Kópavogur is a city in Iceland, the country's second largest municipality by population. It lies south of Reykjavík and is part of the Capital Region; the name means seal pup inlet. The town seal contains the profile of the church Kópavogskirkja with a seal pup underneath. Kópavogur is made up of residential areas, but has commercial areas and much industrial activity as well; the tallest building in Iceland, the Smáratorg Tower, is located in central Kópavogur. Kópavogur is significant as the site of the 1662 Kópavogur meeting; this event marked the total incorporation of Iceland into Denmark-Norway when, on behalf of the Icelandic people, Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson and Árni Oddsson, a lawyer, signed a document confirming that the introduction of absolute monarchy by the King applied to Iceland. Kópavogur is one of Iceland's most prominent sites for Icelandic urban legends about the huldufólk. An independent township, Kópavogur is adjacent to Reykjavík. Kópavogur's main sports clubs are Gerpla, Breiðablik UBK and HK.
In 2010 Breiðablik clinched their first Icelandic league title in football and in 2012 HK won their first Icelandic league title in team handball. Sverrir Ingi Ingason, footballer Emilíana Torrini, singer List of cities and towns in Iceland Kópavogur travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website 64°06′44″N 21°54′46″W
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland. It is located on the southern shore of Faxa Bay, its latitude is 64°08' N, making it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. With a population of around 128,793, it is the heart of Iceland's cultural and governmental activity, is a popular tourist destination. Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, according to Ingólfr Arnarson, was established in AD 874; until the 19th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew over the following decades, as it transformed into a regional and national centre of commerce and governmental activities, it is among the cleanest and safest cities in the world. The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established at Reykjavík by Ingólfr Arnarson around AD 870. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Norse method.
The story about the pillars is dubious to many people. He settled near the hot springs to keep warm in the winter and would not have determined it by happenstance. Furthermore the probability of the pillars drifting to that location from where they were said to have been thrown from the boat seems improbable; that is what the Landnamabok says and says furthermore that Ingolf's pillars are still to be found in a house there in town. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove. In the modern language, as in English, the word for'smoke' and the word for fog or steamy vapour are not confused but this is believed to have been the case in the old language; the original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r" that had vanished around 1800. The Reykjavík area was farmland until the 18th century. In 1752, the King of Denmark, Frederik V, donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon.
In the 1750s, several houses were built to house the wool industry, Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other industries were undertaken by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining and shipbuilding; the Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter. Reykjavík was the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. 1786 is thus regarded as the date of the city's founding. Trading rights were limited to subjects of the Danish Crown, Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities, the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow. Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century, the idea of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was central to such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective.
All the important events in the history of the independence struggle were important to Reykjavík as well. In 1845 Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930 AD, was re-established in Reykjavík. At the time it functioned only as an advisory assembly; the location of Alþingi in Reykjavík established the city as the capital of Iceland. In 1874, Iceland was given a constitution; the next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland: Home Rule was granted in 1904 when the office of Minister For Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken on 1 December 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland. By the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík. On the morning of 10 May 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940, four British warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete.
There was no armed resistance, taxi and truck drivers assisted the invasion force, which had no motor vehicles. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but it always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and American soldiers occupied camps in Reykjavík, the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city; the Royal Regiment of Canada formed part of the garrison in Iceland during the early part of the war. The economic effects of the occupation were positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the Depression years va
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, is the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects; the seal-making device is referred to as the seal matrix or die. If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief; the design on the impression will reverse that of the matrix, important when script is included in the design, as it often is. This will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, both matrix and impression are in relief; however engraved gems were carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals.
The process is that of a mould. Most seals have always given a single impression on an flat surface, but in medieval Europe two-sided seals with two matrices were used by institutions or rulers to make two-sided or three-dimensional impressions in wax, with a "tag", a piece of ribbon or strip of parchment, running through them; these "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps or specified signature-accompanying words such as "seal" or "L. S." to be the legal equivalent of, i.e. an effective substitute for, a seal. In the United States, the word "seal" is sometimes assigned to a facsimile of the seal design, which may be used in a variety of contexts including architectural settings, on flags, or on official letterheads. Thus, for example, the Great Seal of the United States, among other uses, appears on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. S. states appear on their respective state flags.
In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the seal design in its entirety appears as a graphical emblem and is used as intended: as an impression on documents. The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used; these could be rolled along to create an impression on clay, used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings, including some with the names of kings, have been found. Seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse so as to read in the impression.
From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were formed of soft stone and ivory and show particular characteristic forms. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms and materials appear. Hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques; the Late Bronze Age is the time par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring, which continued into the Archaic and Hellenistic periods, in the form of pictorial engraved gems. These were a major luxury art form and became keenly collected, with King Mithridates VI of Pontus the first major collector according to Pliny the Elder, his collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great. Engraved gems continued to be collected until the 19th century. Pliny explained the significance of the signet ring, how over time this ring was worn on the little finger. Known as yinzhang in China, injang in Korea, inshō in Japan, ấn giám in Vietnam, seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the Qin dynasty.
The seals of the Han dynasty were impressed in a soft clay, but from the Tang dynasty a red ink made from cinnabar was used. In modern times, seals known as "chops" in local colloquial English, are still used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, they have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals bear the names of the people or organizations represented, but they can bear poems or personal mottoes. Sometimes both types of seals, or large seals that bear both names and mottoes, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that for
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it. Arches may be synonymous with vaults, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture, their systematic use started with the ancient Romans, who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. An arch is a soft compression form, it can span a large area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. This is sometimes referred to as arch action; as the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases. In order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments.
The most common true arch configurations are the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, the three-hinged arch. The fixed arch is most used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, where the spans are short; because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate. The two-hinged arch is most used to bridge long spans; this type of arch has pinned connections at the base. Unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate, allowing the structure to move and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is statically indeterminate, although not to the degree of the fixed arch; the three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the three-hinged arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction.
This type of arch is thus not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is therefore said to be statically determinate, it is most used for medium-span structures, such as large building roofs. Another advantage of the three-hinged arch is that the pinned bases are more developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow, bearing-type foundations in medium-span structures. In the three-hinged arch, "thermal expansion and contraction of the arch will cause vertical movements at the peak pin joint but will have no appreciable effect on the bases," further simplifying the foundation design. Arches have many forms, but all fall into three basic categories: circular and parabolic. Arches can be configured to produce vaults and arcades. Arches with a circular form referred to as rounded arches, were employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied on the rounded arch to span large, open areas. Several rounded arches placed. Pointed arches were most used by builders of Gothic-style architecture.
The advantage to using a pointed arch, rather than a circular one, is that the arch action produces less thrust at the base. This innovation allowed for taller and more spaced openings, typical of Gothic architecture. Vaults are "adjacent arches are assembled side by side." If vaults intersect, complex forms are produced with the intersections. The forms, along with the "strongly expressed ribs at the vault intersections, were dominant architectural features of Gothic cathedrals."The parabolic arch employs the principle that when weight is uniformly applied to an arch, the internal compression resulting from that weight will follow a parabolic profile. Of all arch types, the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the base, but can span the largest areas, it is used in bridge design, where long spans are needed. The catenary arch has a shape different from the parabolic curve; the shape of the curve traced by a loose span of chain or rope, the catenary is the structurally ideal shape for a freestanding arch of constant thickness.
Types of arches displayed chronologically in the order in which they were developed: True arches, as opposed to corbel arches, were known by a number of civilizations in the ancient Near East and the Levant, but their use was infrequent and confined to underground structures, such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is diminished. An example of the latter would be the Nippur Arch. Rare exceptions are an arched mudbrick home doorway in circa 2000BC Tell Taya and the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to c. 1850 B. C. An early example of a voussoir arch appears in the Greek Rhodes Footbridge. Corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa and the Americas. In 2010, a robot discovered a long arch-roofed passageway underneath the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, which stands in the ancient city of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City, dated to around 200 AD. In ancient Persia, the Achaemenid Empire built small barrel vaults known as iwan, which became massive, monumental structures during the Parthian Empire.
This architectural tradition was continued by the Sasanian Empire, which built the Taq Kasra at Ctesiphon in the 6th century, the largest free-standing vault until modern times. The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans, refined it and were the first builders in Europe to tap its full potential for above ground buildings: The Romans were