Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr
Cold air intake
A cold air intake is an aftermarket assembly of parts used to bring cool air into a car's internal-combustion engine. Most vehicles manufactured from the mid-1970s until the mid-1990s have thermostatic air intake systems that regulate the temperature of the air entering the engine's intake tract, providing warm air when the engine is cold and cold air when the engine is warm to maximize performance and fuel economy. With the advent of advanced emission controls and more advanced fuel injection methods modern vehicles do not have a thermostatic air intake system and the factory installed air intake draws unregulated cold air. Aftermarket cold air intake systems are marketed with claims of increased engine efficiency and performance; the putative principle behind a cold air intake is that cooler air has a higher density, thus containing more oxygen per volume unit than warmer air. Some strategies used in designing aftermarket cold air intakes are: Reworking parts of the intake that create turbulence to reduce air resistance.
Providing a more direct route to the air intake by eliminating muffling devices. Shortening the length of the intake. Placing the intake duct so as to use the ram-air effect to give positive pressure at speed. Intake systems come in many different styles and can be constructed from plastic, rubber or composite materials; the most efficient intake systems utilize an airbox, sized to complement the engine and will extend the powerband of the engine. The intake snorkel must be large enough to ensure sufficient air is available to the engine under all conditions from idle to full throttle; the most basic cold air intake consists of a long metal or plastic tube leading to a conical air filter. Power may be gained at others; because of the reduced covering, intake noise is increased. Some intakes use heat shields to isolate the air filter from the rest of the engine compartment, providing cooler air from the front or side of the engine bay; this can make a big difference to intake temperatures when the car is moving slowly.
Some systems, called "fender mount," move the filter into the fender wall instead. This system draws air up through the fender wall which provides more isolation and still cooler air. Carburetor heat Heated air inlet Warm air intake Ram-air intake Intercooler
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published since 2009 by Bloomberg L. P. Businessweek, founded in 1929, aimed to provide information and interpretation about events in the business world; the magazine is headquartered in New York City. Megan Murphy served as editor from November 2016; the magazine is published 47 times a year. Businessweek was first published in September 1929, weeks before the stock market crash of 1929; the magazine provided information and opinions on what was happening in the business world at the time. Early sections of the magazine included marketing, finance and Washington Outlook, which made Businessweek one of the first publications to cover national political issues that directly impacted the business world. Businessweek was published to be a resource for business managers. However, in the 1970s, the magazine shifted its strategy and added consumers outside the business world; as of 1975, the magazine was carrying more advertising pages annually than any other magazine in the United States.
Businessweek began publishing its annual rankings of United States business school MBA programs in 1988. Stephen B. Shepard served as editor-in-chief from 1984 until 2005 when he was chosen to be the founding dean of the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism. Under Shepard, Businessweek's readership grew to more than six million in the late 1980s, he was succeeded by Stephen J. Adler of The Wall Street Journal. In 2006, Businessweek started publishing annual rankings of undergraduate business programs in addition to its MBA program listing. Businessweek suffered a decline in circulation during the late-2000s recession as advertising revenues fell one-third by the start of 2009 and the magazine's circulation fell to 936,000. In July 2009, it was reported that McGraw-Hill was trying to sell Businessweek and had hired Evercore Partners to conduct the sale; because of the magazine's liabilities, it was suggested that it might change hands for the nominal price of $1 to an investor, willing to incur losses turning the magazine around.
In late 2009, Bloomberg L. P. bought the magazine—reportedly for between $2 million to $5 million plus assumption of liabilities—and renamed it Bloomberg BusinessWeek. It is now believed McGraw-Hill received the high end of the speculated price, at $5 million, along with the assumption of debt. In early 2010, the magazine title was restyled Bloomberg Businessweek as part of a redesign; as of 2014, the magazine was losing $30 million per year, about half of the $60 million it was reported losing in 2009. Adler resigned as editor-in-chief and was replaced by Josh Tyrangiel, deputy managing editor of Time magazine. In 2016 Bloomberg announced changes to Businessweek, losing between $20 and $30 million. Nearly 30 Bloomberg News journalists were let go across the U. S. Europe and Asia and it was announced that a new version of Bloomberg Businessweek would launch the following year. In addition, editor in chief Ellen Pollock stepped down from her position and Washington Bureau Chief Megan Murphy was named as the next editor in chief.
International editions of Businessweek were available on newsstands in Europe and Asia until 2005 when publication of regional editions was suspended to help increase foreign readership of customized European and Asian versions of Businessweek's website. However, the same year the Russian edition was launched in collaboration with Rodionov Publishing House. At the same time, Businessweek partnered with InfoPro Management, a publishing and market research company based in Beirut, Lebanon, to produce the Arabic version of the magazine in 22 Arab countries. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek continued the magazine's international expansion and announced plans to introduce a Polish-language edition called Bloomberg Businessweek Polska, as well as a Chinese edition, relaunched in November 2011. Bloomberg Businessweek launched an iPad version of the magazine using Apple's subscription billing service in 2011; the iPad edition was the first to use this subscription method, which allows one to subscribe via an iTunes account.
There are over 100,000 subscribers to the iPad edition of Businessweek. On October 4, 2018, Bloomberg Businessweek published a report claiming that China had hacked dozens of technology corporations including Amazon and Apple by placing an extra integrated circuit on a Supermicro server motherboard during manufacturing; the claim has been questioned. The report was refuted by Amazon and Supermicro; the United States security department DHS and UK's GCHQ put out statements that they saw no reason to question those refutations. NSA claims to have no knowledge of the attack. FBI, named by Bloomberg to be investigating the alleged attack, is prevented from commenting on it, but notes that it would have an obligation to inform US companies of attacks like these, should they occur. Experts describe the attack as implausible and in technical details impossible. One source quoted in the Bloomberg text claims that several details of the attack as described by Bloomberg are identical to hypothetical scenarios that he presented to Bloomberg.
No other media organization has, by the end of October, corroborated the story. None of the 30 companies that Bloomberg claims were hit by the infiltration have confirmed this. Apple's CEO and Amazon's CTO have demanded. In the year 2011, Adweek named Bloomberg Businessweek as the top business magazine in the country. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek won the general excellence award for general-interest magazines at the National Magazine Awards. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek editor Josh
A particulate air filter is a device composed of fibrous or porous materials which removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen and bacteria from the air. Filters containing an adsorbent or catalyst such as charcoal may remove odors and gaseous pollutants such as volatile organic compounds or ozone. Air filters are used in applications where air quality is important, notably in building ventilation systems and in engines; some buildings, as well as aircraft and other human-made environments use foam, pleated paper, or spun fiberglass filter elements. Another method, air ionizers, use fibers or elements with a static electric charge, which attract dust particles; the air intakes of internal combustion engines and air compressors tend to use either paper, foam, or cotton filters. Oil bath filters have fallen out of favor; the technology of air intake filters of gas turbines has improved in recent years, due to improvements in the aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of the air-compressor part of the gas turbines.
High efficiency particulate air called high-efficiency particulate absorber but sometimes called high-efficiency particulate arresting or high-efficiency particulate arrestance, is a type of air filter. Filters meeting the HEPA standard have many applications, including use in clean rooms for IC fabrication, medical facilities, automobiles and homes; the filter must satisfy certain standards of efficiency such as those set by the United States Department of Energy. Varying standards define; the two most common standards require that an air filter must remove 99.95% or 99.97% of particles that have a size greater than or equal to 0.3 µm. The cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter, placed in the outside-air intake for the vehicle's passenger compartment; some of these filters are similar in shape to the combustion air filter. Others are uniquely shaped to fit the available space of particular vehicles' outside-air intakes; the first automaker to include a disposable filter to clean the ventilation system was the Nash Motors "Weather Eye", introduced in 1940.
Being a recent addition to automobile equipment, this filter is overlooked. Clogged or dirty cabin air filters can reduce airflow from the cabin vents, as well as introduce allergens into the cabin air stream, since the cabin air temperature depends upon the flow rate of the air passing through the heater core, the evaporator or both, they can reduce the effectiveness of the vehicle's air conditioning and the heating performance; the poor performance of these filters is obscured by manufacturers by not using the minimum efficiency reporting value rating system. Some people mistakenly believe; the combustion air filter prevents abrasive particulate matter from entering the engine's cylinders, where it would cause mechanical wear and oil contamination. Most fuel injected; this filter is placed inside a plastic box connected to the throttle body with duct work. Older vehicles that use carburetors or throttle body fuel injection use a cylindrical air filter between 100 millimetres and 400 millimetres in diameter.
This is positioned above or beside the carburetor or throttle body in a metal or plastic container which may incorporate ducting to provide cool and/or warm inlet air, secured with a metal or plastic lid. The overall unit is called the air cleaner. Pleated paper filter elements are the nearly exclusive choice for automobile engine air cleaners, because they are efficient, easy to service, cost-effective; the "paper" term is somewhat misleading, as the filter media are different from papers used for writing or packaging, etc. There is a persistent belief among tuners, fomented by advertising for aftermarket non-paper replacement filters, that paper filters flow poorly and thus restrict engine performance. In fact, as long as a pleated-paper filter is sized appropriately for the airflow volumes encountered in a particular application, such filters present only trivial restriction to flow until the filter has become clogged with dirt. Construction equipment engines use this; the reason is that the paper is bent in zig-zag shape, the total area of the paper is large, in the range of 50 times of the air opening.
Oil-wetted polyurethane foam elements are used in some aftermarket replacement automobile air filters. Foam was in the past used in air cleaners on small engines on lawnmowers and other power equipment, but automotive-type paper filter elements have supplanted oil-wetted foam in these applications. Foam filters are still used on air compressors for air tools up to 5Hp. Depending on the grade and thickness of foam employed, an oil-wetted foam filter element can offer minimal airflow restriction or high dirt capacity, the latter property making foam filters a popular choice in off-road rallying and other motorsport applications where high levels of dust will be encountered. Due to the way dust is captured on foam filters, large amounts may be trapped without measurable change in airflow restriction. Oiled cotton gauze is employed in a growing number of aftermarket automotive air filters marketed as high-performance items. In the past, cotton gauze saw limited use in original-equipment automotive air filters.
However, since the introduction of the Abarth SS versions, the Fiat subsidiary supplies cotton gauze air filters as OE filters. Stainless steel mesh is anothe
Joey Scarallo is a professional racing driver. At the age of three his family moved to Long Island, New York where he still resides. Scarallo started winning multiple championships, it was around this time. Along the way Joey faced the challenge of a lifetime. Faced with the fight for his life - and the likelihood of at best a walking disability - Joey had to put his racing aspirations on a temporary hold, forever. Joey made it through brain surgery with no negative side effects, it was after this challenge that he became a two-time national karting champion, winning two Duffy trophies, in the International Karting Federation After being emancipated as a minor, Scarallo started his car racing career in the open-wheel ranks in the US Formula Ford 2000 Championship Series in 1996. The first race was at the newly built Walt Disney World Speedway in a family owned 1995 Van Diemen. After a surprise outside pole qualifying position he led the first 9 laps of the race. Famous journalist, Chris Economaki of Speed Sport News, dubbed Scarallo the next Jeff Gordon.
Scarallo ran in the USFF2000 Series in 1996, a part of 1997, in 1998. In 2000, he ran six races in the Toyota Atlantic Championship before making the jump to race in the Trans-Am Series in 2001. In 2007, he made the switch back to open wheel racing for one year, racing in the Indy Lights Series for a startup team, it wasn't until 2002. In February of that year, Scarallo was invited to drive for K&N Air Filters in a company development car, in the 24 Hours of Daytona; the car was an Ultima GTR. After breaking many times throughout the race, the car was retired during the night portion of the race. In 2004, Scarallo was hired to race in the 3-Hour Endurance race of Puerto Rico with teammate Jorge Diaz, another Trans-Am competitor. After qualifying on pole and leading every lap of the race Scarallo, became the first American to win the event. 2005 was a competitive year with many laps led, a fifth place championship finish. The Trans-Am Championship went on hiatus after 2006 and Scarallo moved over to run in the SCCA World Challenge in the GT class with a Pontiac GTO.
In 2010, he made his NASCAR debut in the Nationwide Series when he was hired by a team to run on the Road America and Watkins Glen road courses helping them collect base prize money for qualifying and pulling out of the races early. Many lower budget NASCAR teams do this as a full time revenue source, deriving the term "Start and Park". SCCA Pro Series Profile Driver Database Profile Yahoo Nascar Profile Racing Reference Stats
A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually rotary fasteners, such as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning. In Commonwealth English, spanner is the standard term; the most common shapes are called ring spanner. The term wrench is used for tools that turn non-fastening devices, or may be used for a monkey wrench - an adjustable pipe wrench. In North American English, wrench is the standard term; the most common shapes are called box-end wrench. In American English, spanner refers to a specialised wrench with a series of pins or tabs around the circumference. In American commerce, such a wrench may be called a spanner wrench to distinguish it from the British sense of spanner. Higher quality wrenches are made from chromium-vanadium alloy tool steels and are drop-forged, they are chrome-plated to resist corrosion and for ease of cleaning. Hinged tools, such as pliers or tongs, are not considered wrenches in English, but exceptions are the plumber wrench and Mole wrench.
The word can be used in slang to describe an unexpected obstacle, for example, "He threw a spanner into our plans". Wrenches and applications using wrenches or devices that needed wrenches, such as pipe clamps and suits of armor, have been noted by historians as far back as the 15th century. Adjustable coach wrenches for the odd-sized nuts of wagon wheels were manufactured in England and exported to North America in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; the mid 19th century began to see patented wrenches which used a screw for narrowing and widening the jaws, including patented monkey wrenches. Most box end wrenches are sold as 12 point because 12 points wrenches fit over both 12 point and 6 point bolts. 12 point wrenches offer a higher number of engagement points over 6 point. However, 12 point wrenches have been known to round off 6 point bolts as they provide less contact space; these types of keys are not emically classified as wrenches by English speakers, but they are etically similar in function to wrenches.
Size is designated by dimensions such as across-flats distance. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, it had been common to define the nominal size of the wrench according to the nominal size of the screw thread that it was meant to be used with. Modern practice uses a size designation based on across-flats distance, whether measured in metric or in inch units. List of screw drives The dictionary definition of Wrench at Wiktionary Media related to Wrench at Wikimedia Commons Spanner Jaw Sizes Additional background information and spanner jaw size table. Conversion chart Whitworth/BSF/AF and metric spanner and thread sizes