The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Fennel is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves, it is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become naturalized in many parts of the world on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. It is a aromatic and flavorful herb used in cookery and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base, used as a vegetable. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in North America it may be used by the anise swallowtail; the word "fennel" aka "saunf" developed from the Middle English fenyl. This came from the Old English fenol or finol, which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, meaning "hay"; the Latin word for the plant was ferula, now used as the genus name of a related plant.
Fennel was prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine and insect repellent. A fennel tea was believed to give courage to the warriors prior to battle. According to Greek mythology, Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel to carry fire from Olympus to earth. Emperor Charlemagne required the cultivation of fennel on all imperial farms; the Greek name for fennel is marathon or marathos, the place of the famous battle of Marathon means a plain with fennel. The word is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B form as ma-ra-tu-wo; as Old English finule, fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. In the 15th century, Portuguese settlers on Madeira noticed the abundance of wild fennel, used the Portuguese word funcho and the suffix -al to form the name of a new town, Funchal. Longfellow's 1842 poem "The Goblet of Life" refers to the plant and mentions its purported ability to strengthen eyesight: Above the lower plants it towers, The Fennel with its yellow flowers.
Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, grows to heights of up to 2.5 metres, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 centimetres long; the flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 centimetres wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry schizocarp from 4–10 millimetres long, half as wide or less, grooved. Since the seed in the fruit is attached to the pericarp, the whole fruit is mistakenly called "seed". Fennel is cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible flavored leaves and fruits, its aniseed flavor comes from anethole, an aromatic compound found in anise and star anise, its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though not as strong. Florence fennel is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases, it is of cultivated origin, has a mild anise-like flavor, but is sweeter and more aromatic. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type; the inflated leaf bases are cooked.
Several cultivars of Florence fennel are known by several other names, notably the Italian name finocchio. In North American supermarkets, it is mislabeled as "anise". Foeniculum vulgare'Purpureum' or'Nigra', "bronze-leaved" fennel, is available as a decorative garden plant. Fennel has become naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, much of Asia and Australia, it propagates well by seed, is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States. In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats. Florence fennel is one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe, an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became, by the late 19th century, a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. Fennel fruit is used in the production of akvavit.
A 100-gram portion of fennel fruits provides 1,440 kilojoules of food energy, it is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals calcium, iron and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV. Fennel fruits are 15 % fat, 40 % dietary fiber, 16 % protein and 9 % water; the bulb and fruits of the fennel plant are used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel are the most potent form of fennel, but the most expensive. Dried fennel fruit is an aromatic, anise-flavored spice, brown or green in color when fresh turning a dull grey as the fruit ages. For cooking, green fruits are optimal; the leaves are delicately similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. Young tender leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, in soups and
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including the Middle East and stretching east to India. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Although cumin is thought to have uses in traditional medicine, there is no high-quality evidence that it is safe or effective as a therapeutic agent; the English "cumin" is derived from the Old English via Latin cuminum from the Greek κύμινον, related to Hebrew כמון and Arabic كمون. Cumin is the dried seed of a member of the parsley family; the cumin plant is harvested by hand. It is an annual herbaceous plant, with a slender, branched stem, 20–30 cm tall and has a diameter of 3–5 cm; each branch has two to three subbranches. All the branches attain the same height, so the plant has a uniform canopy; the stem is coloured grey or dark green. The leaves are 5 -- 10 cm pinnate or bipinnate, with thread-like leaflets; the flowers are small, white or pink, borne in umbels.
Each umbel has five to seven umbellets. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4–5 mm long, containing two mericarps with a single seed. Cumin seeds have eight ridges with oil canals, they resemble caraway seeds, being oblong in shape, longitudinally ridged, yellow-brown in colour, like other members of the Apiaceae family such as caraway and dill. Originating in a region of the Eastern Mediterranean called the Levant, cumin has been in use as a spice for thousands of years. Seeds excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der were dated to the second millennium BC, they have been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. In the ancient Egyptian civilization, cumin was used as a spice and as a preservative in mummification; the ancient Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container, this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin was used in ancient Roman cuisine. In India, it has been used for millennia as a traditional ingredient in innumerable recipes, forms the basis of many other spice blends.
Cumin was introduced to the Americas by Portuguese colonists. Several different types of cumin are known, but the most famous ones are black and green cumin, both of which are used in Persian cuisine. Today, the plant is grown in the Indian subcontinent, Northern Africa, Mexico and China. Since cumin is used as part of birdseed and exported to many countries, the plant can occur as an introduced species in many territories; the main producers of cumin are China and India, which produces 70% of the world supply and consumes 90% of that. Mexico is another major producer. In total, around 300,000 tons of cumin per year are produced worldwide. Cumin is tropical, or subtropical crop, it has a growth season of 100 to 120 days. The optimum growth temperature ranges are between 25 and 30 °C; the Mediterranean climate is most suitable for its growth. Cultivation of cumin requires a hot summer of three to four months. At low temperatures, leaf colour changes from green to purple. High temperature might induce early ripening.
In India, cumin is sown from October until the beginning of December, harvesting starts in February. In Syria and Iran, cumin is harvested in June/July; the three noteworthy sorts of cumin seed in the market vary in seed shading, amount of oil, flavor. Iranian Indian Middle Eastern Cumin is grown from seeds; the seeds need 2 to 5 °C for emergence, an optimum of 20–30 °C is suggested. Cumin is vulnerable to frost damage at flowering and early seed formation stages. Methods to reduce frost damage are spraying with sulfuric acid, irrigating the crop prior to frost incidence, setting up windbreaks, or creating an early-morning smoke cover; the seedlings of cumin are rather small and their vigor is low. Soaking the seeds for 8 hours before sowing enhances germination. For an optimal plant population, a sowing density of 12–15 kilograms per hectare is recommended. Fertile, loamy soils with good aeration, proper drainage, high oxygen availability are preferred; the pH optimum of the soil ranges from 6.8 to 8.3.
Cumin seedlings are sensitive to salinity and emergence from heavy soils is rather difficult. Therefore, a proper seedbed preparation is crucial for optimal establishment of cumin. Two sowing methods are used for cumin and line sowing. For broadcast sowing, the field is divided into beds and the seeds are uniformly broadcast in this bed. Afterwards, they are covered with soil using a rake. For line sowing, shallow furrows are prepared with hooks at a distance of 20 to 25 cm; the seeds are placed in these furrows and covered with soil. Line sowing offers advantages for intercultural operations such as hoeing, or spraying; the recommended sowing depth is 1–2 cm and the recommended sowing density is around 120 plants per m2. The water requirements of cumin are lower than those of many other species. Despite this, cumin is irrigated after sowing to be sure that enough moisture is available for seedling development; the amount and frequency of irrigation depends on the climate conditions. The relative humidity in the center of origin of cumin is rather low.
High relative humidity favours fungal diseases. Cumin is especially
Caraway known as meridian fennel and Persian cumin, is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to western Asia and North Africa. The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm stems; the main flower stem is 40 -- 60 cm tall, with small pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm long, with five pale ridges; the etymology of caraway is complex and poorly understood. Caraway has been called by many names in different regions, with names deriving from the Latin cuminum, the Greek karon, adapted into Latin as carum, the Sanskrit karavi, sometimes translated as "caraway", but other times understood to mean "fennel". English use of the term caraway dates back to at least 1440, is considered by Walter William Skeat to be of Arabic origin, though Gernot Katzer believes the Arabic al-karawya كراوية to be derived from the Latin carum; the fruits used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils carvone and anethole.
Caraway is used as a spice in breads rye bread. Caraway is used in desserts, liquors and other foods, it is found in European cuisine. For example, it is used in caraway seed cake; the roots may be cooked as a vegetable like carrots. Additionally, the leaves are sometimes consumed as herbs, either raw, dried, or cooked, similar to parsley. In Hungary and Serbia, caraway is sprinkled over home-made salty scones, it is used to add flavor to cheeses such as bondost, pultost and Tilsit cheese. Scandinavian Akvavit, including Icelandic Brennivin, several liqueurs are made with caraway. In Middle Eastern cuisine, caraway pudding, called meghli, is a popular dessert during Ramadan, it is made and served in the Levant area in winter and on the occasion of having a new baby. Caraway is added to flavor harissa, a North African chili pepper paste. In Aleppian Syrian cuisine it is used to make the sweet scones named keleacha. Caraway fruit oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps and perfumes. Caraway is used as a breath freshener, it has a long tradition of use in folk medicine.
In the United States, the most common use of caraway is whole as an addition to rye bread – called seeded rye or Jewish rye bread. Caraway fruits are used in Irish soda bread, along with raisins and currants. Caraway is distributed throughout all of Europe except the Mediterranean region. All other European species of Carum have smaller fruits; however the only one, cultivated is Carum carvi, its fruits being used in many ways in cooking and its essential oils in the preparation of certain medicines and liqueurs. The plant prefers well-drained soil rich in organic matter. In warmer regions, it is planted in the winter as an annual. In temperate climates, it is planted as biennial. However, a polyploid variant of this plant was found to be perennial. Finland supplies about 28% of the world's caraway production. Caraway cultivation is well suited to the Finnish climate and latitudes, which ensure long hours of sunlight in the summer; this results in fruits that contain higher levels of essential oils than those produced in other main growing areas which include Canada, the Netherlands and central Europe
A liqueur is an alcoholic drink flavored variously by fruits, spices, nuts or cream combined with distilled spirits. Served with or after dessert, they are heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a resting period during production, when necessary, for their flavors to mingle. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century prepared by monks. Today they are produced the world over served straight, over ice, with coffee, in cocktails, used in cooking. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere; the French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve". In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as schnapps; this can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup diluted to taste and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.
Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are called "liquor", there is confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today. Liqueurs contain a lower alcohol content than spirits and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials; these materials include juices or extracts from fruits, leaves or other plant materials. The extracts are obtained by filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount, at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%, it may contain natural or artificial flavouring and color. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.
Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from flavoring agents. Anise and Rakı liqueurs have the property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor. Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers; each liqueur is poured into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect. The Liqueur Compounder's Handbook of Recipes for the Manufacture of Liqueurs, Alcoholic Cordials and Compounded Spirits. Bush, W. J. and Co. 1910. Kaustinen, E. M.. Production and stability of cream liqueurs made with whey protein concentrate. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Liqueurs at The Cook's Thesaurus