New Orleans Museum of Art
The New Orleans Museum of Art is the oldest fine arts museum in the city of New Orleans. It is situated within City Park, a short distance from the intersection of Carrollton Avenue and Esplanade Avenue, near the terminus of the "Canal Street - City Park" streetcar line, it was established in 1911 as the Delgado Museum of Art. The New Orleans Museum of Art was funded through a charitable grant by local philanthropist and art collector Isaac Delgado; the museum building itself was designed by the former chief engineer of New Orleans Benjamin Morgan Harrod. At the age of 71 Isaac Delgado, a wealthy sugar broker, wrote to the City Park Board about his intention to build an art museum in New Orleans. "I have been led to believe that you would willingly donate in the park the site for a building I propose erecting to be known as the'Isaac Delgado Museum of Art'. My desire is to give to the citizens of New Orleans a fire proof building where works of art may be collected through gifts or loans and where exhibits can be held from time to time by the Art Association of New Orleans".
The board approved his request and designated the circle, at the end of what would become Lelong Avenue, for the museum. On December 11, 1911, the Isaac Delgado Museum of Art opened its doors. Issac Delgado did not attend the opening due to medical issues; this legacy lives on into the future. In 1970/1971, the Edward Wisner Foundation funded the Wisner Education Wing, a three level addition to NOMA's left side. 1993 brought the opening of the $23 million expansion and renovation project to NOMA. The scale of the expansion and renovation, combined with amplified art acquisitions, positioned NOMA into the top 25 percent of the nation's largest and most important fine art museums. Today, the art museum is rated among the best art institutions in the country, having presented many unique and rare exhibits; the museum includes the Sydney and Walda Besthoff Sculpture Garden, a 5-acre landscaped area behind the main building. The gated garden features fifty modern sculptures set among live oaks, magnolias, lagoons, several bridges, a walking trail.
The museum includes a gift shop, a small theater for film screenings, the "Courtyard Cafe: A Ralph Brennan Restaurant." Although City Park suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Katrina, the museum is elevated and located on high ground. As such, flooding was restricted to the basement, most of the museum's permanent collection was not affected by the storm; the permanent collection at the museum features over 40,000 objects, from the Italian Renaissance to the modern era. NOMA's furniture collection includes important examples of 18th and 19th century American furniture and a small group of exquisite 18th century French pieces. Highlights include The Rosemonde E. and Emile Kuntz Rooms, exhibiting choice examples of America's fine and decorative arts heritage in New Orleans. The rooms were first conceived by Felix H. Kuntz, the Dean of Americana fine & decorative arts and ephemera, his brother Emile N. Kuntz was charged with constructing and furnishing the rooms as a memorial to their parents.
The rooms were completed by Mr. Emile Kuntz's widow, Julia Hardin Kuntz, daughters, Rosemonde K. Capomazza di Campolattaro and Karolyn K. Westervelt; the Louisiana Federal Bedchamber, shows how a room of this type might have looked in a fine New Orleans townhouse or great south Louisiana plantation house during the first quarter of the 19th Century. The museum is noted for its collection of European and American works, including works by Degas, Renoir, Matisse, Rodin, Braque, Miró, Jackson Pollock, Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe; the museum features a comprehensive survey of French art, including several important works by the French Impressionist Edgar Degas, who lived with his mother's family in New Orleans between 1871 and 1872. Among the permanent exhibition is a survey of local Louisiana artists, as well as other American artists; the museum features a significant collection of art photography with over 12,000 works from the beginnings of photography to the present. Other holdings include collections of glass, portrait miniatures, Native American Art, Central American art from pre-Columbian and Spanish eras, Chinese ceramics, Japanese painting, Indian sculpture and folk arts from Africa and the South Pacific.
The museum works in close collaboration with other local museums The Historic New Orleans Collection and the Louisiana State Museum, in developing its special exhibitions. Special exhibitions in the past have included the treasures of Tutankhamun's tomb, relics of Alexander the Great and his times, artifacts from the Louisiana Purchase and that era, a retrospective of Edgar Degas in Louisiana, "Femme! Femme! Femme!" Featuring depictions of women in 18th century French painting, "Carneval!" Focusing on pre-Lenten festivals across several European and American cultures, several anniversary exhibitions related to Hurricane Katrina. The museum offers guided group tours, teacher workshops, online teacher guides, visits to local schools through a museum-on-wheels known as "Van Go." The museum hosts festivals, film screenings, music programs and wellness activities Official website 2011/2012 Centennial anniversary website New Orleans Museum of Art at Google Cultural Institute
Private label products are those manufactured by one company for sale under another company's brand. Private-label goods are available in a wide range of industries from food to cosmetics, they are positioned as lower-cost alternatives to regional, national or international brands, although some private label brands have been positioned as "premium" brands to compete with existing "name" brands. Specific private label brands managed by a retailer for sale in only a specific chain of stores are called store brands; the retailer will design the manufacturing and marketing of the goods in order to build on the relationship between the products and the store's customer base. Store-brand goods are cheaper than national-brand goods, because the retailer can optimize the production to suit consumer demand and reduce advertising costs. Goods sold under a store brand are subject to the same regulatory oversight as goods sold under a national brand. Consumer demand for store brands might be related to individual characteristics such as demographics and socioeconomic variables.
Growing market shares and increasing variety of private label consumer packaged goods is now a global phenomenon. However, private label market shares exhibit widespread diversity across international markets and product categories. Empirical research on private label products has been of substantial interest to both marketing academics and managers. Considerable work has been done on well-defined areas of private-label research such as private-label brand strategy, market performance of private-label products, competition with national brands, market structure, buyer behavior. A Food Marketing Institute study found that store brands account for an average of 14.5 percent of in store sales with some stores projecting they will soon reach as high as 20 percent of all sales. Store branding is a mature industry. Sometimes store-branded goods mimic the shape and labeling of national brands, or get premium display treatment from retailers. Richelieu Foods is a private-label company producing frozen pizza, salad dressing and condiments for other companies, including Hy-Vee, Save-A-Lot, Sam's Club, Hannaford Brothers Co.
BJ's Wholesale Shaw's Supermarkets. Another example is the Cott Corporation, which manufactures private-label beverages for supermarket chains. McBride plc is a Europe-based provider of private-label household and personal care products. In 2007, there was a recall in the United States of more than 60 million cans of pet food sold under more than 100 brand names made by Menu Foods; the mass recall revealed that competing brands are made by the same manufacturer. However, ingredients and quality may differ among the labels made under the same umbrella. Research has found that some retailers believe that, while advertising by premium national brands brings shoppers to the store, the retailer makes more profit by selling the shopper a store brand; the Fashion Institute of Technology has published research on store positioning. Grocery chains such as Aldi and Save-A-Lot sell store brands to promote overall lower prices, compared to supermarket chains that sell several brands; the Private Label Manufacturer's Association in the United States categorizes private-label manufacturers into four categories: Large national brand manufacturers that utilize their expertise and excess plant capacity to supply store brands.
Small, quality manufacturers who specialize in particular product lines and concentrate on producing store brands exclusively. These companies are owned by corporations that produce national brands. Major retailers and wholesalers that own their own manufacturing facilities and provide store-brand products for themselves. Regional brand manufacturers. Private Label Strategy Badge engineering Copacker White-label product Media related to Private labels at Wikimedia Commons Kumar, Nirmalya. M. Private Label Strategy - How to Meet the Store Brand Challenge. Harvard Business Press 2007 Private Label Manufacturers Association International Council
At right is displayed the color forest green. Forest green refers to a green color said to resemble the color of the trees and other plants in a forest; this web color, when written as computer code in HTML for web site color display, is written in the form forestgreen. The first recorded use of forest green as a color name in English was in 1810. Forest green is a representation of the average color of the leaves of the trees of a temperate zone deciduous forest. Forest green is used to represent deciduous forest on maps depicting natural vegetation. Forest green may be used to represent the Green movement in graphic design for environmental literature regarding issues having to do with forest conservation. A forest green environmentalist is an environmentalist, committed to environmentalism. Forest green is one of the school colors of The Evergreen State College, Agincourt Collegiate Institute, Wagner College, Cass Technical High School, The Westminster Schools, Newark Arts High School, Canyon Lake High School, St Robert Catholic High School, Westlake High School, Mesa Verde High School.
Forest green is used in the uniforms of the Boy Scouts of America, Venture Scouts, other Scouting organizations. Forest green is a frequent color used in woodland camouflage. Beyond camo uniforms, soldiers will spray their weapons using a multitude of colors including forest green to what would otherwise be black or wooden material. Forest green is one of the team colors of an English basketball team, it is found on the team colors of the Saskatchewan Roughriders, as related to the flag of Saskatchewan. The Minnesota Wild of the NHL has forest green as one of their team colors. Pine green
Rite Aid Corporation is a drugstore chain in the United States. The company ranked No. 94 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. It is headquartered in Camp Hill, East Pennsboro Township, Cumberland County, near Harrisburg. Rite Aid is the largest drugstore chain on the East Coast and the third largest in the U. S. Rite Aid began in 1962, opening its first store in Pennsylvania. After several years of growth, Rite Aid adopted its current name and debuted as a public company in 1968; as of 2019, Rite Aid is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol RAD. Its major competitors are Walgreens. In late 2015, Walgreens announced. However, on June 29, 2017, over fear of antitrust regulations, Walgreens Boots Alliance announced it would buy half of Rite Aid's stores for $5.18 billion. On September 19, 2017, the Federal Trade Commission approved a fourth deal agreement to purchase Rite Aid with 1,932 stores for $4.38 billion total. Alex Grass founded the Rite Aid chain in Scranton, Pennsylvania in September 1962, after marrying into Harrisburg Pennsylvania's Lehrman family in the early 1950s.
The first store was called Thrift D Discount Center. The store expanded into five additional states in 1965 and went public as Rite Aid in 1968, it moved to the New York Stock Exchange in 1970. Rite Aid is one of Fortune 500's Largest U. S. Corporations. Ten years after its first store opened, Rite Aid operated 267 locations in 10 states. In 1981 Rite Aid became the third-largest retail drugstore chain in the country. 1983 marked a sales milestone of $1 billion. A 420-store acquisition along the east coast expanded Rite Aid's holdings beyond 2,000 locations, as did the acquisition of Gray Drug in 1987. Among the companies acquired was Baltimore, Maryland's Read's Drug Store. On April 10, 1989, Peoples Drug's 114 unit Lane Drug of Ohio was purchased by Rite Aid. Rite Aid acquired twenty-four Hook's Drug stores from Revco in 1994, selling nine of those stores to Perry Drug Stores, a Michigan-based pharmacy chain. One year in turn, the 224-store Perry chain was acquired by Rite Aid; the 1,000-store West Coast chain Thrifty PayLess was acquired in 1996.
The acquisition of Thrifty PayLess included the Northwest-based Bi-Mart membership discount stores, sold off in 1998. Acquisitions of Harco, Inc. and K&B, Inc. brought Rite Aid into the Gulf Coast area. In the 1990s, Rite Aid partnered with Carl Paladino's Ellicott Development Co. to expand the company's presence in upstate New York. In 2015, Rite Aid purchased EnvisionRx, a pharmacy benefit manager, which owns subsidiary PBMs MedTrak, Connect Health Solutions, Smith Premier Services. General Nutrition Corporation and Rite Aid formed a partnership in January 1999, bringing GNC mini-stores within the Rite Aid pharmacies. A partnership with drugstore.com in June 1999 allowed customers of Rite Aid to place medical prescription orders online for same-day, in-store pickup. At the time, Rite Aid had just acquired Thrifty PayLess and was integrating the stores into the company; as a result, Leonard Green, who ran the investment firm that had sold those stores to Rite Aid, took control of the company and installed Mary Sammons from Fred Meyer as CEO.
In July 2001, Rite Aid agreed to improve their pharmacy complaint process by implementing a new program to respond to consumer complaints. On July 25, 2004, Rite Aid agreed to pay $7 million to settle allegations that the company had submitted false prescription claims to United States government health insurance programs. In August 2007, Rite Aid acquired 1,850 Brooks and Eckerd Stores throughout the United States in hopes of improving their accessibility to a wider range of consumers. On December 21, 2007, The New York Times reported that Rite Aid had record-breaking losses that year, despite the acquisition of the Brooks and Eckerd chains; the following fiscal quarter saw an increase in revenue but a sharp fall in net income as Rite Aid began the integration process. Rite Aid shares fell over 75% between September 2007 and September 2008, closing at a low of $0.98 on September 11, 2008. Rite Aid shares subsequently dropped to $0.20 on March 6, 2009, the all-time low as of 4 December 2018.
Scott Cole & Associates, APC filed a class action lawsuit against Rite Aid Corporation on behalf of its salaried California Store Managers. It was alleged that Rite Aid failed to pay overtime to these workers and denied them their meal and rest periods. In 2009, the action settled for $6.9 million. Rite Aid had a major accounting scandal that led to the departure of several top ranking executives, including CEO Martin Grass. After serving six years in prison, Martin Grass was released on January 18, 2010. Founder Alex Grass died of cancer on August 27, 2009. In June 2010, John Standley was promoted from Chief Operating Officer to Chief Executive Officer, with former CEO Mary Sammons retaining her position as Chairperson. In October 2018, a former Rite Aid vice president of advertising and two co-owners of Nuvision Graphics Inc. plead guilty to in a $5.7 Million kick-back scheme defrauding Rite Aid. The wellness+ card is Rite Aid's free shopping rewards card that started nationwide on April 18, 2010.
It became a part of the newly launched American Express-backed Plenti rewards program in May 2015. Rite Aid introduced wellness+ BonusCash on January 1, 2018. Customers can no longer earn Plenti points. However, Rite Aid would remain a part of the Plenti rewards program, which would end on July 10, 2018
City Park (New Orleans)
City Park, a 1,300-acre public park in New Orleans, Louisiana, is the 87th largest and 20th-most-visited urban public park in the United States. City Park is 50% larger than Central Park in New York City, the municipal park recognized by Americans nationwide as the archetypal urban greenspace. Although it is an urban park whose land is owned by the City of New Orleans, it is administered by the City Park Improvement Association, an arm of state government, not by the New Orleans Parks and Parkways Department. City Park is unusual in that it is a self-supporting public park, with most of its annual budget derived from self-generated revenue through user fees and donations. In the wake of the enormous damage inflicted upon the park due to Hurricane Katrina, the Louisiana Department of Culture and Tourism began to subsidize the park's operations. City Park holds the world's largest collection of mature live oak trees, some older than 600 years in age; the park was founded in 1854, making it the 48th oldest park in the country, established as the "City Park" in 1891.
The park was a location used for dueling. In the 1800s, men would defend their pride and honor by dueling each other under the oaks at what is now City Park but was a quiet spot secluded from the rest of the city. There were two "dueling oaks," but one was lost in a hurricane in 1949; some of the city's most notable figures who participated in duels in City Park include Bernard de Marigny, a nobleman and president of the Louisiana Senate in 1822-23. Many of the disputes between parties were either reconciled before the duel or after one party sustained a minor injury. Dueling deaths were reported, however. In 1805, Micajah Green Lewis, Gov. William C. C. Claiborne's private secretary and brother-in-law, was killed by a Claiborne opponent. By 1890, dueling was outlawed. New Orleans City Park lost 2,000 trees after Hurricane Katrina and the federal levee failures, but the Dueling Oak still stands where Dueling Oaks Drive meets Dreyfous Drive between the Sydney and Walda Besthoff Sculpture Garden and the New Orleans Museum of Art.
There’s a small sign in front of it. City Park was established in the mid-19th century on land fronting Metairie Road, along the remains of Bayou Metairie, a former distributary of the Mississippi River; the tract of land the Allard Plantation, became city property in 1850 through John McDonogh's will and was reserved for park purposes. In 1854, the 4th District Court pronounced the property a public park; the park extended 100 acres back from City Park Avenue, as swampland covered most of the landscape between Bayou Metairie and the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain. This area, to the north of the original park, was platted for streets by city planners, though none was realized. In 1891, the City Park Improvement Association is founded, the property was established as "City Park." The carousel mule-driven, opened in 1897, was updated to a mechanical carousel in 1906. The miniature train opened in 1898 and the original golf course was built in 1902. A racetrack opened February 11, 1905, but closed only 3 years in 1908.
In the first two decades of the 20th century, numerous improvements were undertaken by the City Park Improvement Association. The Peristyle was constructed in 1907 and the Isaac Delgado Museum of Art renamed the New Orleans Museum of Art, opened in 1911. Two years in 1913, the Casino building opened offering refreshments; the Casino building is occupied by Morning Call Cafe. The Popp Bandstand was constructed in 1917 and dedicated on July 4; the Irby swimming pool was built in 1924. City Park's governing board accomplished a number of large land acquisitions, such that the park assumed its current boundaries. In 1915, the Gen. Beauregard Equestrian Statue was erected at the entrance to City Park. On June 24, 2015, New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu acknowledged the impact of the June 2015 Charleston church shooting, called for the removal of several city memorials to Confederate slaveholders. On December 17, 2015, the New Orleans City Council voted 6-1 to remove the Gen. Beauregard statue, along with three other historical monuments.
In 1919, William McFadden built a mansion. In 1949, this mansion began to be used as Christian Brothers School, an all-boys middle school for grades 5-7, still remains a boys' school today. In 1927, the city extended the park by 900 acres, the first tennis courts were built in the following year. In 1928, John Phillip Sousa performed at the Popp bandstand; the park was expanded in the 1930s due to a $12 million grant from the Works Progress Administration. A master plan, by Bennett, Parsons & Frost of Chicago was commissioned to guide the development of the enlarged park. P. A; this included the installation of many sculptures by WPA artist Enrique Alférez, construction of buildings, bridges and much of the electrical and plumbing infrastructure that were still serving the park when Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005. A formal rose, the genesis of today's New Orleans Botanical Garden; the WPA planted Couterie Forest and constructed Popp Fountain, City Park Stadium, a second 18-hole golf course - home for many years to the New Orleans Open golf tournament - and a golf clubhouse, partially demolished to accommodate I-610.
Many events have taken place at Tad Gormley Stadium in City Park. Actress Dorothy Lamour from New Orleans traveled the country selling war bonds, in 1942, made a stop in her hometown to sell war
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from dairy milk or cream, or soy, coconut or almondmilk, is flavored with a sweetener, either sugar or an alternative, any spice, such as cocoa or vanilla. Colourings are added, in addition to stabilizers; the mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam, solid at low temperatures, it becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the name "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Terms such as "frozen custard," "frozen yogurt," "sorbet," "gelato," and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles. In some countries, such as the United States, "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients, notably the amount of cream.
Products that do not meet the criteria to be called ice cream are sometimes labelled "frozen dessert" instead. In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep's milk, or milk substitutes, are available for those who are lactose intolerant, allergic to dairy protein, or vegan. Ice cream may be licked from edible cones. Ice cream may be served with other desserts, such as apple pie, or as an ingredient in ice cream floats, milkshakes, ice cream cakes and baked items, such as Baked Alaska. History of ice creams began around 500 BC in the Achaemenid Empire with ice combined with flavors to produce summertime treats. In 400 BC, the Persians invented a special chilled food, made of rose water and vermicelli, served to royalty during summers; the ice was mixed with saffron and various other flavours. During the 5th century BC, ancient Greeks ate snow mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens.
Hippocrates encouraged his Ancient Greek patients to eat ice "as it livens the life-juices and increases the well-being." A frozen mixture of milk and rice was used in China around 200 BC. "They poured a mixture of snow and saltpetre over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup, for, in the same way as salt raises the boiling point of water, it lowers the freezing point to below zero." The Roman Emperor Nero had ice brought from the mountains and combined it with fruit toppings to create chilled delicacies. In the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperors from the Indian subcontinent used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi, where it was used in fruit sorbets. Kulfi is a popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian subcontinent and is described as "traditional Indian ice cream." It originated in the sixteenth century in the Mughal Empire. When Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici married the Duke of Orléans in 1533, she is said to have brought with her to France some Italian chefs who had recipes for flavoured ices or sorbets.
One hundred years Charles I of England was so impressed by the "frozen snow" that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative. There is no historical evidence to support these legends, which first appeared during the 19th century; the first recipe in French for flavoured ices appears in 1674, in Nicholas Lemery's Recueil de curiositéz rares et nouvelles de plus admirables effets de la nature. Recipes for sorbetti saw publication in the 1694 edition of Antonio Latini's Lo Scalco alla Moderna. Recipes for flavoured ices begin to appear in François Massialot's Nouvelle Instruction pour les Confitures, les Liqueurs, et les Fruits, starting with the 1692 edition. Massialot's recipes result in a pebbly texture. Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of snow. Ice cream recipes first appeared in England in the 18th century; the recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts in London in 1718.
To ice cream. Take Tin Ice-Pots, fill them with any Sort of Cream you like, either plain or sweeten’d, or Fruit in it; when you wou’d freeze any Sort of Fruit, either Cherries, Currants, or Strawberries, fill your Tin-Pots with the Fruit, but as hollow as you can. An early reference to ice cream given by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1744, reprinted in a magazine in 1877. "1744 in Pennsylvania Mag. Hist. & Biogr. I. 126 Among the rarities..was some fine ice cream, with the strawberries and milk, eat most deliciously."The 1751 edition of The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse features a recipe for ice cream. O