood result from convergent parallel development", not from diffusion from Mesopotamia. Kim Plofker states that while a flow of timekeeping ideas from either side is plausible, each may have instead developed independently, because the loan-words seen when ideas migrate are missing on both sides as far as words for various time intervals and techniques.

Further, adds Plofker, other scholars, that the discussion of time keeping concepts are found in the Sanskrit verses of the Shatapatha Brahmana, a 2nd millennium BCE text. Water clock and sun dials are

Siddhachal Caves

Siddhachal Caves are Jain cave monuments and statues carved into the rock face inside the Urvahi valley of the Gwalior Fort in northern Madhya Pradesh, India. There are the most visited among the five groups of Jain rock carvings on the Gwalior Fort hill, they were built over time starting in the 7th-century, but most are dated to the 15th-century CE. Many of the statues were defaced and destroyed under the orders of the Muslim Emperor Babur of the Mughal dynasty in the 16th century, while a few repaired and restored after the fall of the Mughal dynasty and through the late 19th century; the statues depict all 24 Tirthankaras. They are shown in both seated Padmasana posture as well as standing Kayotsarga posture, in the typical naked form of Jain iconography; the reliefs behind some of them narrate scenes from the Jain legends. The site is about 2 kilometres from the South-East Group of Gopachal rock cut Jain monuments and about 1 kilometre northwest of the Teli ka Mandir within the Gwalior Fort.

The Siddhachal collosi cave temples are located inside fortifications of the Urvahi valley, a part of the fort of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh below the northwestern walls of the fortress. The Gwalior city and the fort is connected to other Indian cities by major highways NH 44 and 46, a railway station and airport, it is located near other historic Jain temples from the medieval era. The Siddhachal cave temples are a part of nearly 100 Jain monuments found in and around the Gwalior city, all dated to be from the 7th to 15th century; the Siddachal colossi are near the Urwahi road, most are dated to be from the 15th century, built in an era when Delhi Sultanate had collapsed and fragmented, a Hindu kingdom was back in power in Gwalior region and before Babur had ended the Delhi Sultanate and replaced it with his Mughal dynasty. The inscriptions found near the monuments credit them to the Tomar kings, they range from the 1440 to 1453 CE; the Siddhachal Caves were complete by about 1473 CE. Some 60 years after they had been completed, the statues were defaced and desecrated around 1527 when the Emperor Babur ordered their destruction.

Babur explained in a memoir, They have hewn the solid rock of the Adwa, sculptured out of it idols of larger and smaller size. On the south part of it is a large idol, which may be about 20 gaz; these figures are naked, without a rag to cover the parts of generation. Adwa is far from being a mean place, on the contrary it is pleasant; the greatest fault consists in the idol figures all about it: I directed these idols to be destroyed. The Jain cave temples within the Gwalior Fort were, not destroyed, just mutilated by chopping off the faces, the sexual organs and their limbs. Centuries the Jain community restored many of the statues by adding back stucco heads on the top of the damaged idols; the Siddhachal Caves are rock-cut monuments with Jain collosi. They are found on both sides of the slope of the Urwahi road along the Urwahi valley; the monuments include small reliefs on the walls, as well as 22 colossi. The largest of these are for Rishabhanatha, identifiable by the bull emblem carved on the pedestal under his foot, with a height of 57 feet.

Other colossi include a seated Neminatha, Parshvanatha with serpent cover over his head and Mahavira. Gwalior Fort Mewar Gopachal rock cut Jain monuments

Noël Wells

Noël Kristi Wells is an American actress, director and writer. She is known for her television roles on Master of None and Saturday Night Live, as well as writing and starring in the film Mr. Roosevelt, her debut album It's So Nice! was released in 2019. Wells was born in Texas, her father is a Tunisian immigrant, her mother is of half Mexican descent. She says. Wells attended Memorial High School in Victoria, where she was active in speech and debate and graduated as salutatorian, she graduated from the University of Texas at Austin in 2010 with degrees in Plan II Honors and Radio-Television-Film. While attending college, she was a cast member of Esther's Follies, Austin's long-running musical satire show, where she performed in sketches and as a magician's assistant. Before becoming an actress, she did motion graphics. In 2010, Wells moved to Los Angeles and performed at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre with the sketch team "New Money", she appeared in numerous and CollegeHumor videos, was known for her own sketch and parody videos, which have over 18 million views on YouTube.

In 2013, Wells joined the cast of Saturday Night Live during its 39th season as a featured player along with fellow Upright Citizens Brigade performers John Milhiser, Kyle Mooney, Beck Bennett, as well as writer Mike O'Brien and stand-up comedian Brooks Wheelan. On July 15, 2014, it was announced. Wells has made guest appearances on television programs such as The Aquabats! Super Show! and Comedy Bang! Bang!, as well as doing recurring voice work on Hulu's The Awesomes, Disney XD's Wander Over Yonder, Cartoon Network's Craig of the Creek. In 2015, Wells co-starred on the critically acclaimed Netflix comedy Master of None, created by Aziz Ansari and Alan Yang. Wells played the love-interest of Ansari's character. Hitfix's Alan Sepinwall said the "Dev/Rachel story is so smartly developed, with such strong chemistry between Ansari and Wells.” Richard Lawson of Vanity Fair said. It’s subtle, but not minimalist or deadpan.” All 10 episodes premiered on November 6, 2015, it won the 2016 Critics' Choice Award for Best Comedy.

In March 2017, Wells wrote and starred in the feature film Mr. Roosevelt, which premiered at the SXSW film festival in Narrative Spotlight, it has won multiple awards including the Audience Award and Louis Black Lone Star Jury Award at SXSW and Best US Narrative Feature at the Traverse City Film Festival. Wells released her debut album It's So Nice on August 30, 2019. Written and recorded over a two-year period, it marks Wells' first foray as a musician and singer-songwriter. Wells has a television show in development for the new streaming service Apple TV+. Wells is an avid photographer and has had her photography featured in exhibitions and the literary magazine Oxford American, she has lived in New York City. Official website Noël Wells on IMDb User Profile at Photography page at Flickr