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K is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is plural kays; the letter K represents the voiceless velar plosive. The letter K comes from the Greek letter Κ, taken from the Semitic kaph, the symbol for an open hand. This, in turn, was adapted by Semitic tribes who had lived in Egypt from the hieroglyph for "hand" representing D in the Egyptian word for hand, d-r-t; the Semites evidently assigned it the sound value /k/ instead, because their word for hand started with that sound. In the earliest Latin inscriptions, the letters C, K and Q were all used to represent the sounds /k/ and /ɡ/. Of these, Q was used before a rounded vowel, K before /a/, C elsewhere; the use of C and its variant G replaced most usages of K and Q. K survived only in a few fossilized forms such as Kalendae, "the calends". After Greek words were taken into Latin, the Kappa was transliterated as a C. Loanwords from other alphabets with the sound /k/ were transliterated with C.

Hence, the Romance languages use C, in imitating Classical Latin's practice, have K only in loanwords from other language groups. The Celtic languages tended to use C instead of K, this influence carried over into Old English. Today, English is the only Germanic language to productively use "hard" ⟨c⟩ rather than ⟨k⟩; the letter ⟨k⟩ is silent at the start of an English word when it comes before the letter ⟨n⟩, as in the words "knight," "knife," "knot," "know," and "knee". Like J, X, Q, Z, the letter K is not used frequently in English, it is the fifth least used letter in the English language, with a frequency in words of about 0.8%. In the International System of Units, the SI prefix for one thousand is kilo- abbreviated as k: for example, prefixed to metre/meter or its abbreviation m, kilometre or km signifies a thousand metres; as such, people represent numbers in a non-standard notation by replacing the last three zeros of the general numeral with K, as in 30K for 30,000. In most languages where it is employed, this letter represents the sound /k/ or some similar sound.

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses ⟨k⟩ for the voiceless velar plosive.: Semitic letter Kaph, from which the following symbols derive Κ κ/ϰ: Greek letter Kappa, from which K derives К к: Cyrillic letter Ka derived from Kappa K with diacritics: Ƙ ƙ Ꝁ ꝁ Ḱ ḱ Ǩ ǩ Ḳ ḳ Ķ ķ ᶄ Ⱪ ⱪ Ḵ ḵ Ꞣ and ꞣ were used in Latvian orthography before 1921 The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses various forms of the letter K:U+1D0B ᴋ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL K U+1D37 ᴷ MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL K U+1D4F ᵏ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL K ₖ: Subscript small k was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902 Ʞ ʞ: Turned capital and small k were used in transcriptions of the Dakota language in publications of the American Board of Ethnology in the late 19th century. Turned small k was used for a velar click in the International Phonetic Alphabet but its use was withdrawn in 1970. ₭: Lao kip Ꝃ ꝃ, Ꝅ ꝅ, Ꞣ ꞣ: Various forms of K were used for medieval scribal abbreviations 1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and nMacintosh families of encodings.

"K" replacing "C" in satiric misspelling. K is the unit symbol for the kelvin, used to measure thermodynamic temperature. K is the chemical symbol for the element potassium. Triangle K. Unit prefix k. Josef K is the name of the principal character in Franz Kafka's novel The Trial. In chess notation, the letter K represents the King. In baseball scoring, the letter K is used to represent a strikeout. A forwards oriented K represents a "strikeout swinging"; as abbreviation for OK used in emails and short text messages. K is used as a slang term for Ketamine among recreational drug users. In the CMYK color model, K represents black ink. In International Morse code it is used to mean "over". In fracture mechanics, K is used to represent the stress intensity factor. In physics, k stands for Boltzmann's constant K. K is used colloquially to mean kilometre; when expressing amounts of money, $20K means twenty thousand dollars. In the United Kingdom under the old system, a licence plate that begins with "K" for example "K123 XYZ" would correspond to a vehicle registered between August 1, 1992 and July 31, 1993.

Again under the old system, a licence plate that ends with "K" for example "ABC 123K" would correspond to a vehicle, registered between August 1, 1971 and July 31, 1972. Media related to K at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of K at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of k at Wiktionary

Christa Théret

Christa Théret is a French actress, best known for her role of Andrée Heuschling in Renoir. As a child, Théret aspired to be a teacher and to become an actress. Théret's acting career began at the age 11, when she did her first film, Headhunter, in 2005. Aged 14, she played a role in Le Couperet as Betty Davert. In 2007, she starred in Et toi t'es sur qui? as a gothic teenager named Julie dite Batman. In 2008, she had her first big break in with the lead role in Lisa Azuelos' blockbuster LOL, which led her to be nominated for the César for Best Promising Actress. In 2012, she starred in L'homme qui rit as Déa. In the future, she wants to be a director, she is writing her first short movie. Théret featured in The Foals 2019 music video for the track Exits. Christa Théret on IMDb Official website Christa Théret on Twitter

War. The Exile and the Rock Limpet

War. The Exile and the Rock Limpet is an oil painting of 1842 by the English Romantic painter J. M. W. Turner. Intended to be a companion piece to Turner's Peace – Burial at Sea, War is a painting that depicts a moment from Napoleon Bonaparte's exile at Saint Helena. In December 1815, the former Emperor was taken by the British government to the Longwood House, despite its state of disrepair, to live in captivity. Turner's decision to pair the painting with Peace was criticized when it was first exhibited but it is seen as predecessor to his more famous piece Rain and Speed – The Great Western Railway. At the conclusion of his Hundred Days, Napoleon Bonaparte, who suffered a decisive defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815, had fallen under the custody of the British after considering a bid for an escape to the United States. In December, the former Emperor was exiled to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic and housed under guard in the Longwood House, his situation worsened by the building's poor living conditions.

Without any realistic hopes of escape from Saint Helena, Napoleon lived out his final days on the island until his death in 1821. J. M. W. Turner was inspired by conflicts from the Napoleonic era: his works The Battle of Trafalgar and The Fighting Temeraire are realizations of the artist's influences. Political overtones are found in some of Turner's most famous pieces, including Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps. In 1840, Napoleon's ashes were returned to France for a state burial on request by Louis Philippe I, inspiring Turner to make the former Emperor the subject of War; the Exile and the Rock Limpet. War depicts a moment during Napoleon's exile on St. Helena. While on guard of a British sentry, a prevalent reminder of his captivity, Napoleon bows to study a lone rock limpet. In his portrayal of him, Turner sought to embody the futility of war; the sunset behind the figure -- Turner's "sea of blood" as he described it -- symbolizes the past hardships of war experienced during Napoleon's military campaigns.

War debuted at the Royal Academy of Arts besides Turner's other artwork Peace. Burial at Sea in 1842. Peace commemorates Turner's friend Scottish artist Sir David Wilkie who, while on a return voyage from the Far East, died of an illness in 1841. Like its companion piece, War was painted on a smaller canvas and was exhibited in an octagonal frame design. Together and Peace contrast the heroic figure, Napoleon with Wilkie's lonely burial at sea. However, War fared poorly with critics who questioned Turner's decision to pair it with Peace considered the better of the two pieces. Turner's abstract approach to War is noted as an early stepping stone toward his more well-received painting Rain and Speed – The Great Western Railway

Within Our Gates

Within Our Gates is a 1920 American silent film by the director Oscar Micheaux that portrays the contemporary racial situation in the United States during the early twentieth century, the years of Jim Crow, the revival of the Ku Klux Klan, the Great Migration of blacks to cities of the North and Midwest, the emergence of the "New Negro". It was part of a genre called race films; the plot features an African-American woman who goes North in an effort to raise money for a rural school in the Deep South for poor black children. Her romance with a black doctor leads to revelations about her family's past and her own mixed-race, European ancestry; the film portrays racial violence under white supremacy, the lynching of black people. Produced and directed by Micheaux, it is the oldest known surviving film made by an African-American director; the film opens with Sylvia Landry, a young African-American woman, visiting her cousin Alma in the North. Landry is waiting for the return of Conrad. Alma loves Conrad.

Larry, Alma's step brother, is rebuffed. Larry kills a professional gambler during a game of poker. Alma arranges for Sylvia to be caught in a compromising situation by Conrad. Conrad is stopped by Alma. Conrad leaves for Brazil. Sylvia returns to the South. Sylvia meets Rev. Jacobs, a minister who runs a rural school for black children called Piney Woods School; the school is overcrowded, Rev. Jacobs cannot continue on the small amount offered to blacks for education by the state. With the school facing closure, Sylvia volunteers to return to the North to raise $5,000. Sylvia's purse is stolen in Boston. Dr. Vivian recovers the purse. After being hit by a car that stemmed from saving a young child playing in the street, Sylvia meets the owner of the car as she recovers in the hospital; the owner is a wealthy philanthropist. Learning of Sylvia's mission, she decides to give her the needed money; when her Southern friend Mrs. Stratton tries to discourage her, Warwick increases her donation to $50,000.

This amount will save the school and Sylvia returns to the South. Rev. Jacobs asks for Sylvia's hand in marriage but Sylvia, now in love with Dr. Vivian, refuses. Larry, on the run from the police, runs into Sylvia and attempts blackmail with secrets of Sylvia's past. Instead of stealing from the school on Larry's behalf, Sylvia steals away in the night and heads north. Dr. Vivian searches for Sylvia. Larry, who has run out of money and returned to Alma, is fatally shot during an attempted bank robbery. Dr. Vivian by chance meets Alma. Alma tells Dr. Vivian about Sylvia's past: these flashback scenes are portrayed in the film. Sylvia was adopted and raised by a poor black family, the Landrys, who managed to provide her with an education. During her youth, the senior Landry was wrongfully accused of the murder of an unpopular but wealthy white landlord, Gridlestone. A white mob attacked the Landry family, lynching the parents and hunting down their son, who escaped after nearly being shot; the mob lynched Efrem, a servant of Gridlestone.

Sylvia escaped after being chased by Gridlestone's brother, close to raping her. Noticing a scar on her breast, Gridlestone's brother realized that Sylvia was his mixed-race daughter, born of his marriage to a local black woman, he had paid for her education. After hearing about her life, Dr. Vivian meets with Sylvia, he professes his love for her, the film ends with their marriage. Regarded in the context of D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation, which had appeared five years earlier, Micheaux's project has been considered by critics as a response to Griffith; the film's portrayal of lynching shows "what Blacks knew and Northern Whites refused to believe", turning the "accusation of'primitivism'... back onto White Southern culture". In this period was the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, in which white mobs killed numerous blacks, burned residential districts, leaving thousands of blacks homeless; the critic Ronald J. Green believes that Micheaux had seen that blacks had fought back in Chicago, chose the title with an allusion to the risk to whites in future racial violence.

Within Our Gates was the second of more than 40 films directed by Micheaux. On a limited budget, Micheaux had to use borrowed props, he had no opportunity to reshoot scenes. After being presumed lost for decades, the film was found when a single print, titled La Negra, was discovered in Spain in the 1970s. A brief sequence in the middle of the film was lost. Only four of the original English intertitles survived, the rest having been replaced with Spanish intertitles when the film was distributed in Spain in the 1920s. In 1993, the Library of Congress Motion Picture Conservation Center restored the film as as possible to the original. Scott Simmon translated the Spanish titles back into English, he removed. He drew from the style and diction used by Micheaux in his novels and in the intertitles for Body and Soul, his only silent film to survive with the original intertitles; the missing sequence was summarized with an intertitle frame. Within Our Gates was rejected by the Board of Censors in Chicago when Micheaux submitted the film in December 1919.

An article in the Chicago Defender of January 17, 1920, asserted: "This is the picture that required two solid months to get by the Censor Boards." A week the Defender reported, Those who reasoned with the spectacle of last July in Chicago before them, declared the showing pre-eminently dangero

Trees Dallas

Trees is an American live music venue opened in 1990 in the Deep Ellum district of downtown Dallas, Texas. The venue has hosted international touring musical acts such as Nirvana, Snoop Dogg, The Flaming Lips, Death Grips, The Wailers, Nick Jonas, Run the Jewels, it has received numerous accolades from the Dallas Observer. Trees first opened its doors as a venue in May 1990. Named for its trunk-like support beams, Trees hosted bands including Nirvana, Mazzy Star, The Afghan Whigs during its initial run as a venue before the club closed in May 2005, it was reopened on August 14, 2009, by Clint Barlow, former drummer for Vanilla Ice, spouse Whitney Barlow. Since its resurrection, the venue has seen acts including Hiatus Kaiyote, Matt Corby, Charlie Puth, Robert DeLong, Charli XCX, Jess Glynne. On Friday, May 4, 2010, Deftones played; the performance followed an early evening, intimate fan Q&A webcast hosted by 102.1 The Edge and moderated by Jessie Jessup, during which the band premiered their new album, Diamond Eyes live.

Their Trees performance was sold out immediately. The band played a 21-song set. At the Drive-In performed a reunion show at Trees on Tuesday, April 10, 2012. El Paso-based psychedelic rock band Zechs Marquise were the opening act. On Saturday, May 30, 2015, Dallas-based rapper Post Malone played his first sold-out show at Trees; as he only had a few songs recorded at the time of the show, his set, which featured two performances of his hit single, "White Iverson", ran 25 minutes. Body Count, the rap-metal band co-founded by Ice-T in 1990, performed live at Trees on Saturday, August 22, 2015, for the Trees' 6th Anniversary show. Denver hardcore outfit The News Can Wait along with Dallas local bands Downlo and Mad Mexicans were the supporting acts. Trees co-owner Clint Barlow played drums with Downlo. On October 19, 1991, Nirvana played an infamous set at Trees to a sold out crowd; as the show was booked before the band released their breakout hit album, the venue was not large enough to accommodate the number of fans that came.

Nirvana's tour manager demanded last minute that Trees hire heightened security, as there was no barrier between the stage and the crowd. Turner Van Blarcum was one of the security guards assigned to keep fans off of the stage, but once Nirvana's set began, fans began to bombard them. Kurt Cobain motioned for the fans to move toward the band. Cobain dove into the crowd, jumping off Van Blarcum's back; as Van Blarcum and other security tried to pull Cobain back onto the stage, Cobain struck Van Blarcum in the head with his guitar. Van Blarcum punched Cobain in the jaw, the other two bandmates confronted Blarcum; the audience erupted into madness, while Cobain stayed onstage, making noises with his guitar for a minute before throwing it into the band's drum set. Trees' staff approached drummer Dave Grohl and bassist Krist Novoselic backstage, asking them to return to the stage, they agreed but had to find Cobain, hiding in a broom closet. Trees' staff brought him to the stage to finish the show. Once the show was over and the band were in a cab, a heated Van Blarcum punched the cab's window, shattering the glass all over the band.

The band paid for both Van Blarcum's medical bills and for damage done to the venue. After its initial closure in 1999, The Bomb Factory was reopened by current Trees owners Clint and Whitney Barlow on Thursday, March 26, 2015; the 4300 capacity venue was renovated before its resurrection, with the introduction of eight VIP suites, air conditioning, a new roof, a mezzanine section, brand new light and sound systems. The Bomb Factory is Trees' sister venue. Erykah Badu performed at the venue on opening day. On October 31, 2017, Clint and Whitney Barlow reopened Deep Ellum Live as Canton Hall, an indoor venue capable of holding up to 1100 people. Consequence of Sound - The 100 Greatest American Music Venues, #61 - 2016 Dallas Observer Best Rock Bar - 2012 Dallas Observer Best Sound System - 2011 Dallas Observer Best Rock Bar - 2010 Dallas Observer Best Not-Quite-Nostalgia Fodder - 2009 Dallas Observer Best Alternative Club - 2001 Official website


Ragpicker, or chiffonnier, is a term for someone who makes a living by rummaging through refuse in the streets to collect material for salvage. Scraps of cloth and paper could be turned into cardboard, broken glass could be melted down and reused, dead cats and dogs could be skinned to make clothes; the ragpickers in 19th and early 20th Century did not recycle the materials themselves. Although it was a job for the lowest of the working classes, ragpicking was considered an honest occupation, more on the level of street sweeper than of a beggar. In Paris, for instance, ragpickers were regulated by law: their operations were restricted to certain times of night, they were required to return any unusually valuable items to the owner or to the authorities; when Eugène Poubelle introduced the garbage can in 1884, he was criticized in the French newspapers for meddling with the ragpickers' livelihoods. Modern sanitation and recycling programs caused the profession to decline, though it did not disappear entirely.

Ragpicking is still widespread in Third World countries today, such as in Mumbai, where it offers the poorest in society around the rubbish and recycling areas a chance to earn a hand-to-mouth supply of money. In 2015, the Environment Minister of India declared a national award to recognise the service rendered by ragpickers; the award, with a cash prize of Rs. 1.5 lakh, is for three best rag pickers and three associations involved in innovation of best practices. Ragpicking has a positive impact on urban spaces with a weak waste management infrastructure. In India, the economic activity of ragpicking is worth about ₹3200 crore. India was found to have a near-90% recycle rate for PET bottles, which could be attributed to ragpicking, given a lack of solid-waste management and under-developed waste collection and recycling culture in that country. Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mal includes a poem where the ragpicker character has a prominent role, entitled "Le Vin de chiffonniers". Francis Saltus Saltus' Shadows and Ideals includes a poem about ragpickers entitled "The Old Rag-picker of Paris".

A section of tenement buildings near Chatham Square, Manhattan became known as Rag-picker's Court, as this was the profession of most of its residents. In 1879, William Allen Rogers drew the rag-strewn courtyard for Harper's Weekly as part of a series of engravings focused on inner-city life. In the 1862 novel Les Misérables, the character Vargouleme is a ragpicker, he considers himself fortunate. "Original Rags" is an 1899 musical medley for piano, an early example of the Ragtime genre, that makes reference to rag picking, as well as a pun "Rag and Bone" is a song by the American garage rock band The White Stripes, told from the point of view of two rag and bone collectors. The Ragpicker's Dream is a song and album by songwriter/guitarist Mark Knopfler released in 2002. Picking Rags is a song by singer/musician George "Mojo" Buford from his 1998 album State Of The Blues Harp. A segment from the 1967 CBS News Special Report television broadcast The Tenement portrays the work of a local rag picker in Chicago