Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, physician and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life, Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with the famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, they discussed issues concerning aesthetics, Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism, they worked together on Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents of their philosophical vision. Friedrich Schiller was born on 10 November 1759, in Marbach, Württemberg, as the only son of military doctor Johann Kaspar Schiller and Elisabeth Dorothea Kodweiß, they had five daughters, including Christophine, the eldest. Schiller grew up in a religious family and spent much of his youth studying the Bible, which would influence his writing for the theatre, his father was away in the Seven Years' War.
He was named after king Frederick the Great. Kaspar Schiller was home during the war, but he did manage to visit the family once in a while, his wife and children visited him wherever he happened to be stationed. When the war ended in 1763, Schiller's father became a recruiting officer and was stationed in Schwäbisch Gmünd; the family moved with him. Due to the high cost of living—especially the rent—the family moved to the nearby town of Lorch. Although the family was happy in Lorch, Schiller's father found his work unsatisfying, he sometimes took his son with him. In Lorch, Schiller received his primary education; the quality of the lessons was bad, Friedrich cut class with his older sister. Because his parents wanted Schiller to become a priest, they had the priest of the village instruct the boy in Latin and Greek. Father Moser was a good teacher, Schiller named the cleric in his first play Die Räuber after him; as a boy, Schiller was excited by the idea of becoming a cleric and put on black robes and pretended to preach.
In 1766, the family left Lorch for the Duke of Württemberg's principal residence. Schiller's father had not been paid for three years, the family had been living on their savings but could no longer afford to do so. So Kaspar Schiller took an assignment to the garrison in Ludwigsburg. There the boy Schiller came to the attention of Duke of Württemberg, he entered the Karlsschule Stuttgart, in 1773, where he studied medicine. During most of his short life, he suffered from illnesses. While at the Karlsschule, Schiller read Rousseau and Goethe and discussed Classical ideals with his classmates. At school, he wrote his first play, The Robbers, which dramatizes the conflict between two aristocratic brothers: the elder, Karl Moor, leads a group of rebellious students into the Bohemian forest where they become Robin Hood-like bandits, while Franz Moor, the younger brother, schemes to inherit his father's considerable estate; the play's critique of social corruption and its affirmation of proto-revolutionary republican ideals astounded its original audience.
Schiller became an overnight sensation. Schiller would be made an honorary member of the French Republic because of this play; the play was inspired by Leisewitz' earlier play Julius of Tarent, a favourite of the young Schiller. In 1780, he obtained a post as regimental doctor in a job he disliked. In order to attend the first performance of The Robbers in Mannheim, Schiller left his regiment without permission; as a result, he was arrested, sentenced to 14 days of imprisonment, forbidden by Karl Eugen from publishing any further works. He fled Stuttgart in 1782, going via Frankfurt, Mannheim and Dresden to Weimar. Along this journey he had an affair with an army officer's wife Charlotte von Kalb, she was at the centre of an intellectual circle, she was known for her cleverness and instability. Schiller needed help from his family and friends to extricate himself from his financial situation and attachment to a married woman. Schiller settled in Weimar in 1787. In 1789, he was appointed professor of History and Philosophy in Jena, where he wrote only historical works.
He was ennobled in 1802. On 22 February 1790, Schiller married Charlotte von Lengefeld. Two sons and two daughters were born between 1793 and 1804; the last living descendant of Schiller was a grandchild of Emilie, Baron Alexander von Gleichen-Rußwurm, who died at Baden-Baden, Germany, in 1947. Schiller returned with his family to Weimar from Jena in 1799. Goethe convinced him to return to playwriting, he and Goethe founded the Weimar Theater. Their collaboration helped lead to a renaissance of drama in Germany. For his achievements, Schiller was ennobled in 1802 by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, adding the nobiliary particle "von" to his name, he remained in Weimar, Saxe-Weimar until his death at 45 from tuberculosis in 1805. The first authoritative biography of Schiller was by his sister-in-law Caroline von Wolzogen in 1830, Schillers Leben; the coffin containing what was purportedly Schiller's skeleton was brought in 1827 into the Weimarer Fürstengruft, the burial place of the house of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in the Historical Cemetery of Weimar and
Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance
The Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance is a register of some 8,300 items of cultural property in Switzerland. It was established according to article 5 of the second protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, which provides for the establishment of national registers of cultural property; the register contains both mobile and immobile items of cultural property including old towns, squares, sacral buildings, castles, monuments, archaeological sites and collections. Its entries are classified in two groups: those of national significance and those of regional significance; the selection is based on the significance of the items in the domains of history, art, ethnography, social studies and in other scientific disciplines, as well as on their rarity value. Items of purely local significance are not included; the register is prepared by the Federal Office of Civil Protection in cooperation with the cantonal authorities and formally issued by the Federal Council.
It was first published in 1988 and re-issued in updated form in 1995 and 2009. The 2009 revision covers only A-class objects, with the B-class objects set to be reviewed and updated at a time; until the lists of B-class objects published by the Office include the B-class objects of the 1995 inventory, the proposals for new or changed B-class objects submitted by the cantonal authorities, the former A-class objects not retained as nationally significant in the 2009 review. The Federal Office of Civil Protection has made the 2009 register of A-class objects available on the Internet as a geographic information system and as a set of PDF documents. A printed catalogue was published in 2010. Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites "Revision of the PCP Inventory". KGS Forum. Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2008. Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance: KGS Class A properties + objects KGS Class B properties + objects KGS Geographic Information System−GIS map Inventories in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
Images Media related to Cultural properties of national significance in Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cultural properties of regional significance in Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cultural properties of local significance in Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Albrecht Gessler known as Hermann, was a legendary 14th-century Habsburg bailiff at Altdorf, whose brutal rule led to the William Tell rebellion and the eventual independence of the Old Swiss Confederacy. According to the Chronicon Helveticum by Aegidius Tschudi, in 1307 Gessler raised a pole in the market square of Altdorf, placed his hat atop it, ordered all the townsfolk to bow before it. Tell, whose marksmanship and pride were legendary, publicly refused. Gessler's cruel wrath was tempered by his curiosity to test Tell's skill, so he gave Tell the option of either being executed or shooting an apple off his son's head in one try. Tell succeeded in splitting the apple with his arrow, saving his own life; when Gessler asked why he had readied two arrows, he replied that it was out of habit. After being assured that he wouldn't be killed, Tell admitted that the second was intended for the tyrant if his son was harmed. Gessler, had Tell arrested and taken by boat across Lake Lucerne to Küssnacht to spend the life he had saved in a dungeon.
A sudden fierce storm made the crew terrified, since William Tell was a better sailor, they handed the wheel to him. But instead of heading towards the dungeon, he escaped to shore. There he ambushed and killed Gessler with an arrow, launching the young Confederacy's rebellion against Austrian rule. Indeed, a Gessler family of ministeriales is documented from the 13th century onwards; the Gesslers profited from the election of Count Rudolph of Habsburg as King of the Romans in 1273 and his acquisition of the Austrian and Styrian duchies after the victory over King Ottokar II of Bohemia at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. The White Book of Sarnen, written around 1470, mentioned one gesler, vogt at Uri and Schwyz. In the late 14th century one Hermann Gessler ruled the domain of Grüningen, his stern measures against the peasant population made the name Gessler an epitome of tyranny. No sources that predate the earliest references to the Tell legend of the late 15th century refer to a bailiff Gessler in central Switzerland, it is presumed that no such person existed.
Gessler's role in Tell's story is analogous to that of King Niðung in the story of Egil in the Þiðrekssaga. Friedrich Schiller perpetuated. In the Tale Spinners For Children recording of the story, Gessler is working under orders from the Emperor of Austria, who wishes to deliberately provoke the people of Switzerland into a rebellion which will serve as an excuse for Austria to invade Switzerland
Gesslerburg Castle is a castle in the municipality of Küssnacht of the Canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. List of castles in Switzerland
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss People's Party known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, with 65 members of the National Council and 5 of the Council of States; the SVP originated in 1971 as a merger of the Party of Farmers and Independents and the Democratic Party, while the BGB in turn had been founded in the context of the emerging local farmers' parties in the late 1910s. The SVP didn't witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s; this changed however during the 1990s, when the party underwent deep structural and ideological changes under the influence of Christoph Blocher. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus on issues such as euroscepticism and opposition to mass immigration; as of 2015 the SVP has 54 seats in the Federal Assembly, its vote share of 28.9% in the 2007 Federal Council election was the highest vote recorded for a single party in Switzerland until 2015, when it surpassed its own record with 29.4%.
When Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, when numerous cantonal farmers' parties were founded in agrarian, German-speaking parts of Switzerland. While the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles; when proportional representation was introduced in 1919, the new farmers' parties won significant electoral support in Zürich and Bern, also gained representation in parliament and government. By 1929, the coalition of farmers' parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger, elected to the Federal Council. In 1936, a representative party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers and Independents. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a right-wing conservative party in the bourgeois bloc.
While the party opposed any kind of socialist ideas such as internationalism and anti-militarism, it sought to represent local Swiss traders and farmers against big business and international capital. The BGB contributed to the establishment of the Swiss national ideology known as the Geistige Landesverteidigung, responsible for the growing Swiss sociocultural and political cohesion from the 1930s. In the party's fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, or failed to distance themselves from the emerging fascist movements. After World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies; the party continued to be a reliable political partner with the Swiss Conservative People's Party and the Free Democratic Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss People's Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus and Graubünden.
The Democratic Party had been supported by workers, the SVP sought to expand its electoral base towards these, as the traditional BGB base in the rural population had started to lose its importance in the post-war era. As the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates; the new party however continued to see its level of support at around 11%, the same as the former BGB throughout the post-war era. Internal debates continued, the 1980s saw growing conflicts between the Bern and Zürich cantonal branches, where the former branch represented the centrist faction, the latter looked to put new issues on the political agenda; when the young entrepreneur Christoph Blocher was elected president of the Zürich SVP in 1977, he declared his intent to oversee significant change in the political line of the Zürich SVP, bringing an end to debates that aimed to open the party up to a wide array of opinions.
Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch. The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977, as well as political training courses; the ideology of the Zürich branch was reinforced, the rhetoric hardened, which resulted in the best election result for the Zürich branch in fifty years in the 1979 federal election, with an increase from 11.3% to 14.5%. This was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s; the struggle between the SVP's largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s. While the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda; the Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates.
They adopted more confrontational methods. The Zürich-wing followingly started to gain ground in the party at the expense of the Bern-wing, the party became increasing
Arth is a village, a statistic town, a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The municipality consists of the villages Arth and Goldau; the four settlements Rigi Kulm, Rigi First, Rigi Klösterli, Rigi Staffel on the mountain Rigi to the west of Arth are part of the municipality. The official language of Arth is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Arth is first mentioned in 1036 as Arta. In 1353 it was mentioned as ze Arth. Arth has an area, as of 2006, of 42.1 km2. Of this area, 40.8 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 8.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is situated on the southern shore of Lake Zug, along the Gotthard route between Rigi and Rossberg, it consists of the villages of Arth Oberarth and Goldau as well as the hamlets of Klösterli and Kulm an der Rigi. Arth has a population of 11,877; as of 2007, 23.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.
Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third; as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 49.7 % female. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Arth is. 2,870 people or 29.9% are 20 to 39, 2,832 people or 29.5% are 40 to 64. The senior population distribution is 734 people or 7.7% are 65 to 74. There are 467 people or 4.9% who are 70 to 79 and 135 people or 1.41% of the population who are over 80. There is one person in Arth, over 100 years old; as of 2000 there are 3,806 households. 275 or about 7.2% are large households, with at least five members. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SPS. In Arth about 63.6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Arth has an unemployment rate of 1.55%. As of 2005, there were 329 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 129 businesses involved in this sector.
810 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 88 businesses in this sector. 1868 people are employed with 302 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census, 6,927 or 72.2% are Roman Catholic, while 939 or 9.8% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are less than 5 individuals who belong to the Christian Catholic faith, there are 273 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 7 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are less than 5 individuals who are Jewish, 717 who are Islamic. There are 84 individuals who belong to another church, 337 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 302 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: The railway station at Goldau, named Arth-Goldau, is an important junction of the Swiss Federal Railways. The Voralpen Express train connects here to St. Gallen. Meanwhile, trains to Bellinzona and Italy, as well as trains to Zug and Zürich join here with trains heading toward Basel.
Karl Jakob Weber a Swiss architect and engineer, in charge of the first organized excavations at Herculaneum and Stabiae Robbie Hunter a retired South African professional road racing cyclist who competed professionally between 1999 and 2013.