Anne Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family. The daughter of Patrick Brontë, a poor Irish clergyman in the Church of England, Anne Brontë lived most of her life with her family at the parish of Haworth on the Yorkshire moors, she attended a boarding school in Mirfield between 1836 and 1837. At 19 she left Haworth and worked as a governess between 1839 and 1845. After leaving her teaching position, she fulfilled her literary ambitions, she published a volume of poetry with two novels. Agnes Grey, based upon her experiences as a governess, was published in 1847, her second and last novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, considered to be one of the first sustained feminist novels, appeared in 1848. Like her poems, both her novels were first published under the masculine pen name of Acton Bell. Anne's life was cut short when she died of what is now suspected to be pulmonary tuberculosis at the age of 29; because the re-publication of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall was prevented by Charlotte Brontë after Anne's death, she is not as well known as her sisters.
However, her novels, like those of her sisters, have become classics of English literature. Anne's father, Patrick Brontë, was born in a two-room cottage in Emdale, County Down, Ireland, he was the oldest of ten children born to Hugh Brunty and Eleanor McCrory, poor Irish peasant farmers. The family surname mac Aedh Ó Proinntigh was Anglicised as Brunty. Struggling against poverty, Patrick from 1798 taught others. In 1802, at 25, he won a place to study theology at St. John's College, Cambridge where he changed his name, Brunty, to the more distinguished sounding Brontë. In 1807 he was ordained in the priesthood in the Church of England, he served as a curate first in Essex and latterly in Shropshire. In 1810, he published his first poem Winter Evening Thoughts in a local newspaper, followed in 1811 by a collection of moral verse, Cottage Poems. In 1811, he became vicar of St. Peter's Church in Hartshead in Yorkshire; the following year he was appointed an examiner in Classics at Woodhouse Grove School, near Bradford a Wesleyan academy where, aged 35, he met his future wife, Maria Branwell, the headmaster's niece.
Anne's mother, Maria Branwell, was the daughter of Thomas Branwell, a successful, property-owning grocer and tea merchant in Penzance and Anne Carne, the daughter of a silversmith. The eleventh of twelve children, Maria enjoyed the benefits of belonging to a prosperous family in a small town. After the death of her parents within a year of each other, Maria went to help her aunt administer the housekeeping functions of the school. A tiny, neat woman aged 30, she was well read and intelligent, her strong Methodist faith attracted Patrick Brontë. Though from different backgrounds, within three months Patrick Brontë and Maria Branwell were married on 29 December 1812, their first child, was born after they moved to Hartshead. In 1815, Patrick was appointed curate of the chapel near Bradford. Four more children followed: Charlotte, Patrick Branwell and Anne. Anne, the youngest of the Brontë children, was born on 17 January 1820, on the outskirts of Bradford where her father was curate and she was baptised there on 25 March 1820.
Anne's father was appointed to the perpetual curacy in Haworth, a small town seven miles away. In April 1820, the Brontës moved into the five-roomed Haworth Parsonage which became their home for the rest of their lives. Anne was a year old when her mother became ill of what is believed to have been uterine cancer. Maria Branwell died on 15 September 1821. In order to provide a mother for his children, Patrick tried without success. Maria's sister, Elizabeth Branwell, moved to the parsonage to nurse her dying sister, but she spent the rest of her life there raising the children, she did it from a sense of duty. There was little affection between her and the older children, but Anne, according to tradition, was her favourite. In Elizabeth Gaskell's biography of Charlotte, Anne's father remembered her as precocious, reporting that once, when she was four years old, in reply to his question about what a child most wanted, she answered: "age and experience". In summer 1824, Patrick sent Maria, Elizabeth and Emily to Crofton Hall in Crofton, West Yorkshire, subsequently to the Clergy Daughter's School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire.
When his eldest daughters died of consumption in 1825, Maria on 6 May and Elizabeth on 15 June and Emily were brought home. The unexpected deaths distressed the family so much that Patrick could not face sending them away again. For the next five years, they were educated at home by their father and aunt; the children made little attempt to mix with others outside the parsonage, but relied on each other for friendship and companionship. The bleak moors surrounding Haworth became their playground. Anne shared a room with her aunt. Anne's studies at home included drawing. Anne and Branwell had piano lessons from the Keighley church organist, they had art lessons from John Bradley of Keighley and all drew with some skill. Their aunt tried to teach the girls how to run a household, but their minds were more inclined to literature, their father's well-
Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist and critic, whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, outspoken support of democratic socialism. Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry and polemical journalism, he is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier, documenting his experience of working class life in the north of England, Homage to Catalonia, an account of his experiences on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, are acclaimed, as are his essays on politics, literature and culture. In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Orwell's work continues to influence popular and political culture and the term "Orwellian"—descriptive of totalitarian or authoritarian social practices—has entered the language together with many of his neologisms, including "Big Brother", "Thought Police", "Hate week", "Room 101", "memory hole", "newspeak", "doublethink", "proles", "unperson" and "thoughtcrime".
Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 in Motihari, British India. His great-grandfather, Charles Blair, was a wealthy country gentleman in Dorset who married Lady Mary Fane, daughter of the Earl of Westmorland, had income as an absentee landlord of plantations in Jamaica, his grandfather, Thomas Richard Arthur Blair, was a clergyman. Although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not, his father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service. His mother, Ida Mabel Blair, grew up in Moulmein, where her French father was involved in speculative ventures. Eric had two sisters: Marjorie, five years older; when Eric was one year old, his mother his sisters to England. His birthplace and ancestral house in Motihari has been declared a protected monument of historical importance. In 1904 Ida Blair settled with her children at Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire. Eric was brought up in the company of his mother and sisters, apart from a brief visit in mid-1907, the family did not see their husband or father, Richard Blair, until 1912.
His mother's diary from 1905 describes a lively round of artistic interests. Before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake, Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family their daughter Jacintha; when they first met, he was standing on his head in a field. On being asked why, he said, "You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up." Jacintha and Eric read and wrote poetry, dreamed of becoming famous writers. He said. During this period, he enjoyed shooting and birdwatching with Jacintha's brother and sister. Aged five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames, which Marjorie attended, it was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, exiled from France after religious education was banned in 1903. His mother wanted him to have a public school education, but his family could not afford the fees, he needed to earn a scholarship. Ida Blair's brother Charles Limouzin recommended St Cyprian's School, East Sussex.
Limouzin, a proficient golfer, knew of the school and its headmaster through the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, where he won several competitions in 1903 and 1904. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, made a private financial arrangement that allowed Blair's parents to pay only half the normal fees. In September 1911, Eric arrived at St Cyprian's, he boarded at the school for the next five years. During this period, while working for the Ministry of Pensions, his mother lived at 23 Cromwell Crescent, Earls Court, he knew nothing of the reduced fees, although he "soon recognised that he was from a poorer home". Blair hated the school and many years wrote an essay "Such, Such Were the Joys", published posthumously, based on his time there. At St Cyprian's, Blair first met Cyril Connolly. Many years as the editor of Horizon, Connolly published several of Orwell's essays. While at St Cyprian's, Blair wrote two poems that were published in the Henley and South Oxfordshire Standard.
He came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton. But inclusion on the Eton scholarship roll did not guarantee a place, none was available for Blair, he chose to stay at St Cyprian's until December 1916. In January, Blair took up the place at Wellington. In May 1917 a place became available as a King's Scholar at Eton. At this time the family lived at Notting Hill Gate. Blair remained at Eton until December 1921, when he left midway between his 19th birthday. Wellington was "beastly", Orwell told his childhood friend Jacintha Buddicom, but he said he was "interested and happy" at Eton, his principal tutor was A. S. F. Gow, Fellow of Trinity College, who gave him advice in his career. Blair was taught French by Aldous Huxley. Steven Runciman, at Eton with Blair, noted that he and his contemporaries appreciated Huxley's linguistic flair. Cyril Connolly followed Blair to Eton, but because they were in separate years
Novalis was the pseudonym and pen name of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, a poet, author and philosopher of Early German Romanticism. Hardenberg's professional work and university background, namely his study of mineralogy and management of salt mines in Saxony, was ignored by his contemporary readers; the first studies showing important relations between his literary and professional works started in the 1960s. Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg was born in 1772 at Oberwiederstedt manor, in the Harz mountains. In the church in Wiederstedt, he was christened Georg Philipp Friedrich. An oil painting and a christening cap assigned to him are Hardenberg's only possessions now extant; the family seat was a manorial estate. Hardenberg descended from ancient, Lower German nobility with its ancestral seat at Nörten-Hardenberg since 1287 to this day. Different lines of the family include such important, influential magistrates and ministry officials as the Prussian chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg.
He spent his childhood on the family estate and used it as the starting point for his travels into the Harz mountains. His father, the estate owner and salt-mine manager Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg, was a pietistic man, member of the Moravian Church, his second marriage was to Auguste Bernhardine von Böltzig, who gave birth to eleven children: their second child was Georg Philipp Friedrich. The Hardenbergs were a noble family but not rich. Young Georg Philipp was short of cash, rode a small horse, sometimes had to walk. At first, young Hardenberg was taught by private tutors, he attended the Lutheran grammar school in Eisleben, where he acquired skills in rhetoric and ancient literature, common parts of the education of his time. From his twelfth year, he was in the charge of his uncle Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Hardenberg at his stately home in Lucklum. Young Hardenberg studied law from 1790 to 1794 at Jena and Wittenberg, he passed his exams with distinction. During his studies, he attended Schiller's lectures on history and befriended him during his illness.
He met Goethe and Jean Paul, befriended Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the brothers Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel. In October 1794, he started working as actuary for August Coelestin Just, who became not only his friend but also his biographer; the following January, he was appointed auditor to the salt works at Weißenfels. During the time he worked for August Coelestin Just, Novalis met the 12-year-old Sophie von Kühn, a girl who was, according to accounts, a "perfectly commonplace young girl, neither intelligent nor beautiful." Nonetheless, he fell in love with Sophie, since in the young Georg Philipp's view of the world "nothing is commonplace" because "all, when rightly seen, is symbolic." On 15 March 1795, when Sophie was 13 years old, the two became engaged, despite her family's reluctance and the fact that she was tubercular. The early death of Sophie in March 1797, from tuberculosis, affected Novalis and permanently, she was only 15 years old, the two had not married.
In 1795–1796, Novalis entered the Mining Academy of Freiberg in Saxony, a leading academy of science, to study geology under Professor Abraham Gottlob Werner, who befriended him. During Novalis' studies in Freiberg, he immersed himself in a wide range of studies, including mining, chemistry, history and, not least, philosophy, it was here that he collected materials for Das allgemeine Brouillon. Similar to other German authors of the Romantic age, his work in the mining industry, undergoing the first steps to industrialization, was connected with his literary work. In the period 1795–1796, Novalis concerned himself with the scientific doctrine of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, which influenced his worldview, he not only read Fichte's philosophies but developed his concepts further, transforming Fichte's Nicht-Ich to a Du, an equal subject to the Ich. This was the starting point for Novalis' Liebesreligion. Novalis' first fragments were published in 1798 in the Athenäum, a magazine edited by the Schlegel brothers, who were part of the early Romantic movement.
Novalis' first publication was entitled Blüthenstaub and saw the first appearance of his pseudonym, "Novalis". In July 1799, he became acquainted with Ludwig Tieck, that autumn he met other authors of so-called "Jena Romanticism". Novalis became engaged for the second time in December 1798, his fiancée was Julie von Charpentier, a daughter of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Toussaint von Charpentier, a professor in Freiberg. From Pentecost 1799, Novalis again worked in the management of salt mines; that December, he became an assessor of a director. On the 6 December 1800, the twenty-eight-year-old Hardenberg was appointed Supernumerar-Amtshauptmann for the district of Thuringia, a position comparable to a present-day magistrate. From August 1800 onward, Hardenberg was suffering from tuberculosis. On 25 March 1801, he died in Weißenfels, his body was buried in the old cemetery there. Novalis lived long enough to see the publication only of Pollen and Love or the King and the Queen and Hymns to the Night.
His unfinished novels Heinrich von Ofterdingen and The Novices at Sais, his political speech Christendom or Europa, numerous other notes and fragments were published posthumously by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel. Young Hardenberg adopted the pen name Novalis f
W. Somerset Maugham
William Somerset Maugham, CH, better known as W. Somerset Maugham, was a British playwright and short story writer, he was among the most popular writers of his era and reputedly the highest-paid author during the 1930s. After both his parents died before he was 10, Maugham was raised by a paternal uncle, cold. Not wanting to become a lawyer like other men in his family, Maugham trained and qualified as a physician; the initial run of his first novel, Liza of Lambeth, sold out so that Maugham gave up medicine to write full-time. During the First World War he served with the Red Cross and in the ambulance corps, before being recruited in 1916 into the British Secret Intelligence Service, for which he worked in Switzerland and Russia before the October Revolution of 1917. During and after the war, he travelled in Southeast Asia. Maugham's father, Robert Ormond Maugham, was a lawyer who handled the legal affairs of the British embassy in Paris. Since French law declared that all children born on French soil could be conscripted for military service, his father arranged for Maugham to be born at the embassy, technically on British soil.
His grandfather, another Robert, was a prominent lawyer and co-founder of the Law Society of England and Wales. Maugham refers to this grandfather's writings in Chapter 6 of his literary memoir, The Summing Up: "...in the catalogue of the Library at the British Museum there is a long list of his legal works. He wrote only one book, not of this character, it was a collection of essays that he had contributed to the solid magazines of the day and he issued it, as became his sense of decorum, anonymously. I once had the book in my hands, a handsome volume bound in calf, but I never read it and I have not been able to get hold of a copy since. I wish I had, for I might have learnt from it something of the kind of man he was." His family assumed his brothers would be lawyers. His elder brother, Viscount Maugham, enjoyed a distinguished legal career and served as Lord Chancellor from 1938 to 1939. Maugham's mother, Edith Mary, had tuberculosis, a condition for which her physician prescribed childbirth.
She had Maugham several years. His brothers were away at boarding school by the time. Edith's sixth and final son died on 25 January 1882, one day after his birth, on Maugham's eighth birthday. Edith died of tuberculosis six days on 31 January at the age of 41; the early death of his mother left. He kept his mother's photograph at his bedside for the rest of his life. Two years after Edith's death Maugham's father died in France of cancer. Maugham was sent to the UK to be cared for by his uncle, Henry MacDonald Maugham, the Vicar of Whitstable, in Kent; the move was damaging. Henry Maugham was cold and cruel; the boy attended The King's School, difficult for him. He was teased for his short stature, which he inherited from his father. Maugham developed a stammer that stayed with him all his life, although it was sporadic, being subject to his moods and circumstances. Miserable both at his uncle's vicarage and at school, the young Maugham developed a talent for making wounding remarks to those who displeased him.
This ability is sometimes reflected in Maugham's literary characters. Aged 16, Maugham refused to continue at The King's School, his uncle allowed him to travel to Germany, where he studied literature and German at Heidelberg University. During his year in Heidelberg Maugham met and had a sexual affair with John Ellingham Brooks, an Englishman ten years his senior, he wrote his first book there, a biography of Giacomo Meyerbeer, an opera composer. After Maugham's return to Britain his uncle found him a position in an accountant's office, but after a month Maugham gave it up and returned to Whitstable, his uncle tried to find Maugham a new profession. Maugham's father and three older brothers were distinguished lawyers. A career in the Church was rejected because a stammering clergyman might make the family appear ridiculous, his uncle rejected the Civil Service, not because of the young man's feelings or interests, but because his uncle concluded that it was no longer a career for gentlemen, since a new law required applicants to pass an entrance examination.
The local physician suggested Maugham's uncle agreed. Maugham had been writing since he was 15, wanted to be an author, but he did not tell his guardian. For the next five years he studied medicine at the medical school of St Thomas's Hospital in Lambeth; the school was independent, but is now part of King's College London. Some critics have assumed that the years Maugham spent studying medicine were a creative dead end, but Maugham did not feel this way about this time, he was living in the great city of London, meeting people of a "low" sort whom he would never have met otherwise, seeing them at a time of heightened anxiety and meaning in their lives. In maturity, he recalled the value of his experience as a medical student: "I saw. I saw. I saw what hope looked like and relief..."Maugham kept his own lodgings, took pleasure in furnishing them, filled many notebooks with literary ideas, continued writing nightly while at the same time studying for his medical degree. In 1897, he published his first novel, Liza of Lambeth, a tale of working-class adultery and its consequences.
It drew its details from Maugham's experiences as a medical student doing midwifery wo
Rainer Maria Rilke
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke, better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist. He is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets", he wrote both verse and lyrical prose. Several critics have described Rilke's work as inherently "mystical", his writings include one novel, several collections of poetry and several volumes of correspondence in which he invokes haunting images that focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief and profound anxiety. These existential themes tend to position him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist writers. Rilke travelled extensively throughout Europe, in his years settled in Switzerland — settings that were key to the genesis and inspiration for many of his poems. While Rilke is most known for his contributions to German literature, over 400 poems were written in French and dedicated to the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Among English-language readers, his best-known works include the poetry collections Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus, the semi-autobiographical novel The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, a collection of ten letters, published after his death under the title Letters to a Young Poet.
In the 20th century, his work found new audiences through use by New Age theologians and self-help authors and frequent quotations by television programs and motion pictures. In the United States, Rilke remains among the more best-selling poets, he was born René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke in capital of Bohemia. His childhood and youth in Prague were not happy, his father, Josef Rilke, became a railway official after an unsuccessful military career. His mother, Sophie Entz, came from a well-to-do Prague family, the Entz-Kinzelbergers, who lived in a house on the Herrengasse 8, where René spent many of his early years; the relationship between Phia and her only son was coloured by her mourning for an earlier child, a daughter who had died only one week old. During Rilke's early years Phia acted as if she sought to recover the lost girl through the boy by dressing him in girl's clothing, his parents' marriage failed in 1884. His parents pressured the poetically and artistically talented youth into entering a military academy in Sankt Pölten, Lower Austria, which he attended from 1886 until 1891, when he left owing to illness.
He moved to Linz. Expelled from school in May 1892, the 16-year-old prematurely returned to Prague. From 1892 to 1895 he was tutored for the university entrance exam, which he passed in 1895; until 1896 he studied literature, art history, philosophy in Prague and Munich. In 1897 in Munich, Rainer Maria Rilke met and fell in love with the travelled, intellectual woman of letters, Lou Andreas-Salomé. Rilke changed his first name from "René" to "Rainer" at Salomé's urging, because she thought that name to be more masculine and Germanic, his relationship with this married woman, with whom he undertook two extensive trips to Russia, lasted until 1900. After their separation, Salomé continued to be Rilke's most important confidante until the end of his life. Having trained from 1912 to 1913 as a psychoanalyst with Sigmund Freud, she shared her knowledge of psychoanalysis with Rilke. In 1898, Rilke undertook a journey lasting several weeks to Italy. In 1899, he travelled with Lou and her husband, Friedrich Andreas, to Moscow where he met the novelist Leo Tolstoy.
Between May and August 1900, a second journey to Russia, accompanied only by Lou, again took him to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, where he met the family of Boris Pasternak and Spiridon Drozhzhin, a peasant poet. Author Anna A. Tavis cites the cultures of Bohemia and Russia as the key influences on Rilke's poetry and consciousness. In 1900, Rilke stayed at the artists' colony at Worpswede, it was here. Their daughter Ruth was born in December 1901. In the summer of 1902, Rilke left home and travelled to Paris to write a monograph on the sculptor Auguste Rodin. Before long his wife joined Rilke there; the relationship between Rilke and Clara Westhoff continued for the rest of his life. At first, Rilke had a difficult time in Paris, an experience that he called on in the first part of his only novel, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge. At the same time, his encounter with modernism was stimulating: Rilke became involved with the sculpture of Rodin the work of Paul Cézanne. For a time, he acted as Rodin's secretary lecturing and writing a long essay on Rodin and his work.
Rodin taught him the value of objective observation and, under this influence, Rilke transformed his poetic style from the subjective and sometimes incantatory language of his earlier work into something quite new in European literature. The result was the New Poems, famous for the "thing-poems" expressing Rilke's rejuvenated artistic vision. During these years, Paris became the writer's main residence; the most importan
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is the first novel of Irish writer James Joyce. A Künstlerroman in a modernist style, it traces the religious and intellectual awakening of young Stephen Dedalus, a fictional alter ego of Joyce and an allusion to Daedalus, the consummate craftsman of Greek mythology. Stephen questions and rebels against the Catholic and Irish conventions under which he has grown, culminating in his self-exile from Ireland to Europe; the work uses techniques that Joyce developed more in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. A Portrait began life in 1904 as Stephen Hero—a projected 63-chapter autobiographical novel in a realistic style. After 25 chapters, Joyce abandoned Stephen Hero in 1907 and set to reworking its themes and protagonist into a condensed five-chapter novel, dispensing with strict realism and making extensive use of free indirect speech that allows the reader to peer into Stephen's developing consciousness. American modernist poet Ezra Pound had the novel serialised in the English literary magazine The Egoist in 1914 and 1915, published as a book in 1916 by B. W. Huebsch of New York.
The publication of A Portrait and the short story collection Dubliners earned Joyce a place at the forefront of literary modernism. Born into a middle-class family in Dublin, James Joyce excelled as a student, graduating from University College, Dublin, in 1902, he soon gave it up. He returned to Ireland at his family's request. Despite her pleas, the impious Joyce and his brother Stanislaus refused to make confession or take communion, when she passed into a coma they refused to kneel and pray for her. After a stretch of failed attempts to get published and launch his own newspaper, Joyce took jobs teaching and reviewing books. Joyce made his first attempt at a novel, Stephen Hero, in early 1904; that June he saw Nora Barnacle for the first time walking along Nassau Street. Their first date was on the same date that his novel Ulysses takes place. Joyce and Nora were infatuated with each other and they bonded over their shared disapproval of Ireland and the Church. Nora and Joyce eloped to continental Europe, first staying in Zürich before settling for ten years in Trieste, where he taught English.
In March 1905, Joyce was transferred to the Berlitz School In Trieste because of threats of spies in Austria. There Nora gave birth to their children, George in 1905 and Lucia in 1907, Joyce wrote fiction, signing some of his early essays and stories "Stephen Daedalus"; the short stories he wrote made up the collection Dubliners, which took about eight years to be published due to its controversial nature. While waiting on Dubliners to be published, Joyce reworked the core themes of the novel Stephen Hero he had begun in Ireland in 1904 and abandoned in 1907 into A Portrait, published in 1916, a year after he had moved back to Zürich in the midst of the First World War. Et ignotas animum dimittit in artes. At the request of its editors, Joyce submitted a work of philosophical fiction entitled "A Portrait of the Artist" to the Irish literary magazine Dana on 7 January 1904. Dana's editor, W. K. Magee, rejected it, telling Joyce, "I can't print what I can't understand." On his 22nd birthday, 2 February 1904, Joyce began a realist autobiographical novel, Stephen Hero, which incorporated aspects of the aesthetic philosophy expounded in A Portrait.
He worked on the book until mid-1905 and brought the manuscript with him when he moved to Trieste that year. Though his main attention turned to the stories that made up Dubliners, Joyce continued work on Stephen Hero. At 914 manuscript pages, Joyce considered the book about half-finished, having completed 25 of its 63 intended chapters. In September 1907, however, he abandoned this work, began a complete revision of the text and its structure, producing what became A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. By 1909 the work had taken shape and Joyce showed some of the draft chapters to Ettore Schmitz, one of his language students, as an exercise. Schmitz, himself a respected writer, was impressed and with his encouragement Joyce continued work on the book. In 1911 Joyce flew into a fit of rage over the continued refusals by publishers to print Dubliners and threw the manuscript of Portrait into the fire, it was saved by a "family fire brigade" including his sister Eileen. Chamber Music, a book of Joyce's poems, was published in 1907.
Joyce showed, in his own words, "a scrupulous meanness" in his use of materials for the novel. He recycled the two earlier attempts at explaining his aesthetics and youth, A Portrait of the Artist and Stephen Hero, as well as his notebooks from Trieste concerning the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. Stephen Hero is written from the point of view of an omniscient third-person narrator, but in Portrait Joyce adopts the free indirect style, a change that reflects the moving of the narrative centre of consciousness and uniquely onto Stephen. Persons and events take their significance from Stephen, are perceived from his point of view. Characters and places are no longer mentioned because the young Joyce had known them. Salient details are chosen and fitted into the aesthetic pattern of the novel. In 1913 the Irish poet W. B. Yeats recommended Joyce's work to the avant-garde American poet Ezra Pound, assembling an anthology of verse. Pound wrote to Joyce, in 1914 Joyce submitted the first chapter of the unfinished Portrait to Pound, so taken with it that he pressed to have the work serialised in the London literary magazine The Egoist.
Joyce hurried to
Of Human Bondage
Of Human Bondage is a 1915 novel by W. Somerset Maugham, it is agreed to be his masterpiece and to be autobiographical in nature, although Maugham stated, "This is a novel, not an autobiography, though much in it is autobiographical, more is pure invention." Maugham, who had planned to call his novel Beauty from Ashes settled on a title taken from a section of Spinoza's Ethics. The Modern Library ranked Of Human Bondage No. 66 on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. The book begins with the death of Helen Carey, the much beloved mother of nine-year-old Philip Carey. Philip has a club foot and his father had died a few months before. Now orphaned, he is sent to live with his aunt and uncle and William Carey. Early chapters relate Philip's experiences at his uncle's vicarage. Aunt Louisa tries to be a mother to Philip. Philip's uncle has a vast collection of books, Philip enjoys reading to find ways to escape his mundane existence. Less than a year Philip is sent to a boarding school.
His uncle and aunt wish for him to attend Oxford. Philip's disability and sensitive nature make it difficult for him to fit in with the other students. Philip is informed that he could have earned a scholarship for Oxford, which both his uncle and school headmaster see as a wise course, but Philip insists on going to Germany. In Germany, Philip lives at a boarding house with other foreigners, he enjoys his stay in Germany. Philip's guardians decide to take matters into their own hands and they persuade him to move to London to take on an apprenticeship, he does not fare well there as his co-workers resent him, because they believe he is a "gentleman". He goes on a business trip with one of his managers to Paris and is inspired by the trip to study art in France. In France, Philip attends art classes and makes new friends, including Fanny Price, a poor and determined but talentless art student who does not get along well with people. Fanny Price falls in love with Philip. Philip realizes, he returns to his uncle's house in England to pursue his late father's field.
He struggles at medical school and comes across Mildred, working as a waitress in a tea shop. He falls in love with her, they date although she does not show any affection for him. Mildred tells Philip. Mildred returns and confesses that the man for whom she had abandoned Philip never married her, as he was married with 3 children. Philip breaks off his relationship with Norah and supports Mildred financially, though he can ill afford to do so. To Philip's dismay, after Mildred has her baby she falls in love with his good friend Harry Griffiths, runs away with him. About a year Philip runs into Mildred again and, feeling sympathy for her, takes her in again. Though he no longer loves her, he becomes attached to her baby; when he rejects her advances, she becomes angry with him, destroys most of his belongings, leaves forever. In shame, running out of money, Philip leaves the house for good, he meets Mildred once more towards the end of the novel, when she summons him for his medical opinion. As she is suffering from syphilis resulting from her work as a prostitute, Philip advises Mildred to give up this life.
Mildred declines and exits from the plot, her fate remaining unknown. While working at a hospital, Philip befriends Thorpe Athelny. Athelny has lived in Spain. Enthusiastic about the country, he is translating the works of St. John of the Cross. Meanwhile, Philip invests in mines but is left nearly penniless because of events surrounding the Boer War. Unable to pay his rent, he wanders the streets for several days before the Athelnys take him in and find him a department store job, which he hates, his talent for drawing is discovered and he receives a promotion and a raise in salary, but his time at the store is short-lived. After his uncle William dies, Philip inherits enough money to allow him to finish his medical studies and he becomes a licensed doctor. Philip takes on a temporary placement as locum with Dr. South, a General Practitioner in Dorsetshire. Dr South is an old, cantankerous physician whose wife is dead and whose daughter has broken off contact with him. However, Dr. South takes a shine to Philip's humour and personable nature offering Philip a partnership in his medical practice.
Although flattered, Philip refuses because of his plans to visit Spain. He soon goes on a small summer holiday with the Athelnys. There he finds that one of Athelny's daughters, likes him. In a moment of romantic abandon one evening they have sex, when she thinks she is pregnant, Philip decides to marry Sally and accept Dr. South's offer, instead of traveling the world as he had planned, they meet in the National Gallery where, despite learning that it was a false alarm, Philip becomes engaged to Sally, concluding that "the simplest pattern – that in which a man was born, married, had children, died – was the most perfect." He decides to be content with his lot. Maugham had borrowed the title of his book from Spinoza. Part IV of his Ethics is titled "Of Human Bondage, or the Strength of the Emotions". In this part, Spinoza discusses people's inability to control their emotions which, const