Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith, which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography... is designed to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, towns, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned in the Bible; the work was last reissued in 2005. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Smith, William; the Quarterly Review. 99: 415–451. September 1856. Via Google Book Search: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol.
I: Abacaenum – Hytanis Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol. II Iabadius – Zymethus The Internet Archive has a number of editions including: Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 1. Boston: Little, Brown. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2. London: Walton and Mayberly. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol. II Iabadius – Zymethus. 2. London: Walton and Mayberly. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 1. Boston: Little, Brown. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2. London: John Murray. Works related to Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography at Wikisource
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Manavgat River originates on the eastern slopes of Western Taurus Mountains in Turkey. At an elevation of 1,350 m, the outflow of several small springs joins together to become the headwaters of the Manavgat; the largest of these springs is called Dumanli, whose name means "place where there is fog", because of the dense mist that forms above the spring. In addition to the springs from the Taurus Mountains, the Manavgat is fed underground from large lakes to the north of the mountains, on the Anatolian Plateau. From there, the river flows south over conglomerated strata for about 90 km, descending through a series of canyons, it washes over the Manavgat Waterfall and through the coastal plain and into the Mediterranean Sea. There are many caves in the most interesting being the Altınbeşik cave; the maximum flow of the Manavgat River is 500 m³/second, with an average of 147 m³/second. Using the average flow as a measure, the Manavgat River accounts for a small amount of the water flowing into the Mediterranean.
There are two dams over the river: the Manavgat Dam. Studies have shown that water drains into the Manavgat River basin from its surface watershed and from endorheic basins those to the east of the river. In 1992, the Turkish State Hydraulics Work was given the job of developing a water supply project for domestic use from the Manavgat river. Manavgat Waterfall
Sea of Marmara
The Sea of Marmara known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea; the former separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides. The Sea of Marmara is a small sea with an area of 11,350 km2, dimensions 280 km × 80 km, its greatest depth is 1,370 m. The sea takes its name from Marmara Island, rich in sources of marble, from the Greek μάρμαρον, "marble"; the sea's ancient Greek name Propontis derives from pro- and pontos, deriving from the fact that the Greeks sailed through it to reach the Black Sea, Pontos. In Greek mythology, a storm on Propontis brought the Argonauts back to an island they had left, precipitating a battle where either Jason or Heracles killed King Cyzicus, who mistook them for his Pelasgian enemies.
The surface salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand, greater than that of the Black Sea, but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. The water is much more saline at the sea bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand, similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea; this high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurluk and Gonen Rivers reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward all of these rivers flow from Anatolia; the sea contains the archipelago of the Prince Islands and Marmara Island, Avşa and Paşalimanı. The south coast of the sea is indented, includes the Gulf of İzmit, the Gulf of Gemlik, Gulf of Bandırma and the Gulf of Erdek. During a storm on December 29, 1999, the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, more than 1,500 tonnes of oil were spilled into the water; the North Anatolian Fault, which has triggered many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the August and November 1999 earthquakes in Izmit and Düzce runs under the sea.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Sea of Marmara as follows: On the West. The Dardanelles limit of the Aegean Sea. On the Northeast. A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli. Towns and cities on the Marmara Sea coast include: 1509 Constantinople earthquake 1999 İzmit earthquake Black Sea deluge hypothesis Kanal İstanbul Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits Turkish Straits Media related to Sea of Marmara at Wikimedia Commons Encyclopædia Britannica SCIENCE FOCUS – SeaWiFS, Sea of Marmara: Where Ancient Myth and Modern Science Mix
Karamenderes is the modern name of the river Scamander, along the lower course of which, according to the Iliad, the battles of the Trojan War were fought. It flows within the Turkish province of Çanakkale
The Göksu is a river on the Taşeli plateau. Both its sources arise in the Taurus Mountains—the northern in the Geyik Mountains and the southern in the Haydar Mountains, their confluence is south of Mut. The river empties into the Mediterranean Sea 16 km southeast of Silifke; the delta of the Göksu, including Akgöl Lake and Paradeniz Lagoon, is one of the most important breeding areas in the Near East. Among others, herons, bee-eaters, gulls and warblers breed here; the endangered Loggerhead Sea Turtle lays eggs here. Due to demand for summer vacation apartments by the locals, since necessary precautions are not taken and public attention is minimal in this part of Turkey, the ecosystem around Akgöl Lake and Paradeniz Lagoon is in heavy danger. In 1190, while on the Third Crusade, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowned in the river known by its Latin name Saleph and located within the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia; the crusaders had reached Asia Minor in March, where the emperor continued his campaign to the Holy Land.
Having plundered the city of Konya and defeated the forces of the Sultanate of Rum at the Battle of Iconium, his forces arrived on the banks of the river on June 10. Several contradictory statements reflect the circumstances of his sudden death, which have not been conclusively established. According to some sources, the emperor was lost in the current when he tried to cross the water near Silifke; the mortal remains were preserved according to the Mos Teutonicus process and transferred to Tarsus and Tyre by his followers. Once without a leader, his crusader's army dispersed. A monument in Barbarossa's honor was erected on the road from Silifke to Mut. Ermenek Dam Blue Tunnel Project
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible